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Authored by: George A. Burdock

Fenaroli’s Handbook of Flavor Ingredients

Print publication date:  November  2009
Online publication date:  November  2009

Print ISBN: 9781420090772
eBook ISBN: 9781439847503
Adobe ISBN:

10.1201/9781439847503-c3

 

Abstract

Botanical name: Theobroma cacao L.

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Cacao (Cocoa)

Botanical name: Theobroma cacao L.

Botanical family: Sterculiaceae

Other names: Theobroma, cacao. Compounds derived include cocoa, chocolate and cocoa butter.

Foreign names: Cacao (Fr.), Kakao (Ger.), Cacao (Sp.), Cacao (It.)

Description: The cocoa tree is cultivated mainly in Central and South America and equatorial Africa. It grows naturally to a height of 10 to 12 m, bears large, sparse, lanceolated leaves and produces small blossoms in clusters and fruits (pods) containing many almond-shaped seeds. The fruit of the cacao tree is approximately 30 cm in length, which grows on the trunk and large branches of the plant. Contained within the pod are about 40 seeds, or beans, that are used in the processing of all cocoa products. The parts used are the seeds, either toasted or fermented. Although several varieties of cacao exist, the forasstero variety from West Africa accounts for more than 90% of world production. Cacao is generally used to describe the crude material, while cocoa is used to describe the processed products. Cacao (cocoa) has a cocoa flavor and aroma. The characteristic bitter taste of cocoa is due to the reaction of diketopiperazines with theobromine during roasting. Cocoa products find extensive uses in foods.

Derivatives: Essential oil, tincture, distillate, fluid extract, infusion (typical beverage). Alcoholic extracts are generally obtained by treatment of the partially crushed seeds with 40 to 70°C alcohol. The distillate has an alcohol concentration of 65%. It is obtained from the same type of cacao used for the preparation of tinctures as well as from cacao varieties with low fat content.

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 163et seq., 172.836, 172.842, 182.20 (as oils, oleoresins and natural extractives), 582.20; 27 CFR 4.39 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: n/a

Specifications: (Burdock, 1997)

Refractive index

1.4728

Specific gravity

0.9075

Essential oil composition: Cocoa contains more than 300 volatile compounds. Cocoa contains several alkaloids including theobro-mine (0.5 to 2.7%), caffeine (about 0.25% in cocoa) and trigonelline. Cocoa butter contains triglycerides consisting of mainly of oleic, stearic and palmitic acids. About 75% of the fat is present as monosaturates.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 0.055 ppm: cocoa, powdery, bitter, beany, brown and roasted with a yeasty nuance.

Cade

Botanical name: Juniperus oxycedrus L.

Botanical family: Cupressaceae

Foreign names: Essence de Cadé, Kadeoel (Ger.), Cadé (Sp.), Cade (It.)

Description: Juniperus oxycedrus is a branched tree or shrub, native to southern Europe. It has linear-subulate, prickly-pointed leaves. It flowers in axillary catkins, and has red, round berries much larger than J. comminum (common juniper). The part used is the wood portion.

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: n/a FDA (other): Approved for OTC use (21 CFR 310.531, as oil of cade); HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: n/a

Essential oil composition: The main constituents include d-cadinene, a sesquiterpene, l-cadinol and dimethylnaphthalene.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cade Oil

Other names: Cade oil rectified; Empyreumatic oil of Juniper; Haarlem oil; Juniper tar; Oil of cade; Oils cade; Oils Juniperus oxy-cedrus wood; Oleum juniperi empyreumaticum; Silver balsam; Tilly drops

CAS No.:

8013-10-3

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

n/a

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Cade oil is identical to juniper tar, obtained by destructive distillation of the wood from Jeniperus oxycedrus. The oil usually is rectified under vacuum to improve color and solubility. The cade oil used in perfumery is usually a rectified oil.

Consumption: Annual: <1.00 lb

Individual: 0.00014 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: n/a FDA (other): Approved for OTC use (21 CFR 310.531); HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 0.831 mg

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: (Burdock, 1997)

Optical rotation

+4° 17’ to +4° 40’

Refractive index

1.511 to 1.520 (20°C)

Solubilty

1:5 in 95% alcohol

Specific gravity

0.952 to 0.961 (25°C)

Physical-chemical characteristics: Rectified cade oil is a clear orange-brown to dark-brown oily liquid with an intense, tar-like, smoky, phenolic odor.

Reported uses: The oil is mainly used in perfumery. It is also used occasionally to impart a smoky note to canned meats and fish.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cadinene

Synonyms: Cadinene; (1S-(1alpha,4alpha,4alpha,6alpha,8abeta))-Decahydro-4-isopropyl-1,6-dimethylnaphthalene, didehy-dro derivative; Naphthalene, decahydro-1,6-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-, (1S-(1alpha,4alpha,4aalpha,6alpha,8abeta))-, dide-hydro deriv.

CAS No.:

29350-73-0

FL No.:

01.021

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

7718

CoE No.:

10982

EINECS No.:

249-580-9

JECFA No.:

1346

Description: Cadinene has usually bearing the aroma of the oil from which it is derived. The relative position of the two double bonds characterizes the stereoisomers of cadinene; these have been identified.

Consumption: Annual: <1.00 lb

Individual: 0.0002921 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern when used at current levels of intake as a flavoring agent (2004).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C15H24/204.36 α, β, γ, γ1, δ and ɛ

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Acid value (max)

1.0

Appearance

Colorless, slightly viscous liquid

Assay (min)

96% (alpha and beta)

Boiling point

124°C (9 mmHg)

Refractive index

1.506–1.512 (20°C)

Solubility

Soluble in ethanol; insoluble in water

Specific gravity

0.919–0.925 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): n/a

Synthesis: n/a

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: The presence of cadinene has been confirmed in several essential oils: α- and β-cadinene in the oil of Dacrydium colensoi; γ-cadinene in the oils of Java citronella, ylang-ylang, and Populus balsamifera; γ1-cadinene in the oil of lemon-grass Malabar; δ-cadinene in the oils of citronella, calamus, and ylang-ylang; ɛ-cadinene in the oil of ylang-ylang.

Caffeine

Synonyms: Caffeine [BAN:JAN]; Cafamil; Cafecon; Cafeina; Caffeine, synthetic; Caffine; Cafipel; Coffeine; Coffeinum; 3,7-Dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione; Guaranine; Methyltheobromide; Methyltheobromine; 1H-Purine-2,6-dione, 3,7-dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-; Thein; Theine; Theobromine, 1-methyl; Theobromine, 1-methyl-; Theophylline, 7-methyl; 1,3,7-Trimethyl-2,6-dioxopurine; 1,3,7-Trimethylxanthine; Xanthine, 1,3,7-trimethyl

CAS No.:

58-08-2

FL No.:

16.016

FEMA No.:

2224

NAS No.:

2224

CoE No.:

11741

EINECS No.:

200-362-1

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Caffeine is the alkaloid 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine. It is one of the xanthine derivatives present up to 1.5% in seeds of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) and up to 5% in the leaves of tea (Camelia sinensis). It is a component of the beverages made from these plants. Caffeine is also a component of chocolate (Theobroma cacao) and the cola nut (Cola acuminata Schott and Endel. and related species), the extract of which is used in cola drinks. It is virtually odorless. Caffeine is added to cola-type beverages for its enhancement of flavor. Subtle and subliminal flavors are widely appreciated by consumers and caffeine has a modifying effect on other components of the beverage. The threshold for detecting the presence of caffeine in liquid foods varies depending on the nature of other substances present, but lies close to the level characteristic of currently produced cola-type beverages. The threshold for detection of caffeine in water has been shown to be 0.0095%; in liquid foods, 0.0184%. In one study, panelists could distinguish a solution containing 0.0058% caffeine from the control. The threshold for detecting taste difference between an aqueous solution of caffeine and a water control was also shown to be 0.005% caffeine and to distinguish bitterness, 0.011% caffeine. In aqueous solutions containing threshold and subthreshold concentrations of caffeine, sucrose, citric acid and salt, all compounds depressed the taste intensity of each other. *

Consumption: Annual: 8,700,000.00 lb

Individual: 7.3728 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.1180 FDA (other): Approved for OTC use (21 CFR 310.545, 340.10); excipient (CDER, 1996) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 0.037 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C8H10N4O2/194.19

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Specifications: (FCC, 1996)

Appearance

White powder or white, glistening needles, usually matted together

Assay

Not less than 98.5% and not more than 101% C8H10N4O2 calculated on an anhydrous basis

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Identification

(A) Dissolve 1 mL in 5 mL HCl, add 50 mg potassium chlorate and evaporate on a steam bath to dryness; invert over a vessel containing a few drops of 6N ammonium hydroxide— residue should acquire a purple color, which will disappear on the addition of a solution of fixed alkali (B) IR spectrum of mineral oil dispersion of sample dried at 800°C for 4 hours shows maxima at same wavelength as a similar preparation of USP Caffeine Reference Standard

Labeling

Indicate: hydrous or anhydrous

Lead

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Melting range

Between 235 and 27.5°C

Other alkaloids

Passes test

Readily carbonizable substances

Passes test

Residue on ignition

Not more than 0.1%

Water

Anhydrous: Not more than 0.5%; hydrous: Not more than 8.5%

Solubility

Soluble in water, alcohol, chloroform and ether

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Baked goods

0.06

0.07

Frozen dairy

0.30

0.40

Gelatins, puddings

0.30

0.40

Nonalcoholic beverages

0.13

0.14

Soft candy

0.30

0.40

Synthesis: Usually obtained from tea dust in which it is present up to 5% or as a by-product from the manufacture of caffeine-free coffee; synthetically prepared starting with dimethylurea and malonic acid.

Aroma threshold values: Detection at 29 to 300 ppm. Also see description.

Taste threshold values: See Description.

Natural occurrence: Reported found in coffee and guarana.

Cajeput

Botanical name: Melaleuca leucadendron L. and other Melaleuca species

Botanical family: Myrtaceae

Foreign names: Cajeput (Fr.), Cajeput (Ger.), Cajeput (Sp.), Cajeput (It.)

Description: This evergreen tree has a dense, gray-green crown on a stout, often twisted, trunk covered with pink, papery, fibrous bark. The parts used are the twigs and fresh leaves. The lower and younger tree yields the most suitable material for distillation. Cajeput is a commonly growing wild tree in the Moluccas, Malaya, northern Australia, Queensland and New South Wales. In Malaya and the Philippines, the name kaji-puti means “white wood,” referring to the color of the lumber from this tree. It also grows in the United States (Florida), but these plants are not used for production of essential oil. Cajeput has a strong, camphoraceous odor and aromatic, bitter, burning taste.

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: n/a

Essential oil composition: The main constituents include cineol, valeric and benzoic aldehydes, α-terpineol (free from esterified), l-a-pinene, l-limonene, dipentene and sesquiterpenes.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cajeput Oil

Other names: Cajuput oil; EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 040504; Oil of cajuput; Oils, cajuput

CAS No.:

8008-98-8

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2225

NAS No.:

2225

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: The oil, obtained from the distillation of the leaves and twigs, has an agreeable, penetrating, camphoraceous odor and aromatic bitter taste. Most commercial cajeput oil comes from the tree Melaleuca leucadendron. Apart from its use as general household remedies for colds, throat irritation, pain, headache, etc., in the Far East, cajeput oil has found very little use in Europe and America.

Consumption: Annual: <1.00 lb

Individual: 0.00014 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 0.831 mg

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: (Burdock, 1997)

Cineol content

50-65%

Optical rotation

± 0° to -4°

Refractive index

1.466–1.470

Solubility

1:1 in 80% alcohol

Specific gravity

0.908–0.925

Physical-chemical characteristics: The oil is an almost colorless, green or yellow liquid.

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Baked goods

4.87

9.90

Condiments, relishes

1.00

2.00

Frozen dairy

0.20

1.00

Meat products

1.00

3.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

0.30

2.00

Soft candy

6.80

9.50

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Calamus (Prohibited)

Botanical name: Acorus calamus L. At least four subtypes of calamus have been identified and are differentiated by their content of the compound isoasarone.

Botanical family: Acoraceae; Araceae

Other names: Sweet flag, sweet grass, sweet root, sweet myrtle, sweet cinnamon, Acorus calamus

Foreign names: Calamus (Fr.), Kalmus (Ger.), Calamo (Sp.), Calamo (It.)

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2226 a

NAS No.:

n/a

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977022-90-4

Notes:

a  This compound has been removed from FEMA GRAS list #4 1970.

Description: Calamus has sword-shaped leaves and a yellow-green, flowering spike protruding at an angle from a three-sided stem. This distinguishes it from poisonous irises. It is found in damp, swampy areas. Various chromosomic species exist (di-, tri- and tet-raploid). It is a perennial water plant, native to India, now widespread. It is about 1 m tall and exhibits a penetrating, pleasant odor. It has cylindrical, nodular, branched rhizomes. It flowers from June to August. Rhizomes are used to produce oil. The rhizomes have been used medicinally since biblical times.

The underground rhizome is used as a spice and flavoring in drinks, cosmetics and toothpastes. However, because the major component, isoasarone, has been linked to the development of tumors in animals, the use of calamus and its extracts are prohibited by the FDA. In recent years, A. calamus has been classified into four separate varieties, which grow in different locations worldwide. The virtually isoasarone-free plant grows in North America (drug type I). Western Europe is home to another type of calamus, the oil of which contains 10% isoasarone (drug type II). Two other varieties have been found to contain 96% isoasarone (drug type III and IV).

Derivatives: Tincture (20% in 60% ethanol), fluid extract and essential oil

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 189.110 (prohibited from use in food) FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: n/a

Essential oil composition: Calamus contains from 1.5 to 3.5% of a volatile oil responsible for the plant’s characteristic smell and taste. Major component (up to 75%) in some types of calamus oil is β-asarone (also called as cis-isoasarone). * In addition to isoasarone, more than a dozen other fragment compounds have been identified in the oil. In addition to the toxic asarone, the other main constituents include d- α-pinene, camphene, cineol, camphor, eugenol and methyleugenol.

Reported uses: (FEMA, 1994) Formerly FEMA GRAS No. 2227, removed from GRAS list in 1970.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Calamus Oil (Prohibited)

Other names: Oil of calamus; Oil of sweet flag; Oils, Acorus calamus

CAS No.:

8015-79-0

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2227 a

NAS No.:

n/a

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Notes:

a  This compound has been removed from FEMA GRAS list #4, 1970.

Description: The essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of dried rhizomes. Depending on the origin, it exhibits varying physical-chemical constants. The oil has a warm, camphor-like odor. The flavor of the calamus oil is equally warm-spicy, yet slightly bitter with a slowly growing, pungent aftertaste. The Indian-type oil is obtained by steam distillation of the fresh root or unpeeled dried root.

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 189.110 (prohibited from use in food) FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: (Burdock, 1997)

European Oil

Optical rotation

+15° 50’ to +18° 14’

Refractive index

1.5045–1.15070

Solubility

1:0.5 in 90% ethanol

Specific gravity

0.960–0.974

Indian Oil

Optical rotation

+2° to +6.6°

Refractive index

1.550–1.5525

Acid value

<4

Specific gravity

1.060–1.080

Ester value

3 to 20

Physical-chemical characteristics: The European essential oil is a yellow-brownish liquid. The Indian-type oil is yellow-brown.

Reported uses: (FEMA, 1994) Formerly FEMA GRAS No. 2226, removed from GRAS list in 1970.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Calcium Acetate

Synonyms: Calcium acetate [USAN:JAN]; Acetate of lime; Acetic acid, calcium salt; Brown acetate; Calcium acetate; Calcium diacetate; Calcium di(acetate); Lime acetate; Lime pyrolignite; Acetate of lime; Sorbo-calcian; Sorbo-calcion; Vinegar salts

CAS No.:

62-54-4

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2228

NAS No.:

2228

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

200-540-9

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Calcium acetate, also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It is an odorless powder. Calcium has an important role in the nutrition of humans and animals. Hormonal mechanisms control absorption of dietary calcium (including added calcium salts) allowing adaptation to a range of calcium intakes while maintaining a relatively constant blood calcium concentration of about 10 mg/100 mL. Major functions of calcium inside the body include the formation and maintenance of bones and teeth, the physiology of muscle contraction, the cell membrane integrity, the activity of several enzymes that have specific requirement for it, the coagulation of blood, and the regulation of acid-base balance. *

Consumption: Annual: 295000.00 lb

Individual: 0.25 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 181.29, 184.1185, 582.6185 FDA (other): Approved for OTC use (21 CFR 310.545); excipient (CDER, 1996) JECFA: ADI: Not limited (1973)

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 0.040 mg

IOFI: n/a

Empirical Formula/MW:

CaC4H6O4/158.17

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Specifications: (FCC, 1996)

Appearance

A fine, white, bulky powder

Assay

Not less than 99.0% and not more than 100.5% CaC4H6O4 calculated on the anhydrous basis

Chloride

Not more than 0.05%

Fluoride

Not more than 0.05%

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Identification

A 1/10 solution gives positive tests for calcium and for acetate

Solubility

Soluble in water; slightly soluble in alcohol

Sulfate

Not more than 0.1%

Water

Not more than 7.0%

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Cheese

0.04

0.17

Gelatins, puddings

1.90

2.04

Sweet sauce

0.07

1.50

Synthesis: Produced by calcium hydroxide neutralization of acetic acid.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Not reported found in nature.

Calumba Root

Botanical name: Jatrorrhiza palmate (Lam.) Miers

Botanical family: Menispermaceae

Foreign names: Colombo (Fr.), Kolombo (Ger.), Colombo (It.)

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

6020

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977000-55-7

Description: Calumba is an herbaceous shrub, a few meters in length with creeping stalks (creeping liana) originating from the rhizomes. The shrub is native to the east African coast and is cultivated in the East Indies. The parts used are the roots (commercially offered in sliced disks). Calumba is odorless with a bitter-tonic flavor.

Derivatives: Tincture (15 to 20% in 65 to 70% ethanol) and fluid extract

Consumption: Annual: 66.67 lb

Individual: 0.000056 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: Natural

Essential oil composition: The dried product and its derivatives contain bitter substances: columbine, columbic acid, columbamine, jatrorrhizine and other alkaloids. An essential oil has been isolated experimentally in minimum yields.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Calumba Root Extract

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

6021

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977000-74-0

Description: See Calumba. The root extract contains the bitter principle columbine and is used as a tonic.

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: Natural

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Camomile Flower (Hungarian Or German)

Botanical name: Matricaria chamomi//a L.

Botanical family: Asteraceae (formerly Compositae)

Other names: German Chamomile, Annual Chamomile

Foreign names: Petite camomille (Fr.), Echte Kamille (Ger.), Manzanilla alemna (Sp.), Camomilla volgare (It.)

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

6184

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977001-96-9

Description: German chamomile (M. chamomi//a), also known as Hungarian, single or wild chamomile, is of the Asteraceae family. This plant yields a blue-colored volatile oil and possesses a distinct, though weaker, apple-like fragrance and bitter aromatic taste. It is also called “pin heads,” which alludes to the more pointed appearance of the flower heads. The species has much smaller flower heads, grows up to 0.6 m high and is native to Europe and northern and western Asia. It is extensively cultivated in Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, the former Yugoslavia, Germany, Greece and Egypt. The plant flowers from May to July. It has a characteristic aroma and bitter aromatic taste.

Derivatives: Infusion (2%), tincture (20% in 70% ethanol), soft and dried fluid extract, and the essential oil.

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.10, 582.10 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: n/a

Essential oil composition: The main constituents are chamazulene (approx. 1 to 15%), sesquiterpene alcohols and caprinic acid ester. The flowers also contain some other ingredients, apigenine, methyl ether of umbelliferone and fatty acids. Chamazulene, an artifact formed during heating while preparing teas and extracts, comprises about 5% of the essential oil. Up to 50% of the essential oil consists of α-bisabolol, an unsaturated monocyclic sesquiterpene alcohol. * Other minor components include apigenin and angelic acid.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Camomile Flower Hungarian Oil

Other names: Blue chamomile oil; Chamomile blue oil; Chamomile flower, Hungerian, oil; Chamomile-German oil; Camomile oil, German; Hungarian chamomile oil; EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 128853; Wild chamomile oil

CAS No.:

8002-66-2

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2273

NAS No.:

2273

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: The essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of flowers and stalks with variable yields ranging from 0.3 to more than 1%, depending on the area of production. It has a characteristic intensely sweet, herbaceous coumarin-like odor with a fresh undernote.

Consumption: Annual: 36.67 lb

Individual: 0.000031 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.20, 582.20 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 2.267 mg

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: (FCC, 1996)

Acid value

Not more than 15.0

Ester value

Between 250 and 310

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Passes test

Identification

Infrared spectra

Refractive index

Between 1.440 and 1.450 (20°C)

Solubility

Passes test; soluble in most fixed oils

Specific gravity

Between 0.892 and 0.910

NOTE: FCC has the described same specification for both the Matricaria chamomilla and Chamaemelum nobile oil under chamo-mile oil.

Physical-chemical characteristics: It is a deep-blue or bluish-green liquid. When exposed to light or air, the blue color changes to green and finally to brown. Upon cooling, the oil may become viscous. It is soluble in most fixed oils and propylene glycols. It is insoluble in glycerin and mineral oils.

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

4.40

5.47

Baked goods

11.54

16.38

Chewing gum

0.04

0.04

Frozen dairy

4.34

6.03

Gelatins, puddings

7.64

14.33

Nonalcoholic beverages

2.09

3.49

Soft candy

9.75

14.35

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Camomile Flower (Roman Or English)

Botanical name: Chamaemelum nobile (formerly Anthemis nobilis)

Botanical family: Compositae (now Asteraceae).

Other names: English chamomile

Foreign names: Camomille Romaine (Fr.), Roemische Kamille (Ger.), Manzanilla Romana (Sp.), Camomilla Romana (It.)

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

n/a

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977007-26-3

Description: Chamaemelum nobile (formerly Anthemis nobilis) is a strongly fragrant, highly branched, slowly growing perennial herb, with flower heads about 2.5 cm across. The plant is 15 to 30 cm high with deeply buried rhizomes. This sprouts numerous, ascending, occasionally upright, simple or branched, rounded, vertical grooved, pubescent stems. The stems end in 12 to 18 fruit-bearing, white florets that are about 2 to 2.5 cm wide. The plant is native to southern and western Europe. The plant has been cultivated in England, Belgium, the United States, Argentina and other countries. The flowers deliver a pungent, grassy flavor. The parts used medicinally are the dried expanded flower heads (i.e., the flowers that are fully open), from which a blue essential oil is obtained by steam distillation. This species is referred to as chamomile flowers or Chamomillae ramanae flos in official compendia.

Derivatives: Infusion (2%), tincture (20% in 30 to 50% ethanol), fluid extract and the essential oil.

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.10, 582.10 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Essential oil composition: Generally, chamomile flowers yield between 0.4 to 1% of the steam-distilled oil. The oil contains 85% aliphatic esters of angelic and tiglic acids.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 10 ppm: sweet, floral, spice-like with warm, herbal, green tea nuance.

Camomile Flower Roman Extract

Other names: Anthemis nobilis extract, Chamomile flower, Roman, extract (Chamaemelum nobile; Anthemis nobilis L.)

CAS No.:

84649-86-5

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2274

NAS No.:

2274

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

283-467-5

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: See Chamomile.

Consumption: Annual: 1316.67 lb

Individual: 0.0011 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.20, 582.20 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 5.520 mg

IOFI: Natural

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

20.00

24.00

Baked goods

20.20

42.80

Frozen dairy

11.80

17.80

Gelatins, puddings

27.00

49.50

Nonalcoholic beverages

10.80

15.60

Soft candy

21.20

31.80

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 62 ppm: green, herbal, floral, tea and woody with a tropical, fruity nuance.

Natural occurrence: Reported found in chamomile.

Camomile Flower English Oil

Other names: Anthemis nobilis oil; Anthemis nobilis flower oil; Chamomile flower, English oil (FDA preferred name); Chamomile flower oil, English; Chamomile flower oil, Roman; Chamomile oil; Chamomile oil, English; Chamomile oil, Roman; English chamo-mile oil

CAS No.:

8015-92-7

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2272 2275 a

NAS No.:

2275

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Notes:

a  Chamomile Flower, Roman Oil

Description: Chamomile oil is obtained by steam distillation of the dried flowers of the so-called English or Roman chamomile, Chamaemelum nobile. It has a strong, aromatic odor, characteristic of flowers. The odor is extremely diffusive, but it has little tenacity. The flavor of the oil is somewhat bitter, chemical or medicinal, but has also been described as fruity-herbaceous and warm.

Consumption: Annual: 8.33 lb

Individual: 0.000007 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.20, 582.20 * FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 1.075 mg

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: (FCC, 1996)

Acid value

Not more than 15.0

Ester value

Between 250 and 310

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Passes test

Refractive index

Between 1.440 and 1.450 (20°C)

Solubility in alcohol

Passes test, soluble in most fixed oils

Specific gravity

Between 0.892 and 0.910

Physical–chemical characteristics: It is a light-blue or light-blue-greenish liquid. The color may change with age to greenish-yellow or yellow-brown. It is almost completely soluble in mineral oil. It is soluble with some haziness, in propylene glycol, but it is insoluble in glycerin.

Reported uses (ppm):

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

2.10

2.75

Baked goods

3.57

7.71

Frozen dairy

3.02

3.54

Gelatin, pudding

6.51

7.54

Meat products

0.01

0.08

Nonalcoholic beverages

2.75

3.94

Soft candy

3.38

7.01

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 10 ppm: sweet, floral, spice-like with a warm herbal green tea nuance.

Camphene

Synonyms: Bicyclo(2.2.1)heptane, 2,2-dimethyl-3-methylene -; dl-Camphene; Camphene(2,2-dimethyl-3-methylene-norbornane); 2,2-Dimethyl-3-methyene- bicyclo(2.2.1)heptane; 2,2-Dimethyl-3-methylene-norbornane; 2,2-Dimethyl-3-methylene norbornane; 3,3-Dimethyl-2-methylenenorbornane; 3,3-Dimethyl-2-methylenenorcamphane

CAS No.:

79-92-5

FL No.:

01.009

FEMA No.:

2229

NAS No.:

2229

CoE No.:

2227

EINECS No.:

201-234-8

JECFA No.:

1323

Description: Camphene has a terpene, camphoraceous taste.

Consumption: Annual: 63.33 lb

Individual: 0.00005367 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Used provisionally. Food: 20 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2004).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 6.778 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C10H16/136.24

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Acid value (max)

1.0

Appearance

Colorless, crystalline solid

Assay (min)

80% C10H16

Boiling point

159°C

Melting point

52°C

Solubility

Soluble in oils and ethanol; insoluble in water

Other specifications

Minimum assay value may include traces of limonene, myrcene, alpha and beta pinene and other common C10H16 terpenes

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Baked goods

25.32

29.49

Frozen dairy

27.34

27.81

Gelatins, puddings

13.00

13.99

Nonalcoholic beverages

17.93

27.08

Soft candy

81.79

89.95

Synthesis: From pinene by catalytic isomerization or from bornyl chloride by heating with alkali in the presence of abietenesulfonic acid.

Aroma threshold values: Detection at 10%: camphoraceous, cooling, piney woody with terphy nuances. It has citrus and green minty and green spicy notes.

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 50–100 ppm: camphoraceous, cooling, minty, with citrus and green spicy nuances.

Natural occurrence: Reported found in carrot, dill, fennel, marjoram, nutmeg, parsley, pepper, tarragon and thyme.

Campholene Acetate

Synonyms: 1-Acetoxy-2-(2,2,3-trimethyl-3-cyclopentenyl)ethane; 3-Cyclopentene-1-ethanol; 2,2,3-Tri-methyl- acetate; 2-(2,2,3-Trimethyl-3-cyclopentenyl)ethyl acetate; 2,2,3-Trimethyl-cyclopent-3-ene-1-ethyl acetate; (S)-2,2,-Trimethylcyclopent-3-ene-1-ethyl acetate

CAS No.:

36789-59-0 1727-68-0

FL No.:

09.289 n/a

FEMA No.:

3657

NAS No.:

3657

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

217-041-7 253-212-2

JECFA No.:

969

Description: Camphene acetate has a sweet, woody odor with ionone nuance.

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: n/a FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2002).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 0.327 mg

IOFI: n/a

Empirical Formula/MW:

C12H20O2/196.29

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Appearance

Clear liquid

Assay (min)

98%

Boiling point

96°C (5 mmHg)

Refractive index

1.453–1.460 (20°C)

Solubility

Insoluble in water and fat; miscible in ethanol at room temperature

Specific gravity

0.943–0.949 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

2.00

3.00

Chewing gum

2.00

3.00

Gelatins, puddings

2.00

3.00

Hard candy

2.00

3.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

2.00

3.00

Soft candy

2.00

3.00

Synthesis: n/a

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Reported found in juniper oil.

α-Campholenic Alcohol

Synonyms: α-Campholenol; 3-Cyclopentene-1-ethanol; 2-(2,2,3-Trimethyl)-3-cyclopentene-1-ethanol; alpha-Campholenic alcohol; 2,2,3-Trimethylcyclopent-3-ene-1-ethanol

CAS No.:

1901-38-8

FL No.:

02.114

FEMA No.:

3741

NAS No.:

3741

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

217-600-5

JECFA No.:

970

Description: α-Campholenic alcohol has a sweet, berry, camphoraceous odor.

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: n/a FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2002).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 0.302 mg

IOFI: n/a

Empirical Formula/MW:

C10H18O/154.25

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Appearance

Colorless liquid

Assay (min)

96%

Boiling point

74°C (0.6 mmHg)

Refractive index

1.470–1.478 (20°C)

Solubility

Slightly soluble in water; soluble in fat; miscible in ethanol at room temperature

Specific gravity

0.882–0.894 (20°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

1.00

1.50

Baked goods

1.00

2.00

Chewing gum

10.00

35.00

Confection, frosting

1.00

2.00

Frozen dairy

0.70

1.50

Fruit ices

1.00

1.50

Gelatins, puddings

1.00

2.00

Hard candy

1.00

2.50

Jams, jellies

1.00

2.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

0.70

2.00

Soft candy

2.00

3.00

Synthesis: n/a

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Reported found in black raspberries and rosemary.

d-Camphor

Synonyms: (R)-Camphor; d-2-Bornanone; d-2-Camphanone; Alcanfor; Bicyclo(2.2.1)heptan-2-one, 1,7,7-trimethyl-, (1R)-; (+)-2-Bornanone; d-2-Bornanone; (+)-Bornan-2-one; d-2-Camphanone; Camphor, (+)-; Camphor usp; Camphor, (1R,4R)-(+)-; (+)-Camphor; d- Camphor; d-(+)-Camphor; Japanese camphor

CAS No.:

464-49-3

FL No.:

07.215

FEMA No.:

2230

NAS No.:

2230

CoE No.:

140

EINECS No.:

207-355-2

JECFA No.:

1395

Description: d-Camphor has a warm, minty, almost ethereal diffusive aroma. For other details of description, see Camphor Tree.

Consumption: Annual: 3333.33 lb

Individual: 0.002824 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Used provisionally. Food: 25 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515; 27 CFR 21et seq. FDA (other): Approved for OTC use (21 CFR 310.526, 310.531, 310.545, 341.14, 346.16) JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2004).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 2.707 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C10H16O/152.24

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Appearance

White to gray, translucent crystals or fused mass

Assay (min)

96%

Boiling point

204°C

Melting point

174–179°C

Solubility

Soluble in oils, water and ethanol

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

5.00

10.00

Baked goods

10.33

15.35

Condiments, relishes

15.00

25.00

Frozen dairy

17.06

23.75

Gelatins, puddings

10.32

12.19

Hard candy

5.40

6.68

Nonalcoholic beverages

3.02

6.02

Soft candy

5.26

25.17

Synthesis: Natural camphor is obtained by distillation from the plants of Cinnamomum or Laurus camphora from China and Japan, together with the corresponding essential oils; the raw camphor contains several impurities. It is separated from the water and the essential oil by pressure or by centrifugation and subsequently purified by sublimation or crystallization. Synthetic camphor is prepared from pinene isolated by fractional distillation of turpentine oil; pinene is reacted to bornyl chloride with gaseous HCl under pressure and then to camphene. The distilled and purified camphene is then oxidized to camphor with Na+ or K+ bichromate in the presence of H2SO4.

Aroma threshold values: Detection at 1 to 1.29 ppm

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 20 ppm: medicinal, camphoraceous, mentholic and woody.

Natural occurrence: Frequently occurring in nature as the d- or l-form; the optically inactive form is seldom encountered. The d-form has been reported found in Cinnamomum camphora Ness. (Laurus camphora L.) from China, Japan and the East Indies; in Sassafras officinale, Lavandula spica and in other Labiatae. The l-form is reported found in the essential oils of Salvia grandiflora, Matricaria parthenium, Artemisia herba alba; the optically inactive form is found in Chrysanthemum japonicum sinense. Also reported found in orange peel oil, lemon peel oil, apricot, raspberry, anise, cinnamon root bark, ginger, pepper, coriander, calamus, sweet fennel and rosemary.

Camphor, Tree

Botanical name: Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Nees & Ebermeier

Botanical family: Lauraceae

Foreign names: Camphre (Fr.), Kampfer (Ger.), Alcanfor (Sp.), Canfora (It.)

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

n/a

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

295-980-1 a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS

92201-50-8 a

Notes:

a  For camphor tree extract.

Description: The camphor is a tall, majestic tree native to the Far East (China, Taiwan, Japan). This evergreen tree has aromatic leaves and stems, red leaves maturing to dark green, and yellow flowers. The initial or whole camphor oil is obtained by steam distillation of the trees classified as C. camphora Sieb. and a number of related varieties, including hon-sho, ho-sho, yu-sho, rau-kusu, shoguy and ohba-kusu. Hon-sho represents the most important variety growing mainly in Japan and Taiwan. The yu-sho variety grows in China. The sho-guy variety grows in Taiwan, but its essential oil does not contain camphor. The ohba-kusu also grows in Taiwan and its essential oil contains 95% safrole. The wild plants yield a larger amount of camphor and essential oil than the cultivated ones. The yield also increases with age of the plant. Depending on the composition, crude camphor oils distilled from the different varieties are classified differently into camphore safrole, hon-sho variety (Japan); camphore safrole (Taiwan); Camphor cineol (Chinese camphor oil), yu-sho variety; camphor linalool, ho-shu variety (Taiwan); and true camphor oil. Parts used are wood, stumpwood, branches and leaves. Camphor has a characteristic penetrating odor and a burning bitter, fresh taste. For details, refer to Burdock (1997).

Derivatives: The distillation of clippings, roots or wood chips provides solid, white camphor crystals and camphor oil.

Consumption: Annual: 3333.33 lb

Individual: 0.0028 mg/kg/day

Camphor Japanese White Oil

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 (safrole free); 27 CFR 21et seq. FDA (other): Approved for OTC use (21 CFR 310.526, 310.531, 310.545, 341.14, 346.16); HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI:n/a

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: For different camphors, including true camphore (white camphore oil 860 to 880, brown camphor oil 1070, yellow camphor oil 960 to 980 and blue camphor oil); Chinese camphor oil (apopin oil); ho wood oil (shiu wood oil); and ho leaf oil; see descriptions in Burdock (1997).

Essential oil composition: The main constituents of crude camphor oil include acids: acetic, formic, isobutyric, propionic, isovaleric, myristic, lauric, etc.; aldehydes: isovaleric, propionic, acetic, furfural, hexanal, etc.; cineoles: safrole, l-linalool, geraniol, borneol, citronellol, terpineol, cresol, eugenol, carvacrol, pinene, camphene, camphor and phellandrene.

Reported uses (ppm): of d-camphor (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

5.00

10.00

Baked goods

10.33

15.35

Condiments, relishes

15.00

25.00

Frozen dairy

17.06

23.75

Gelatins, puddings

10.32

12.19

Hard candy

5.40

6.68

Nonalcoholic beverages

3.02

6.02

Soft candy

5.26

25.17

Aroma threshold values: Detection at 1.0 to 1.29 ppm

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 20 ppm: medicinal, camphoraceous, mentholic and woody.

Camphor Japanese White Oil

Other names: Oils, camphor; Camphor oil brown; Camphor oil rectified; Camphor oil white; Camphor oil yellow; Japanese, oil of camphor; Liquid camphor; Oil camphor sassafrassy

CAS No.:

8008-51-3

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2231

NAS No.:

2231

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: The oil is produced by fractional distillation of the crude camphor oil after the camphor has been crystallized. It is obtained from the bark and tree. The white oil contains cineole as the principal component along with monoterpenes.

Consumption: Annual: 2200.00 lb

Individual: 0.0018 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 (safrole free); 27 CFR 21et seq. FDA (other): Approved for OTC use (21 CFR 310.526, 310.531, 310.545, 341.14, 346.16); HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: (Burdock, 1997)

Flash point

114°C

Specific gravity

0.881

Vapor pressure

~0.2 mmHg

Physical–chemical characteristics: A white viscous liquid.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Camphor Oil Formosan Ho-Sho Leaves

Other names: Oils, ho-sho; Camphor oil, Formosan ho-sho, leaves (Cinnamomum camphora Seib.)

CAS No.:

8022-91-1

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

n/a

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: The leaf oil (ho leaf oil) contains up to 80% linalool; the oil does not contain free crystalline camphor. The oil is steam-distilled from the leaves and has a sweet, floral, delicate odor reminiscent of linalool. Also see Camphor, Tree.

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 (safrole free); 27 CFR 21et seq. FDA (other): Approved for OTC use (21 CFR 310.526, 310.531, 310.545, 341.14, 346.16); HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: Natural

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cananga

Botanical name: Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook f. & Thomson (Canangium odoratum Baill. f. macrophylla)

Botanical family: Annonaceae

Foreign names: Cananga (Fr.), Cananga (Ger.), Cananga (Sp.), Cananga (It.)

Description: For a long time, cananga and ylang-ylang trees were considered identical species. A more accurate study classified the true cananga plant as the tree of Canangium odoratum Baill. f. macrophylla, whereas ylang-ylang was classified as Canangium odoratum Baill. f. genuine. Cananga, a native of the Moluccas, grows wild or cultivated throughout tropical Asia and the islands of the Indian Ocean. The tree may reach up to 30 m in height. Although it flowers year-round, the production peak occurs between October and December. Cananga has a slightly woody, floral odor reminiscent of ylang-ylang and a burning taste.

Derivatives: Essential oil

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Category 2 (These source materials and preparations, on the basis of information available, are not considered to constitute a risk to health in the quantities used.) FDA: 21 CFR 182.20 (as oils, oleoresins and natural extractives); 582.20 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: Natural

Essential oil composition: Leaf: terpenes (α-pinene 14%, β-pinene 4.5%, myrcene 0.6%, limonene 0.4%, δ-elemene 1.1%, α-ylangene 0.3%, α-copaene 2.9%, β-cubebene 0.7%, β-caryophyllene 26.3%, α-amorphene 0.4%, α-humulene 6.3%, germacrene D 11.7%, α-muurolene 1.1%, bicyclogermacrene 0.6%, γ-cadinene 0.8%, δ-cadinene 3%); oxygenated terpenic compounds (linalool 1.9%, α-terpineol 0.3%, caryophyllene epoxide 0.6%, T-cadinol 0.9%, α-cadinol 0.8%); aliphatic alcohols (n-hexanol 10.2%, (Z)-hex-3-enol 3.1%, (E)-hex-2-enol 0.2%); (E)-hex-2-enal 2.0% (CoE, 2000).

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cananga Oil

Other names: Cananga oil, Java; Java cananga oil; Oils, cananga

CAS No.:

68606-83-7

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2232

NAS No.:

2232

CoE No.:

103 b

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Cananga oil is the total essential oil, water distilled from the flowers of Cananga odorata in the northern and western parts of Java (Indonesia). It has a harsh floral odor suggestive of ylang-ylang.

Consumption: Annual: 3.33 lb

Individual: 0.0000028 mg/kg/day

Candelilla Wax (Wax From Stems And Branches Of Euphorbia Cerifera)

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Category 2. Use levels in ppm: baked goods 28.51; frozen dairy 10.30; soft candy 31.23; gelatins, puddings 32.31; nonalcoholic beverages 13.30; alcoholic beverages 28.00; chewing gum 0.36. FDA: 21 CFR 182.20, 582.20 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: (FCC, 1996)

Angular rotation

Between –15° and –30°

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Passes test

Refractive index

Between 1.495 and 1.505 at 20°

Saponification value

Between 10 and 40

Solubility

Passes test; soluble in most fixed oils

Specific gravity

Between 0.904 and 0.920

Physical–chemical characteristics: Light to deep yellow liquid.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Candelilla Wax (Wax From Stems And Branches Of Euphorbia Cerifera)

Botanical name: Euphobia cerifera; Euphorbia antisyphilitica Zucc.

Botanical family: Euphorbiaceae

Other names: Candelilla; Candelilla wax (wax from stems and branches of Euphorbia cerifera); Koster keunen candelilla wax; Waxes, candelilla

CAS No.:

8006-44-8

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

3479

NAS No.:

3479

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

232-347-0

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Candelilla wax is obtained from several species of Euphorbiaceae, rush-like perennial plants that grow in the semi-arid regions of northern Mexico and southern Texas, and to a limited extent in Arizona and southern California. The plants consist of numerous slender, leafless cylindrical stalks 2 to 5 ft high, covered with a powdery wax that gives the plant a blue-green color.

The wax is extracted from the plants by immersing the dried stalks in boiling water acidified with sulfuric acid; the molten product is skimmed off as it rises to the surface. The wax is transferred to lead-lined tanks, kept at the boiling point to remove water, and then allowed to settle to remove any dirt present. The yield of clarified wax is from 1.5 to 3.0% of the air-dried plant. The sole criterion of purity is usually the color of the product, which varies from light yellow to brown. For other details of description, refer to Burdock (1997).

Consumption: Annual: 15933.33 lb

Individual: 0.01350 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 184.1976 FDA (other): Listed in Inactive Ingredient Guide (CDER, 1996) JECFA: ADI: Acceptable (no safety concern at current levels of intake) (1992)

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 2.234 mg

IOFI: Natural

Empirical Formula/MW: n/a

Specifications: (FCC, 1996)

Acid value

Between 12 and 22

Appearance

Hard, yellowish-brown, opaque to translucent

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 0.002%

Identification

Comparison of IR absorbtion spectrum with standard

Lead

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Melting range

Between 68.5 and 72.5°C

Saponification value

Between 43 and 65

Solubility

Soluble in chloroform and toluene; insoluble in water

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

15.00

30.00

Frozen dairy

5.00

10.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

15.00

30.00

Soft candy

10.00

15.00

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Capers

Botanical name: Capparis spinosa L.

Botanical family: Capparidaceae

Foreign names: Caprier épineux (Fr.), Kapernstande (Ger.), Taparera (Sp.), Cappero (It.)

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

6179

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977050-25-1

Description: C. spinosa is a wild or cultivated, prickly, prostrate shrub, commonly growing in the rocky and mountain areas of southern Europe, northern Africa and around the Mediterranean basin. The plant has woody, cylindrical, branched, grayish roots, numerous sarmentose stems with alternate leaves and edible buds. Two forms of caper can be found: a spiny and a nonspiny variety. Capers thrive best in dry soil. The parts used are the root bark, fruits and buds. Capers have a sour, astringent flavor. The caper has a long history of use as a culinary spice.

Derivatives: Decoction, tincture and fluid extract. All derivatives contain the glucoside capparirutin.

Consumption: Annual: 196666.67 lb

Individual: 0.1666 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.10, 582.10 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: n/a

Essential oil composition: Contains the glucoside capparirutin.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Capsicum *

Botanical name: Capsicum minimum Mill., C. frutescens L., C. annuum L., and similar varieties of the species

Botanical family: Solanaceae

Other names: Cayenne pepper; Red pepper; paprika; Capsicum peppers

Foreign names: Piment Caraibe or Poivron Rouge (Fr.), Cayenne Pfeffer (Ger.), Pipienta chiles (Sp.), Capsico (It.)

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

6180

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

97707-72-9

Description: Under the name of capsicum, the fruits of various species of the family Solanaceae are used extensively as pungent food additives. Commercially, the fruits of Capsicum annuum and its varieties are known under the names of Spanish pepper, poivrons and paprika. The fruits of C. frutescens are known as chiles, although the term chiles may be used to indicate any variety of capsicum. The orange-red powder of the fruits from which the most pungent parts are removed is known as rosenpaprika. In the United States, this is simply paprika. It is recognized that approximately five species and their hybrids contribute to all sources of “peppers.” The fruits are the part used. Capsicum is mild to highly pungent. Capsicum was first described in the late 1400s by a physician who accompanied Columbus to the West Indies.

Capsicum frutescens: C. frutescens is a small shrub similar to other capsicum species native to South America. It has a 2- to 3-year life span, reaches a height of 1 m, has greenish-yellow flowers clustered at the base of lanceolate leaves and has small oblong, intensely red pods 1 to 3 cm long.

Capsicum annum: C. annuum is an annual, shrub-like herb smaller than C. frutescens, with a woody stem and single, white flowers located at the junction of the isolated leaves. The oblong pods (fruits) exhibit varying colors — yellow to red to black. The fruits of C. annuum have a taste less pungent than C. frutescens.

Derivatives: Fluid extracts, tincture (10% in 90% ethanol, or 20% in 60% ethanol) and oleoresins (also plated onto inert carrier). Derivative names: Capsicum oleoresin, Paprika oleoresin, Red pepper oleoresin

Consumption: Annual: 1,328,333.33 lb

Individual: 1.1257 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 73.340, 182.10, 582.10 FDA (other): Approved for OTC use (21 CFR 310.545); HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: n/a

Essential oil composition: The best-known constituent accounting for the pungent flavor is decylene vanillylamide (also known as capsaicin), a very pungent phenolic chemical. Capsicum contains about 1.5% of an irritating oleoresin. The major component of the oil is capsaicin (0.02%). The pungency appears to be related to the presence of a 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl substituent.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: The characteristic flavor of capsaicin can be detected in concentrations as low as 1 part in 11 million in aqueous solutions.

Capsicum Extract

CAS No.:

84625-29-6

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2233

NAS No.:

2233

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

283-403-6

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: See Capsicum.

Consumption: Annual: 4833.33 lb

Individual: 0.0040 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 73.345, 182.20, 582.20 FDA (other): Approved for OTC use (21 CFR 310.545); HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 145.169 mg

IOFI: Natural

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

1175.00

1200.00

Baked goods

250.00

295.00

Condiments, relishes

795.00

870.00

Frozen dairy

270.00

330.00

Gelatins, puddings

80.00

115.00

Hard candy

6.25

6.25

Meat products

121.40

197.80

Nonalcoholic beverages

91.04

167.30

Soft candy

380.00

450.00

Soups

1134.00

1266.00

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Capsicum Oleoresin

Other names: Capsicum oleoresin; Capsicin; Capsicum oleoresin (Capsicum spp.); Capsicum oleoresin, oil soluble; Chili oleoresin; Oleoresin capsicum Africanus; Resins, oleo-, capsicum

CAS No.:

8023-77-6

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2234

NAS No.:

2234

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Capsicum oleoresin is a prepared oleoresin extract that consists of resinous matter and a liquid phase, which is not volatile with steam. Oleoresin is obtained by solvent extraction of the dried ripe fruit of C. frutescens L. or C. annuum L. var. conoides Irish with subsequent removal of the solvent. It has a characteristic odor and an extremely strong bite.

Consumption: Annual: 278333.33 lb

Individual: 0.2358 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.20, 582.20 FDA (other): Approved for OTC use (21 CFR 310.545); HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 52.034 mg

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: (Burdock, 1997)

Color value (max)

4,000

Scoville heat units (min)

480,000

Solubility

Partly in alcohol

Physical–chemical characteristics: It is a clear-red, light-amber or a dark-red viscous liquid.

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

770.00

900.00

Baked goods

50.36

81.58

Chewing gum

95.57

159.70

Condiments, relishes

246.70

327.00

Fats oils

58.00

58.00

Frozen dairy

24.26

27.41

Gelatins, puddings

18.00

20.00

Gravies

49.39

49.70

Hard candy

9.56

18.89

Meat products

74.55

143.60

Nonalcoholic beverages

91.56

101.40

Soft candy

21.37

23.59

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Caramel

Synonyms: Burnt sugar; Burnt sugar coloring; Caramel, color; Caramel (color); Caramel liquid; Caramel powder

CAS No.:

8028-89-5

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2235

NAS No.:

2235

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

232-435-9

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Caramel color is one of the oldest and most widely used food-color additives. Caramel has an odor of burnt sugar and a pleasant, bitter taste. However, at the low levels used in food, the taste is not perceptible. Internationally, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants (JECFA) has divided caramel color into four classes, depending on the reactants used in its manufacturing. For further details, see Burdock (1997).

Consumption: Annual: 156,500,000.00 lb

Individual: 132.6271 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 73et seq., 182.1235, 582.1235; 27 CFR 4.21, 5et seq., 19et seq., 24.195 FDA (other): Listed in Inactive Ingredient Guide (CDER, 1996) JECFA: Caramel I - ADI: Not specified (1985); Caramel II – ADI: 0–160 mg/kg bw (2000); Caramel III – ADI: 0–200 mg/kg bw (1985); Caramel IV- ADI: 0–200 mg/kg bw (1985)

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 5.837 mg

IOFI: n/a

Empirical Formula/MW:

C10H18O/154.25

Specifications: (FCC, 1996)

Ammoniacal nitrogen

Not more than 0.6% calculated on an equivalent color basis

Appearance

Dark-brown-to-black liquid or solid

Arsenic (as As)

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Color intensity

Between 0.01 and 0.6 absorbance units

Heavy metals

Not more than 25 mg/kg

Lead

Not more than 2 mg/kg

Mercury

Not more than 0.1 mg/kg

4-Methylimidazole

Not more than 0.025% calculated on an equivalent color basis

Sulfur dioxide

Not more than 0.2% calculated on an equivalent color basis

Total nitrogen

Not more than 3.3% calculated on an equivalent color basis

Total sulfur

Not more than 3.5% calculated on an equivalent color basis

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

1.02

2.48

Baked goods

2.34

4.30

Breakfast cereals

1.20

1.20

Condiments, relishes

10.15

10.15

Confection, frosting

2.30

3.21

Fats, oils

0.67

0.67

Fish

0.43

0.43

Frozen dairy

0.78

1.31

Fruit juice

0.59

0.59

Gelatins, puddings

0.99

1.25

Gravies

539.30

543.10

Hard candy

0.07

0.39

Instant coffee, tea

0.05

0.19

Meat products

2.11

2.40

Nonalcoholic beverages

1.53

1.67

Nut products

0.05

0.08

Other grains

0.59

0.69

Poultry

1.23

2.37

Processed vegetables

4.11

4.11

Reconstituted vegetables

20.86

47.77

Snack foods

0.55

2.54

Soft candy

2.40

2.77

Soups

0.55

1.61

Sweet sauce

2.53

2.69

Synthesis: Made by heating sugar or glucose, adding small amounts of alkali, alkaline carbonate or a trace of mineral acid during the heating.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Not reported found in nature.

Caraway

Botanical name: Carum carvi L.

Botanical family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae

Other names: Karawya; Carum carvi

Foreign names: Carvi (Fr.), Kümmel (Ger.), Caró (Sp.), Carvi (It.)

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2236

NAS No.:

2236

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977001-27-6

Description: A biennial herbaceous plant very common in Europe, Asia, Africa and the United States, it has a tapering fleshy root, furrowed stem, finely cut feathery leaves, umbels of small flower heads in midsummer, and capsules containing two curved narrow seeds. The plant grows to about 60 cm and it blooms from May to July. The part used is the fruit, containing approximately 15% of fixed oils and 3 to 7% of essential oil. Caraway has a warm, biting flavor with a strong, fatty, harsh undernote.

Derivatives: Infusion (3%), decoction (5%), alcoholic distillate in 75% alcohol and distillation waters. Also, a greenish-yellow liquid oleoresin is extracted from the seed.

Consumption: Annual: 1,463,333.33 lb

Individual: 1.2401 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Category 1 (no restriction on use). Use levels in ppm: Baked goods 8355; fats, oils 11; meat products 1442; processed vegetables 4000; condiments, relishes 435.6; soups 532; snack foods 139; alcoholic beverages 323.7; gravies 13.5 FDA: 21 CFR 133.127, 182.10, 582.10 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 732.556 mg

IOFI: Natural

Essential oil composition: In addition to carvone, the oil contains d-limonene, carveol, diacetyl furfural, methyl alcohol, acetic aldehyde and other substances. Caraway oil consists of 3.5 to 7% volatile and fatty oils; resin, sugar, tannin, mucilage.

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

164.90

323.70

Baked goods

4158.00

8355.00

Condiments, relishes

434.10

435.60

Fats, oils

11.00

11.00

Gravies

8.20

13.50

Meat products

671.10

1442.00

Processed vegetables

1000.00

4000.00

Snack foods

114.00

139.00

Soups

470.00

532.00

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Caraway Oil

Other names: Caraway, oil (Carum carvi L.); Carum carvi oil; Oil of caraway; Oils, caraway; Oils, Carum carvi

CAS No.:

8000-42-8

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2238

NAS No.:

2238

CoE No.:

112

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: The oil is steam-distilled from the dried, crushed, ripe fruits. It is offered in markets in at least two grades: crude and double rectified. The crude oil has an initial note of nauseating, almost amine-like type; the rectified oil does not have this odor.

Consumption: Annual: 2283.33 lb

Individual: 0.0019 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Category 1 (no restriction on use). Use levels in ppm: Baked goods 225.4; cheese 0.12; frozen dairy 43.43; meat products 146; condiments, relishes 41.71; soft candy 87.9; gelatins, puddings 128.1; soups 0.6; nonalcoholic beverages 35.09; alcoholic beverages 142.4; hard candy 50; chewing gum 0.45 FDA: 21 CFR 182.20, 582.20 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 43.892 mg

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: (FCC, 1996)

Angular rotation

Between +70° and +80°

Assay

Not less than 50% by volume of ketones as carvone

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Passes tests

Refractive index

Between 1.484 and 1.488 (20°C)

Solubility in alcohol

Passes test

Specific gravity

Between 0.900 and 0.910

Physical–chemical characteristics: A colorless to pale-yellow liquid; darkens and thickens with age.

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

114.80

142.40

Baked goods

181.60

225.40

Cheese

0.05

0.12

Chewing gum

0.31

0.45

Condiments, relishes

36.03

41.71

Frozen dairy

34.95

43.43

Gelatins, puddings

100.00

128.10

Hard candy

50.00

50.00

Meat products

110.90

146.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

27.11

35.09

Soft candy

74.22

87.90

Soups

0.60

0.60

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 30 ppm: green, herbal, carvone with a woody nuance.

Caraway, Black

Botanical name: Nigella sativa L.

Botanical family: Ranunculaceae

Other names: Roman coriander; Cumin black; Black cumin; Black caraway

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2237

NAS No.:

2237

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977017-84-7

Description: Black cumin is an annual that is occasionally cultivated for its seeds, which are used for seasoning food and sometimes mixed with bread. It has feathery foliage, gray-blue flowers and inflated pods of black seeds. The plant grows from central Europe to northern Africa and western Asia.

Consumption: Annual: 666.67 lb

Individual: 0.00056 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.10, 582.10 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 2.587 mg

IOFI: Natural

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Meat products

33.00

35.00

NOTE: FEMA has two listings for Caraway Black: (1) Under Caraway black (Nigella sativa) (2237); and (2) Cumin black (Nigella sativa) (2342) with different CAS numbers.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Carboxymethyl Cellulose

Synonyms: Carmelose; Carbose; Carboxymethylated cellulose pulp; Carboxymethylcellulose; Carboxymethyl cellulose; Carboxymethyl cellulose ether; Carboximethylcellulosum; Cellofas; Cellulose carboxymethylate; Cellulose, carboxymethyl ether; cm-Cellulose; Celluloseglycolic acid; CMC; Colloresine; Glycocel TA; Glycolic acid cellulose ether; Thylose

CAS No.:

9000-11-7

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2239

NAS No.:

2239

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Cellulose is a natural substance normally present in most diets because it is the major structural carbohydrate of green plants. Cellulose is essentially a linear polymer of glucopyranose units connected by α-1,4-glucoside links. In nature, cellulose is present in plant cell walls as fibers. The molecular weight of the isolated cellulose is approximately 50,000 daltons. The principal sources of cellulose for food-related purposes are cotton linters and wood pulp.

Chemical processing converts cellulose into forms or derivatives suitable for incorporation into food products or for use in food packaging materials. For food use, the optimum degree of substitution of a carboxymethyl-residue on each anhydroglucopyranose unit on cellulose is 0.95. By preliminary mild acid hydrolysis, the degree of polymerization (i.e., molecular size) of the cellulose may be reduced before carboxymethylation. Control of the degree of substitution and the degree of polymerization during processing results in production of a wide variety of derivatives that differ in such physical properties as gelling, temperature, viscosity and dispersibility in water. Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is used as a thickening agent and stabilizer in foods. Because carboxymethyl cellulose is spontaneously converted to sodium salt in alkaline solution, it is probable that any distinction between carboxymethyl cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose in foodstuffs is artificial. *

Consumption: Annual: 630000.00 lb

Individual: 0.5338 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: n/a FDA (other): n/a JECFA: Evaluated (1960)

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 51.687 mg

IOFI: n/a

Empirical Formula/MW:

C8H16O8/240.21

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Specifications: (Burdock, 1997)

Appearance

White granules

Solubility

Solubility depends on degree of sodium substitution

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Baked goods

1.20

3.02

Cheese

4.00

4.00

Confection, frosting

2.50

2.50

Frozen dairy

0.15

0.37

Fruit juice

0.79

0.79

Gelatins, puddings

2.00

10.00

Gravies

2.23

4.57

Meat products

0.56

1.27

Milk products

0.20

0.35

Nonalcoholic beverages

0.12

0.22

Other grains

0.08

0.08

Poultry

3600.00

3600.00

Processed vegetables

0.72

4.90

Sweet sauce

700.00

700.00

Synthesis: Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is produced by treating wood pulp or cotton linters with alkali and monochloroacetic acid. It occurs as a white- or cream-colored powder or granules.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Not reported found in nature.

Cardamom

Botanical name: Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton

Botanical family: Zingiberaceae

Foreign name: Cardamome (Fr.), Kardamom (Ger.), Cardamomo (Sp.), Cardamomo (It.)

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2240

NAS No.:

2240

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977005-95-0

Description: This perennial bears violet-striped, white flowers and aromatic, green fruits on erect or trailing racemes. The small variety of cardamom (α-minor) cultivated in Malabar is the most valuable variety. This variety has been almost entirely replaced, in the last 50 years, by the larger variety, β-major. The plant grows more than 2 m tall and exhibits a long rhizome from which the fruit-bearing stalks emerge. The fruits (husks) containing the seed are harvested prior to ripening, which is completed by exposing them to sunlight. The seeds are subsequently sorted into several commercial qualities based on color, size and origin (Malabar, Cylone, Mysore). Cardamom has a warm, spicy, aromatic odor that is somewhat pungent and faintly bitter at high concentrations. Derivatives: Essential oil, tincture (20% in 70% alcohol), fluid extract and oleoresin

Consumption: Annual: 31166.67 lb

Individual: 0.026 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.10, 582.10 FDA (other): Approved for use as an excipient (CDER, 1996); HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 54.685 mg

IOFI: Natural

Essential oil composition: The main constituents of the oil are limonene, cineol, d-α-terpineol and terpinyl acetate. Constituents of cardamom fruit Elettaria cardamomum, Mysore variety from Sri Lanka, include α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, phellandrene, limonene, 1–8-cineol, 8-terpinene, p-cymene, linolool (6.95%); linalyl acetate, β-terpineol, α-terpinyl acetate (51.15%), nerol, geraniol, nerolidole and other susbtances. * TNO (2000) reported identification of 156 compounds in cardamom. Of these, 39 were hydro-carbon, 36 alcohols, 19 carbony aldehydes, 9 carbony ketones, 14 acids, 22 esters and the remaining were ethers, phenols, furans and oxides or epoxides of pyrans or coumarins.

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

199.50

798.00

Baked goods

105.00

559.20

Condiments, relishes

208.70

500.00

Fats oils

11.00

11.00

Frozen dairy

1.00

2.00

Fruit juice

40.00

200.00

Gelatins, puddings

500.00

1000.00

Gravies

42.50

5045.00

Meat products

94.89

464.10

Nonalcoholic beverages

39.72

119.60

Processed vegetables

38.00

71.00

Snack foods

1500.00

2500.00

Soft candy

1.00

3.00

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cardamom Oleoresin

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

6366

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977090-82-6

Description: The oleoresin is produced by extraction of seeds with ethylether, petroleum ether or other volatile solvent. The extract contains about 10% of the fixed oil, which is odorless. Oleoresin produces organoleptic virtues of the true spice even more closely than does the oil.

Consumption: Annual: <1.00 lb

Individual: 0.00013 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.20, 582.20 FDA (other): Approved for use as an excipient (CDER, 1996); HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: Natural

Physical–chemical characteristics: The ether extract is an orange-brown or greenish-brown liquid.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cardamom Seed Oil

Other names: Cardamom oil; Cardamom resinoid; Cardamom seed oil (Elletaria cardamomum (L.) Maton); Elettaria cardamomum oil; Oil of cardamom; Oils, cardamom

CAS No.:

8000-66-6

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2241

NAS No.:

2241

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: The volatile oil is distilled from the comminuted seeds with an average yield of 5%. The seeds are enclosed in husks (hulls) and removed from the odorless hulls shortly before distillation because the essential oil is extremely volatile and can considerably reduce the yields. The oil from “green” types of cardamom smells more of cineole than does an oil from the bleached or pale-yellow, straw-colored cardamom (fruits). The oil has an aromatic, penetrating, somewhat camphoraceous odor of cardamom and a pungent, strongly aromatic taste.

Consumption: Annual: 5500.00 lb

Individual: 0.0046 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.20, 582.20 FDA (other): Approved for use as an excipient (CDER, 1996); HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 14.825 mg

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: (FCC, 1996)

Angular rotation

Between +22° and +44°

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Passes test

Refractive index

Between 1.462 and 1.466 (20°C)

Solubility in alcohol

Passes test

Specific gravity

Between 0.917 and 0.947

Physical–chemical characteristics: It is a colorless or very pale-yellow liquid. The oil is affected by light and is miscible with alcohol.

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 2007)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

111.14

120.00

Baked goods

51.50

70.00

Chewing gum

50.00

4500.00

Condiments, relishes

61.84

70.00

Frozen dairy

5.62

10.00

Gelatins, puddings

12.91

15.00

Gravies

5.00

10.00

Hard candy

50.00

3500.00

Meat products

36.18

55.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

2.29

4.04

Soft candy

6.74

8.03

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 20 ppm: Woody, spicy, green and camphoraceous with an herbal nuance.

3-Carene

Synonyms: d-3-Carene; Car-3-ene; Isodiprene; 4,7,7-Trimethyl-3-norcarene; 3,7,7-Trimethylbicyclo[4.1.0]hept-3-ene; 3,7,7-Tri methylbicyclo[4.1.0]-3-heptene; 3,7,7-Trimethylbicyclo[4.1.0]heptene-3

CAS No.:

13466-78-9

FL No.:

01.029

FEMA No.:

3821

NAS No.:

n/a

CoE No.:

10983

EINECS No.:

236-719-3

JECFA No.:

1342

Description: 3-Carene has a sweet, pungent turpentine-like taste.

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: n/a FDA Rx: n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2004).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 7.91168 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C10H16/136.24

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Acid value (max)

1.0

Appearance

Colorless to light pale liquid

Assay (min)

92%

Boiling point

169–174°C

Refractive index

1.468–1.478 (20°C)

Solubility

Insoluble in water

Specific gravity

0.860–0.868 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1998)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

20.00

60.00

Baked goods

10.00

50.00

Breakfast cereals

10.00

50.00

Cheese

1.00

5.00

Chewing gum

60.00

100.00

Condiments, relishes

10.00

50.00

Confection, frosting

20.00

60.00

Fats, oils

5.00

30.00

Fish products

1.00

5.00

Frozen dairy

20.00

50.00

Fruit ices

20.00

50.00

Gelatins, puddings

5.00

40.00

Gravies

5.00

20.00

Hard candy

40.00

80.00

Imitation dairy

1.00

5.00

Instant coffee, tea

5.00

20.00

Jams, jellies

5.00

40.00

Meat products

1.00

5.00

Milk products

20.00

60.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

15.00

50.00

Nut products

5.00

20.00

Other grains

10.00

50.00

Poultry

1.00

5.00

Processed fruits

5.00

20.00

Processed vegetables

5.00

20.00

Reconstituted vegetables

5.00

20.00

Seasonings, flavors

10.00

50.00

Snack foods

5.00

30.00

Soft candy

20.00

60.00

Soups

5.00

20.00

Sugar substitutes

1.00

10.00

Sweet sauce

15.00

50.00

Synthesis: Extracted from the pine tree oil.

Aroma threshold values (ppb): n/a

Taste threshold values (ppb): n/a

Natural occurrence: Reported present in basil oil, bell pepper, bilberry, black currant berry juice and buds, fennel oil, grapefruit juice, kumquat peel oil, lemon peel oil, lime peel oil (cold pressed and distilled), lovage seed, mandarin peel oil, orange juice, orange peel oil, orange (bitter) peel oil, tangerine peel oil and other natural products.

CARMINE Genus species: Coccus cacti L. (Dactylopius coccus Costa)

Other names: Carminic acid; B. Rose liquid; Cosmetic micro blend carmine red B. C. 9275; Natural red 4

CAS No.:

1390-65-4

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2242

NAS No.:

2242

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

215-724-4

JECFA No.:

n/a

INS No.:

120

Description: Carmine is the aluminum or calcium-aluminum lake, on an aluminum hydroxide substrate, obtained by an aqueous extraction of the dried female insects of Dactylopius coccus Costa, enclosing young larvae. The primary source of the raw material is from the Canary Islands and parts of South America. The coloring principle derived from carmine chiefly consists of carminic acid (C22H20O13).

Derivatives: Carmine Lake

Consumption: Annual: 43500.00 lb

Individual: 0.036 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 73et seq.; 27 CFR 4.91 FDA (other): Listed in Inactive Ingredient Guide (CDER, 1996) JECFA: ADI: 0 to 5 mg/kg bw (1982).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 0.784 mg

IOFI: n/a

Specifications: (FCC, 1996)

Arsenic (as As)

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Ash

Not more than 12%

Assay

Not less than 42% carminic acid (C22H20O13)

Lead

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Loss on drying

Not more than 20%

Microbial limits: Salmonella

Negative in 25 g

Physical–chemical characteristics: Carmine occurs as bright red, friable pieces or as a dark red powder. It is soluble in alkali solutions, slightly soluble in hot water and practically insoluble in cold water and in dilute acids.

Composition: The coloring principle is chiefly carminic acid.

Empirical Formula/MW:

C22H20O13/492.39

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Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Meat products

10.00

30.00

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Carob Bean

Botanical name: Ceratonia siliqua L.

Botanical family: Leguminosae

Other names: St. John’s bread; Locust bean

Foreign names: Caroube (Fr.), Johannishbrotbaum (Ger.), Algarrabo europeo (Sp.), Carruba (It.)

Description: The tree (~10 m high) is a large evergreen native to the Middle East region and the southern part of the Mediterranean. It is extensively cultivated for the seeds and fruit in Cyprus, Greece, Syria, Spain and Italy. The carob tree (also referred to as the locust tree) can reach heights of 10 m and is well adapted to arid farming conditions. The carob tree is exceedingly tolerant of typical plant diseases in this region and, therefore, minimizes agriculture risk.

The dried or partially desiccated pulp exhibits a characteristic sweet flavor. The fruit pod consists of a pulp component referred to as the “kibble” and a seed component referred to as the “kernel.” The kibble (~90% of the pod) is generally used as is (i.e., unprocessed) as a feed component for animal food production in semiarid regions. The kernels (~10% of the pod) are ground and the gum constituent, referred to as a galactomannan, is extracted by various methods. Extracts of the carob tree pod have also been historically cited as a local community medicinal elixir (for diarrhea) in the Mediterranean region.

Derivatives: Tincture (20 to 25% in 55 to 77% alcohol), fluid and soft extracts

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 133et seq.; 150et seq.; 182.20; 582.20; 184.1343 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: ADI: Not specified (1981)

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: n/a

Composition: The kibble consists of high concentrations of fermentable sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose and maltose), as well as protein, pectin, cellulose, hemicellulose and polyphenols. The technical value within the seed endosperm is chemically defined as a neutral galactomannan, a high molecular weight hydrocolloid polysaccharide (polymer). The galactomannan polymer is composed of a 1,4-linked β-D-mannopyranosyl (mannose, 73 to 86% of molecule) units with single-side chains of α-Dgalactopyranosyl (galactose, 14 to 27% of molecule) units irregularly attached to every fourth or fifth mannopyranosyl unit by 1,6-glycosidic linkages to the polymer.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Carob Bean Extract

Other names: Locust bean extract; St. John’s bread extract; Carob extract

CAS No.:

84961-45-5

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2243

NAS No.:

2243

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

284-634-5

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Carob bean extract is a product derived from the seeds, but delivered in a tincture of alcohol or other fluids. The extract is used primarily for food flavoring and as a flavor modifier. For other details of description, see Carob Bean.

Consumption: Annual: 186666.67 lb

Individual: 0.1581 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.20, 582.20 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 1.023 mg

IOFI: Natural

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

0.49

2.00

Baked goods

0.86

1.30

Breakfast cereals

0.03

0.03

Cheese

7.67

7.67

Condiments, relishes

4.23

4.23

Confection, frosting

1.97

2.04

Fats oils

1.90

1.90

Frozen dairy

1.09

2.54

Fruit ices

2.00

5.00

Fruit juice

2.49

2.99

Gelatins, puddings

1.59

1.98

Gravies

3.35

4.57

Hard candy

0.02

0.04

Imitation dairy

2.00

5.00

Jams, jellies

1.00

2.50

Meat products

1.84

1.84

Milk products

0.74

1.83

Nonalcoholic beverages

1.41

2.00

Poultry

0.05

0.05

Processed vegetables

0.01

0.01

Soft candy

0.34

0.35

Soups

0.25

0.40

Sweet sauce

3.19

4.55

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Carob Bean Gum

Other names: Carob bean extract; Carob flour; Carob gum; Carob seed gum; Ceratonia; Caratonia gum; Fructoline; Gum, carob bean locust’ Locust bean gum; Locust bean oil; Luctin; Lupogum; Saint John’s brea d; St. John’s bread gum; Supercol

CAS No.:

9000-40-2

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2648

NAS No.:

2648

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

232-541-5

JECFA No.:

n/a

INS No.:

410

Description: Carob bean gum is a natural product obtained from the endosperm of milled seeds from the fruit pod of C. siliqua. Carob bean gum is obtained from the macerated endosperm of the seeds of the fruit pod of the carob tree. This endosperm, comprising 42 to 46% of the kernel, contains virtually all of the galactomannan present in the seed. Galactomannan is not found in the kibble. Carob bean gum is used as a food stabilizer and thickener, a flavor and/or flavor modifier, an emulsifier, a texturizer and a solvent/ carrier/encapsulating agent.

Consumption: Annual: 1,800,000.00 lb

Individual: 1.525 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 133et seq., 150et seq., 184.1343, 582.7343 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: ADI: Not specified (1981)

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 185.076 mg

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: (FCC, 19896)

Acid-insoluble matter

Not more than 4%

Arsenic (as As)

Not more than 3 mg/kg

Ash (total)

Not more than 1.2%

Galactomannans

Not less than 75%

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 0.002%

Lead

Not more than 5 mg/kg

Loss on drying

Not more than 14%

Protein

Not more than 7%

Starch

Passes test

Physical–chemical characteristics: It is a white to yellowish-white powder. It is dispersible in either hot or cold water, forming a solution having a pH between 5.4 and 7.0, which may be converted to gel by the addition of small amounts of sodium borate.

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Baked goods

150.00

150.00

Condiments, relishes

490.00

980.00

Frozen dairy

540.00

1200.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

1100.00

2900.00

Sweet sauce

4700.00

6000.00

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Carrot

Botanical name: Daucus carota L.

Botanical family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae

Foreign names: Carotte commun (Fr.), Moehren (Ger.), Zanahoria (Sp.), Carota (It.)

Description: The carrot is a biennial, herbaceous plant very common in Europe and many countries. The plant exhibits a fusiform (spindle-shaped) root of orange-red color, erect stalk, alternate leaves, white and pink flowers, and greenish seeds. It flowers from June to September. The parts used are root and seeds. Carrot has a pleasant, aromatic odor and warm spicy but sweet, piquant flavor.

Derivatives: Decoction (3%), infusion (5% prepared from the roots) and a tinture (20% in 60% alcohol) prepared from the seeds

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 139et seq., 155.200, 161.190 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: n/a

Essential oil composition: The chemical composition of the edible carrot root is 86% water, 0.9% protein, 0.1% fat, 10.7% carbohydrate, 1.2% fiber, trace elements and vitamin A (2,000 to 4,300 I.U./100 g). The main constituents identified in carrot seed oil of French production are carotenol (14 to 18%) and other constituents normally present in this type of essence-terpenes, terpene alcohols and sesquiterpenes. Substances in carrot seed oil include α- and β-pinene (up to 13.3%), Carotol (up to 18 to 29%), daucol, limonene, β-elemene, cis-β-bergamoten, γ-decalactone, β-farnesyl, geraniol, geranyl acetate (up to 10.34%), caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, methyl eugenol, nerolidol, euginol and others. The content of oil varies from 0.05 to 7.15%. *

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Carrot Oil

Other names: Carrot seed oil; Daucus oil; Oils, carrot

CAS No.:

8015-88-1

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2244

NAS No.:

2244

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: The volatile oil is obtained by steam distillation from the crushed seeds of carrots. The color additive, carrot oil, is the liquid or the solid portion of the mixture. The mixture can be obtained by hexane extraction of edible carrots, with subsequent removal of hexane by vacuum distillation. The resultant mixtures of solid and liquid extractives consist chiefly of oils, fats, waxes and carotenoids naturally occurring in carrots. The essential oil is prepared from seeds, roots and green parts of the plant. Depending on the parts of the plants used, the yield varies. The oil has a characteristic fatty odor.

Consumption: Annual: 450.00 lb

Individual: 0.00038 mg/kg/day

Carvacrol

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 73.300, 182.20, 582.20 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 4.065 mg

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: (FCC, 1996)

Acid value (max)

5.0

Angular rotation

Between –4° and –30°

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Passes test

Refractive index

1.483–1.493 (20°C)

Saponification value

Between 9 and 58

Solubility in alcohol

Passes test

Specific gravity

Between 0.900 and 0.943

Physical–chemical characteristics: It is an amber liquid. Carrot seed oil is soluble in most fixed oils, and is soluble, with opalescence, in mineral oil. It is practically insoluble in glycerin and propylene glycol.

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

12.42

14.55

Baked goods

10.37

19.98

Chewing gum

3.00

3.00

Condiments, relishes

17.03

22.42

Frozen dairy

5.76

8.01

Gelatins, puddings

3.51

6.26

Hard candy

0.08

0.08

Meat products

20.42

29.30

Nonalcoholic beverages

2.15

4.37

Soft candy

7.07

13.24

Soups

0.10

1.00

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Carvacrol

Synonyms: Antioxine; o-Cresol, 5-isopropyl; p-Cymen-2-ol; p-Cymene, 2-hydroxy-; 2-p-Cymenol; EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 022104; 1-Hydroxy-2-methyl-5-isopropylbenzene; 2-Hydroxy-p-cymene; Isopropyl-o-cresol; 5-Isopropyl-o-cresol; 3-Isopropyl-6-methylphenol; 5-Isoproply-2-methylphenol; Isothymol; Karvakrol; 2-Methyl-5-isopropylphenol; 2-Methyl-5-(1-methylphenol)phenol; Phenol, 3-isopropyl-6-methyl-; Phenol, 5-isopropyl-2-methyl-; Phenol, 2-methyl-5-(1-methyl-ethyl) -; o-Thymol

CAS No.:

499-75-2

FL No.:

04.031

FEMA No.:

2245

NAS No.:

2245

CoE No.:

2055

EINECS No.:

207-889-6

JECFA No.:

710

Description: Carvacrol has a characteristic pungent, warm odor. The commercial product consists of a mixture of isomers differing because of the position of the isopropyl radical. The odor characteristics differ between the technical (lower grade) and pure (higher grade) commercial products.

Consumption: Annual: 101.67 lb

Individual: 0.00008615 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Used provisionally. Bev.: 2 ppm; Food: 5 pp FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2000).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 4.755 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C10H14O /150.22

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Specifications: (FCC, 1996)

Appearance

Colorless to yellow liquid

Assay (min)

98%

Boiling point

238°C

Refractive index

1.521–1.526 (20°C)

Solubility

Soluble in alcohol (1 mL in 4 mL 60% alcohol gives clear solution) and ether; insoluble in water

Specific gravity

0.974–0.980 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

0.10

1.00

Baked goods

11.35

15.75

Chewing gum

8.42

8.42

Condiments, relishes

10.30

18.00

Frozen dairy

16.58

22.49

Gelatins, puddings

5.99

9.05

Nonalcoholic beverages

23.73

28.54

Soft candy

15.17

21.43

Synthesis: From p-cymene by sulfonation and subsequent alkali fusion.

Aroma threshold values: Detection at 2.29 ppm.

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 5.0 ppm: spicy, herbal phenolic, medicinal and woody.

Natural occurrence: Reported found in cumin seed, thyme, oregano, calamus, lovage, myrtle and lemon balm.

Carvacryl Ethyl Ether

Synonyms: Benzene, 2-ethoxy-1-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-; 2-Ethoxy-p-cymene; Ethyl carvacrol; Ethyl carvacryl ether; 2-Ethoxy-1-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)benzene; 5-Isopropyl-2-methylphenetole

CAS No.:

4732-13-2

FL No.:

04.038

FEMA No.:

2246

NAS No.:

2246

CoE No.:

11840

EINECS No.:

225-238-4

JECFA No.:

1247

Description: Carvacryl ethyl ether has a warm spicy herbaceous aroma, similar to carrot.

Consumption: Annual: 1.67 lb

Individual: 0.00000141 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2003).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 1.342 mg

IOFI: Artificial

Empirical Formula/MW:

C12H18O/178.28

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Carveol

Acid value (max)

1.0

Appearance

Colorless liquid

Assay (min)

95%

Boiling point

235°C

Refractive index

1.502–1.509 (20°C)

Solubility

Slightly soluble in water; miscible in oils; soluble in ethanol

Specific gravity

0.935–0.942 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Baked goods

3.70

6.33

Frozen dairy

6.25

8.83

Gelatins, puddings

5.00

7.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

5.22

6.27

Soft candy

5.10

7.58

Synthesis: By passing vapors of ethyl alcohol and carvacrol over a catalyst (ThO2) at 400 to 500°C.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Not reported found in nature.

Carveol

Synonyms: p-Mentha-6,8-dien-2-ol; 1-Methyl-4-isopropenyl-6-cyclohexen-2-ol; Carveol; L-Carveol; 2-Cyclohexen-1-ol, 2-methyl-5-(1-methylethenyl)-, p-Mentha-6,8-dien- 2-ol, l-; p-Mentha-6,8-dien-2-ol; p-Mentha-1(6),8-dien-2-ol; p-Mentha-1,8-dien-6-ol; 1- Methyl-4-isopropenyl-6-cyclohexen-2-ol; 2-Methyl-5-(1-methylethenyl)-2-cyclohexen-1-ol

CAS No.:

99-48-9

FL No.:

02.062

FEMA No.:

2247

NAS No.:

2247

CoE No.:

2027

EINECS No.:

202-757-4

JECFA No.:

381

Description: Carveol has spearmint-like odor.

Consumption: Annual: 2733.33 lb

Individual: 0.002316 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Used provisionally. Bev.: 20 ppm; Food: 25 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (1998).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 5.314 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C10H16O/152.24

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Specifications: (FCC, 1996)

Angular rotation

Between –117 and –130

Appearance

Colorless to pale-yellow liquid

Assay (min)

96% C10H16O [(Z) isomer 45% +/– 5%; (E) isomer 55% +/– 5%]

Boiling point

226–227°C (751 mmHg)

Refractive index

1.493–1.497 (20°C)

Solubility

1 mL in 1 mL 95% alcohol

Specific gravity

0.947–0.953 (18°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Baked goods

16.83

19.02

Chewing gum

18.06

18.06

Frozen dairy

20.84

24.82

Gelatins, puddings

23.90

25.11

Nonalcoholic beverages

17.77

19.81

Soft candy

22.74

26.93

Synthesis: The various d-, l- and dl- (cis- and trans-, respectively) forms have been prepared synthetically and isolated by means of the dinitrobenzoates according to Amvers’ law. They are prepared by oxidation of limonene or, better, from carvone.

Aroma threshold values: Detection: 4 ppm

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: In small amounts, sometimes esterified, it has been reported present in caraway seeds, spearmint, orange juice, mango and eucalyptus oil.

4-Carvomenthenol

Synonyms: 4-Carvomenthenol; 3-Cyclohexen-1-ol, 4-methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)-; 4-Methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)-3-cyclo-hexen-1-ol; p- Menth-1-en-4-ol; 1-p-Menthen-4-ol; Terpene-4-ol; Terpinen-4-ol; 1-Terpinen-4-ol; Terpinene-4-ol; 4-Terpineol; Terpinenol-4; 4-Terpinenol

CAS No.:

562-74-3

FL No.:

02.072

FEMA No.:

2248

NAS No.:

2248

CoE No.:

2229

EINECS No.:

209-235-5

JECFA No.:

439

Consumption: Annual: 983.33 lb

Individual: 0.0008333 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Used provisionally. Food: 50 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (1998).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 2.091 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C10H18O/154.25 (dextro, levo, racemic)

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Specifications: (FCC, 1996)

Appearance

Colorless to pale-yellow liquid

Assay (min)

92% C10H18O

Boiling point

88°C (6 mmHg)

Refractive index

1.476–1.480 (20°C)

Solubility

Soluble in alcohol

Specific gravity

0.928–0.934 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Baked goods

6.85

40.66

Chewing gum

0.25

0.25

Frozen dairy

3.47

11.02

Gelatins, puddings

3.79

10.11

Gravies

3.00

6.00

Meat products

10.00

20.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

1.49

2.67

Soft candy

3.68

5.63

Synthesis: One of several terpinenol isomers, depending on the position of the double bond and that of the hydroxyl group, this terpene, whose structure has been defined by Wallach, can be isolated by fractional distillation. It exists in nature as the dextro, levo and racemic isomer; the synthetic product is always optically inactive. The 1-terpineneol or 1-meththyl-4-isopropyl-3-cyclohexen-1-ol has been prepared by Wallach (Burdock, 1997).

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 30 ppm: sweet, citrus green with a tropical fruity character.

Natural occurrence: 4-Carvomenthenol (dextro) has been reported present in the oil of Cupressus macrocarpa lavender, Spanish origanum, Ledum palustre, Eucalyptus australiana var. A., Thuja occidentalis, etc. The l-form is present in the oil of Eucalyptus dives and in some other essences such as Xanthoxylum rhetsa, together with the racemic form. The racemic form is found in camphor oil. Reported found in fresh apple, apricots, orange juice, peel oils of orange, lemon, grapefruit, tangerines, anise, cinnamon, ginger and nutmeg.

Carvone

Synonyms: Carvon e; l-Carvone; l-(–)-Carvone; l- Carvone; l(–)-Carvone; (R)-Carvone; (–)-Carvone; 2-Cyclohexen-1-one, 2-methyl-5-(1-methylethenyl)-, (R)-; l-p- Mentha-1(6),8-dien-2-one; p-Mentha-6,8-dien-2-one, (–)-; p- Mentha-6,8-dien-2-one, (R)-(–) -; l-6,8(9) -p-Menthadien-2-one; l-1-Methyl-4-isopropenyl-6-cyclohexen-2-one; (R)-2-Methyl-5-(1-methylethenyl)-2-cyclo-hexen-1-one

CAS No.:

2244-16-8 (d) 6485-40-1 (l) 99-49-0

FL No.:

07.146 (d) 07.147 (l) 07.012

FEMA No.:

2249

NAS No.:

2249

CoE No.:

146

EINECS No.:

202-759-5

JECFA No.:

380.1 (d) 380.2 (l)

Description: Caravone occurs in different forms. l-Carvone exhibits odor of spearmint, while d-carvone exhibits odor reminiscent of caraway.

Consumption: Annual: 191666.67 lb

Individual: 0.1624

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Approved FDA: 21 CFR 182.60, 582.60 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: 0 to 1 mg/kg bw (d-Carvone); ADI: Not allocated (l-Carvone) (1990). No safety concern when used at current levels of intake as a flavoring agent (1998).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 27.820 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C10H14O/150.22 (l-Carvone and d-Carvone)

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Specifications: (FCC, 1996)

Angular rotation

d-Carvone between +50° and +60°; l-carvone between –57.0 and -62.0°C

Appearance

d-Carvone: colorless to light yellow liquid; l-carvone: colorless to pale, straw-colored liquid

Assay

d-Carvone 95% C10H14O; l-carvone 97% C10H14O

Boiling point

d-Carvone: 230°C; l-carvone: 231°C

Refractive index

d-Carvone: 1.496–1.499 (20°C); l-carvone: 1.495–1.499 (20°C)

Solubility

d-Carvone: Soluble in propylene glycol and most fixed oils, miscible in alcohol (1 mL in 5 mL 60% alcohol), insoluble in glycerin; l-carvone: Soluble in propylene glycol and most fixed oils, miscible in alcohol (1 mL in 2 mL 70% alcohol), insoluble in glycerin

Specific gravity

d-Carvone: 0.955–0.960; l-carvone: 0.956–0.960 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

125.90

144.60

Baked goods

93.67

115.40

Cheese

0.00

0.20

Chewing gum

92.16

349.50

Condiments, relishes

50.00

60.00

Frozen dairy

150.10

197.40

Gelatins, puddings

87.00

90.00

Hard candy

155.80

369.40

Meat products

0.10

0.10

Nonalcoholic beverages

34.38

41.00

Soft candy

193.80

225.60

Synthesis: Carvone occurs in the dextro, levo and racemic form; l-carvone can be isolated from the essential oil of spearmint or is commercially synthesized from d-limonene; d-carvone is usually prepared by fractional distillation of oil of caraway, also from dillseed and dillweed oils, but this type differs in odor and flavors.

Aroma threshold values: Detection: d-Carvone: 6.7 to 820 ppb; l-carvone: 2.7 to 600 ppb

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: The optically active and inactive forms have been reported among the constituents of about 70 essential oils. The dextro form is present in carvi, Antheum graveolens, Antheum sowa, Lippia carviodora, Mentha arvensis, etc. The levo form is present in Metha vifidis var. crispa, Mentha longifolia from South Africa, Eucalyptus globules and several mint species. The racemic form is present in ginger grass, Litsea gutalemaleusis, lavender and Artemisia ferganensis. Reported found in citrus oil and juice (lemon, lime, orange), celery seed, anise, clove, coriander seed, calamus, caraway herb and dill seed.

Carvone-5,6-Oxide

Synonyms: 7-Oxabicyclo[4.1.0]heptan-2-one, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-(1S,4R,6S)-; 1,6-Epoxy-p-menth-8-en-2-one; 1-Methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-7-oxabicyclo(4.1.0)heptan-2-one, (1S-(1α,4β,6α))-; p-Menth-8-en-2-one, 1,6-epoxy-, (1S,4R6S)-; cis-Carvone oxide; trans-Carvone-5,6-oxide; trans-Carvone oxide; 5,6-Epoxy-p-menth-8-en-2-one

CAS No.:

18383-49-8 33204-74-9 a

FL No.:

16.042

FEMA No.:

4084

NAS No.:

n/a

CoE No.:

10501

EINECS No.:

251-405-6 b

JECFA No.:

1572

Notes:

a  CAS No. changed. Mixture of isomers, EFFA.

b  EINECS No. for CAS No. 33204-74-9.

Description: Colorless liquid, sweet spicy aroma.

Consumption: Odor and/or flavor used in clean, herbal, mint and spice. Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2005).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 0.932 mg

IOFI: n/a

Empirical Formula/MW:

C10H14O2/166.22

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Acid value (max)

1.0

Assay (min)

95%

Boiling point

105°C (5 mmHg)

Refractive index

1.481–1.487 (20°C)

Solubility

Insoluble in water; soluble in ethanol

Specific gravity

1.027–1.033 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 2005)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Baked goods

3.00

15.00

Breakfast cereals

2.00

10.00

Cheese

2.00

10.00

Condiments, relishes

5.00

25.00

Egg Products

2.00

10.00

Fats, oils

2.00

10.00

Fish products

3.00

15.00

Frozen dairy

5.00

25.00

Fruit ices

1.00

5.00

Other grains

3.00

15.00

Processed fruits

1.00

5.00

Soft candy

2.00

10.00

Synthesis: n/a

Aroma threshold values: Medium strength odor, minty type

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Reported found in Valerian root oil CO2 extract, China (0.14%).

Carvyl Acetate

Synonyms: Carvyl acetat e; l-Carvyl acetate; 2-Cyclohexen-1-ol, 2-methyl-5-(1-methyl-ethenyl)-, acetate; p- Mentha-6,8-dien-2-ol,acetate; p- Mentha-1(6),8-dien-2-yl acetate; 1-p-Mentha-6(8,9)-dien-2-yl acetate

CAS No.:

97-42-7 1205-42-1

FL No.:

09.215

FEMA No.:

2250

NAS No.:

2250

CoE No.:

2063

EINECS No.:

202-580-2

JECFA No.:

382

Description: Carvyl acetate has a characteristic odor reminiscent of spearmint.

Consumption: Annual: 683.33 lb

Individual: 0.0005790 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Used provisionally. Bev.: 10 ppm; Food: 40 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (1998).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 8.584 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C12H18O2/194.27

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Specifications: (FCC, 1996)

Angular rotation

Between –90° and –120°

Appearance

Colorless to pale-yellow liquid

Assay (min)

98% C12H18O2

Boiling point

77–79°C (0.1 mmHg)

Refractive index

1.473–1.479 (20°C)

Solubility

Soluble in alcohol

Specific gravity

0.964–0.970 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

4.00

11.00

Baked goods

36.75

51.11

Chewing gum

3.19

3.19

Frozen dairy

41.03

61.68

Gelatins, puddings

28.97

38.24

Nonalcoholic beverages

15.03

18.90

Soft candy

35.65

42.52

Synthesis: By boiling carveol with acetic anhydride and sodium acetate.

Aroma threshold values: Detection at 1.0%: minty, carvonelike, slightly terpy, spearmint, cooling, green herbal, spicy metallic

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 5 ppm: musty, green spearmint, spicy, minty, tropical nuances of guava, fruity pear notes.

Natural occurrence: Reported found in buchu, caraway, celery, grapefruit, native and Scotch spearmint,strawberry.

L- Carvyl Propionate

Synonyms: Carvyl propionate; l-Carvyl propionate; 2-Cyclohexen-1-ol, 2-methyl-5-(1-methylethenyl)-, propanoate; p- Mentha-6,8-dien-2-ol, propionate; p- Metha-1(6),8- dien-2-yl propionate; l-p-Mentha-6,8(9)-dien-2-yl propionate

CAS No.:

97-45-0

FL No.:

09.143

FEMA No.:

2251

NAS No.:

2251

CoE No.:

424

EINECS No.:

202-583-9

JECFA No.:

383

Description: Carvyl propionate has a sweet, warm, mint and fruity odor and a sweet, fruity, mint taste.

Consumption: Annual: 0.83 lb

Individual: 0.0000007 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Used provisionally. Bev.: 1 ppm; Food: 25 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (1998).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 6.905 mg 1

IOFI: Artificial

Empirical Formula/MW:

C13H20O2/208.30

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Specifications: (JECFA, 1998)

Appearance

Colorless, slightly oily liquid

Boiling point

239°C

Refractive index

1.469–1.479 (20°C)

Solubility

Insoluble in water; soluble in alcohol and most fixed oils

Specific gravity

0.942–0.962 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Baked goods

39.63

50.84

Frozen dairy

7.21

9.09

Gelatins, puddings

25.00

28.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

5.32

7.11

Soft candy

37.89

47.37

Synthesis: By esterification of l-carveol with propionic anhydride; also from α-terpinyl propionate.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Not reported found in nature.

β-Caryophyllene

Synonyms: Bicyclo(7.2.0)undec-4-ene,4,11,11- trimethyl-8-methylene-, (E)-(1 R ,9 S )-(–)-; Bicyclo(7.2.0)undec-4-ene, 4,11,11-trimethyl-8-methylene-,(1 R -(1alpha,4E,9beta))-; Bicyclo(7.2.0)undec-4-ene,4,11,11-tri-methyl-8-methylene-,(1 R -(1 R *,4 E ,9 S *))-; Bicyclo(7.2.0)undec-4-ene, 8-methylne-4,11,11-trimethyl-,( E )-(1r,9s)-(–)-; β-Caryophyllen; Caryophyllene; Caryophyllene, alpha+ beta mixed; Caryophyllene; beta-Caryophyllene; β-Caryophyllene,(–); L-Caryophyllene; (–)-Caryophyllene; trans-Caryophyllene; 8-Methylene-4,11,11-(trimethyl)bicyclo(7.2.0) undec-4-ene

CAS No.:

87-44-5

FL No.:

01.007

FEMA No.:

2252

NAS No.:

2252

CoE No.:

2118

EINECS No.:

201-746-1

JECFA No.:

1324

Description: β-Caryophyllene has a woody-spicy, dry, clove-like aroma.

Consumption: Annual: 10633.33 lb

Individual: 0.009011 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Used provisionally FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2004).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 10.236 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C15H24/204.36

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Acid value (max)

1.0

Appearance

Colorless to slightly yellow oily liquid

Assay (min)

80%

Boiling point

256°C

Refractive index

1.498–1.504 (20°C)

Solubility

Insoluble in water; soluble in oils, ether and ethanol

Specific gravity

0.899–0.908 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

2.63

6.89

Baked goods

31.10

42.53

Chewing gum

293.30

721.90

Condiments, relishes

49.00

70.82

Frozen dairy

20.94

26.56

Gelatins, puddings

69.25

76.59

Meat products

10.00

15.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

23.45

30.06

Soft candy

38.27

52.33

Synthesis: Isolated from oil of clove stems and separated from eugenol by treating the oil with 7% sodium carbonate solution, extracting with ether, repeating the carbonate treatment on the concentrated extracts, and finally steam distilling.

Aroma threshold values: Detection at 64 to 90 ppb

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 50 ppm: spicy, pepper-like, woody, camphoraceous with a citrus background.

Natural occurrence: Three isomers (α-, β-, and γ-caryophyllene) are found in nature. The β-isomer is the most frequently encountered and most abundant. This sesquiterpene hydrocarbon occurs naturally in approximately 60 essential oils, mainly in that of cloves, from which it was originally isolated. The chemical structure has been thoroughly studied; other studies have been conducted on the isolation and the dipolar moment, as well as on its oxide. Reported found in lime peel oil, lemon, grapefruit, guava fruit, raspberry, black currant, carrot, celery seed, cinnamon bark, anise, nutmeg, cumin seed, ginger, pepper, peppermint oil, mace, laurel and caraway herb.

Caryophyllene Alcohol

Synonyms: Decahydro-2,2,4,8-tetramethyl-, 4,8-Methanoazulen-9-ol; Tricyclo(6.3.1.0(sup 2,5))dodecan-1-ol, 4,4,8-trimethyl-, (1R-(1-alpha,2-alpha,5-beta,8beta))-; Tricyclo(6.3.1.0(sup 2,5))dodecan-1-ol, 4,4,8-trimethyl-, stereoisomer (8CI)

CAS No.:

56747-96-7

FL No.:

16.064

FEMA No.:

4410

NAS No.:

7623

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.

260-364-3

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Colorless clear liquid; spicy, moss, earthy aroma.

Consumption: Odor and/or flavor used in balsam, clove, fir, herbal, mimosa wattle, oriental, spice, and spruce. Annual: <1.00 lb

Individual: 0.00000289 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 0.178 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C14H24O/208.34

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Specifications:

Assay (min)

94%

Boiling point

282–283°C

Refractive index

1.513 ± 0.02

Solubility

Insoluble in water; soluble in ethanol

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 2007)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

0.30

5.00

Baked goods

1.00

10.00

Cheese

0.20

3.00

Chewing gum

3.00

20.00

Frozen dairy

0.30

3.00

Fruit ices

0.20

3.00

Gelatins/puddings

0.20

3.00

Hard candy

1.00

5.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

0.10

1.00

Soft candy

1.00

5.00

Synthesis: Both isomers are obtained from caryophyllene. Ether solution of caryophyllene is treated with an ether solution of sulfuric acid monohydrate under cooling to prevent the temperature from rising above 10°C; after alkalinization of the solution, the β-caryophyllene alcohol is distilled off. From the residue where it is present as an ester, the α-caryophyllene alcohol is distilled after the ether solution has been made acid once again.

Aroma threshold values: Medium strength odor, spicy type.

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Reported found in pepper oil black India (0.10%), lime oil distilled Mexico (0.07%), and lime oil distilled Peru (0.06%).

Caryophyllene Alcohol Acetate

Synonyms: Bicyclo(7.2.0)undec-3-en-5-ol, 4,11,11-trimethyl-8-methylene-, 5-acetate, (1R,3E,5R,9S)-; Caryophyllene acetates; Caryophyllene alcohol acetate

CAS No.:

32214-91-8

FL No.:

09.338

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

7624

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

250-960-1

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Caryophyllene alcohol acetate has a mild fruity and woody odor.

Consumption: Annual: 0.17 lb

Individual: 0.00000014 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: n/a

Empirical Formula/MW:

C17H26O2/262.39

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Specifications: (Burdock, 1997)

Appearance

Crystalline solid

Boiling point

149–152°C (10 mmHg)

Melting point

40°C

Refractive index

1.4919 (17°C)

Solubility

Rather soluble in alcohol and pet. ether; insoluble in water

Specific gravity

1.003 (17°C)

Reported uses (ppm): n/a

Synthesis: The β-caryophyllene alcohol acetate is prepared from chlordihydrocaryophyllene by boiling with acetic acid and sodium acetate.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Not reported found in nature.

β-Caryophyllene Oxide

Synonyms: 5-Oxatricyclo[8.2.0.04,6]dodecane,4,12,12-tri-methyl-9-methylene-, (1R,4R,6R,10S)-; Caryophyllene epoxide; Caryophylene oxide; Caryophyllene oxide; Epoxycaryophyllene; (-) -β-Caryophyllene epoxide; (-)-Epoxydihydrocaryophyllene; 4,11,11-Trimethyl-8-methylene-5-oxatricyclo(8.2.0.0(4,6))dodecane; 4,12,12-Trimethyl-9-methylene-5-oxatricyclo(8.2.0.04,6) dodecane, (1R,4R,6R,10S)-; 4,5-Epoxy-4,12,12-trimethyl-8-methylene-bicycl o[8.2.0]dodecane

CAS No.:

1139-30-6

FL No.:

16.043

FEMA No.:

4085

NAS No.:

n/a

CoE No.:

10500

EINECS No.:

214-519-7

JECFA No.:

1575

Description: Colorless solid; sweet fruity aroma.

Consumption: Odor and/or flavor used in agate, bayberry, coriander, coronilla, ginger, etc. Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2005).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 0.932 mg

IOFI: n/a

Empirical Formula/MW:

C15H24O/220.35

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Assay (min)

95%

Melting point

61°C

Optical rotation

–65.00 to –75.00 (20°C)

Refractive index

1.507 ± 0.03 (20°C)

Solubility

Insoluble in water; soluble in ethanol

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 2005)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Baked goods

3.00

15.00

Breakfast cereals

2.00

10.00

Cheese

2.00

10.00

Condiments, relishes

5.00

25.00

Egg Products

2.00

10.00

Fats, oils

2.00

10.00

Fish products

3.00

15.00

Frozen dairy

5.00

25.00

Fruit ices

1.00

5.00

Other grains

3.00

15.00

Processed fruits

1.00

5.00

Soft candy

2.00

10.00

Synthesis: n/a

Aroma threshold values: Medium strength odor, woody type.

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Reported found in Nepeta betonicifolia C.A. Meyer oil Turkey (39.20%), geranium rose-scented oil (Pelargonium spp.) Cuba (14.70%), melissa oil (9.99%), guava leaf oil Cuba (8.20%), etc.

Cascara Sagrada

Botanical name: Rhamnus purshiana DC.

Botanical family: Rhamnaceae

Other names: California buckthorn; Cascara buckthorn; Chittembark; Sacred bark

Foreign names: Cascara segrada (Fr.), Amerikanischer Faulbaum (Ger.), Cascara segrade (Sp.), Cascara segrada (It.)

Description: Cascara sagrada is the dried bark collected from the small- to medium-sized wild deciduous trees. The plant has loosely pinnate-veined leaves and greenish dioecious flowers in axillary clusters. The commercial bark is flattened or transversely curved, longitudinally ridged with a brownish to red-brown color. It has gray or white lichen patches and occasional moss attachments. The plant grows along the Pacific coast of the United States (Washington, California, Oregon) and also in Idaho, Arizona, Colorado and other states. It is also cultivated in Kenya. The part used is the bark from the branches and trunk. Cascara sagrada has a bitter, tonic flavor.

Derivatives: Fluid extract; tincture (20% in 70% ethanol), soft aqueous extract, soft hydroalcoholic extract, dried extract

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 FDA (other): Approved for OTC use (21 CFR 310.545, 328.10); HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: n/a

Essential oil composition: Main constituents (an active laxative principle) include at least 6 to 9% anthracene derivatives which exist as normal O-glycosides and C-glycosides. The four primary glycosides or cascarosides A, B, C and D contain both O- and C-glycosidic linkages.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cascara Bitterless Extract

Other names: Cascara, bitterless, extract (Rhamnus purshiana DC.)

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2253

NAS No.:

2253

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977090-83-7

Description: See Cascara Sagrada.

Consumption: Annual: 700.00 lb

Individual: 0.00059 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 FDA (other): Approved for OTC use (21 CFR 310.545, 328.10); HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 8.720 mg

IOFI: Natural

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Baked goods

25.55

30.75

Frozen dairy

33.40

53.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

38.57

63.50

Soft candy

60.00

75.00

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cascarilla

Botanical name: Croton eluteria Benn.

Botanical family: Euphorbiaceae

Foreign names: Cascarille (Fr.), Kaskarillbaum (Ger.), Cascarilla (Sp.), Cascarilla (It.)

Description: Croton is a small tree or shrub that may reach 5 m in height, originally from the Bahamas and West Indies, as well as from Peru, Paraguay and Haiti. It has alternate leaves, dark green leaves, inconspicuous flower racemes and a brown seed capsule with three hard, black seeds. The part used is the bark of the thin branches. Cascarilla has a bitter, tonic flavor with a spicy odor mixture of clove, cardamom, eucalyptus and nutmeg.

Derivatives: Fluid extract; tincture (20% in 70% ethanol) and fluid extract

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.20 (as oils, oleoresins and natural extractives); 582.20 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: n/a

Essential oil composition: The main constituents of the oil are l-limonene, p-cymene, d-penene, eugenol and cascarillic acid. The bark contains cascarillin and vanillin.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cascarilla Bark Extract

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2254

NAS No.:

2254

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977083-53-6

Description: See Cascarilla.

Consumption: Annual: <1.00 lb

Individual: 0.000021 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.20, 582.20 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 36.143 mg

IOFI: Natural

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

50.00

100.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

331.90

775.00

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 10 ppm: herbal, spicy, balsamic with woody and terpy nuances.

Cascarilla Bark Oil

Other names: Cascarilla absolute colorless; Cascarilla bark, oil (Croton spp.); Cascarilla oleoresin; Cascarilla oil; Oils, cascarilla

CAS No.:

8007-06-5

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2255

NAS No.:

2255

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: The essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of the bark, with yields of 2%.

Consumption: Annual: 5.00 lb

Individual: 0.0000042 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.20, 582.20 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 3.101 mg

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: (FCC, 1996)

Acid value

Between 3 and 10

Angular rotation

Between –1° and +8°

Ester value after acetylation

Between 62 and 88

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Passes test

Refractive index

Between 1.488 and 1.494 (20°C)

Saponification value

Between 8 and 20

Solubility in alcohol

Passes test

Specific gravity

Between 0.892 and 0.914

Physical–chemical characteristics: Yellow-green or amber liquid. It is soluble in most fixed oils and in mineral oil, but it is practically insoluble in glycerin and propylene glycol.

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

12.83

15.87

Baked goods

8.06

9.32

Condiments, relishes

67.26

72.12

Frozen dairy

6.84

8.84

Hard candy

0.04

0.04

Nonalcoholic beverages

6.31

7.51

Soft candy

26.67

29.67

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 10 ppm: herbal spicy, balsamic with woody and terpy nuances.

Cassie

Botanical name: Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.

Botanical family: Fabaceae

Foreign names: Cassie (Fr.), Cassie (Ger.), Acacia (Sp.), Gaggia (It.)

Description: Cassie is a small tree or shrub native to the West Indies. It grows wild or cultivated in Mediterranean countries with a warm climate (Lebanon, Morocco) and in tropical areas. The plant is very delicate and sensitive to cold weather commonly grafted onto A. cavenia Hook & Arn., a more resistant variety. The yellow flowers arranged in terminal umbellate clusters are similar to mimosa (A. dealbata). The flowers are the part used. Cassie has a warm, floral, intense odor with a balsamic undernote.

Derivatives: Concrete, absolute

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: n/a

Essential oil composition: The main constituents include aldehydes (benzyl, anisic, decylic, cuminic), benzyl alcohol and probably geraniol, farnesol and linalool.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cassie Absolute

Other names: Acacia farnesiana Absolute

CAS No.:

8023-82-3

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2260

NAS No.:

2260

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977017-58-5

Description: Cassie flowers are extracted with petroleum ether to yield Cassie concrete, which is a solid waxy mass. The concrete is further processed to cassie absolute by alcohol extraction. The odor of absolute is extremely warm, powdery-spicy, and at the same time herbaceous and floral with a deep and tenacious cinnamic–balsamic undertone. Also see Cassie.

Consumption: Annual: 55.00 lb

Individual: 0.000046 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 2.223 mg

IOFI: Natural

Physical–chemical characteristics: Cassie absolute is a dark-yellow or pale-brown liquid, clear at room temperature but separating waxy flakes at reduced temperatures.

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

3.25

4.09

Baked goods

12.28

14.34

Chewing gum

0.35

0.47

Frozen dairy

5.67

7.27

Gelatins, puddinges

2.85

4.27

Hard candy

0.06

0.08

Nonalcoholic beverages

1.73

2.33

Soft candy

8.55

10.01

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Castor

Botanical name: Ricinus communis L. and R. sanguineus

Botanical family: Euphorbiaceae

Other names: Palma Christi; Tangantangan tree oil; African coffee tree; Mexico weed, wonder tree; Bofareira Description: Castor tree is a common annual ornamental whose native habitat is in the West Indies. The tree grows up to 5 m high. The leaves are large, alternate, peltate, palmately 5- to 12-lobed; the petiolate has conspicuous glands. The seeds are ovoid with a large caruncle; the endosperm is fleshy and oily. The plant thrives in rich, well-drained, sandy or clay loam; it is grown in India and the United States. Castor beans have been cultivated from the earliest times for the oil of the seeds, the only part used. Commercially, the oils and cakes are obtained by cold expression or are steam treated to denature the toxin.

Derivatives: Extractives and their physically modified derivatives

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: n/a FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: n/a

Essential oil composition: The oil is a mixture of triglycerides of which 75 to 90% is ricinoleic acid. * This mixture is hydrolyzed to release ricinoleic acid, which exerts a cathartic effect. The cake remaining after the extraction of the oil is the castor pomace. The phytotoxins ricin and ricinine are found in the seed cake and oil. Ricin is a glycoproptein containing neutral A chain and acidic B chain connected by disulfur bonds.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Castor Oil

Other names: Aromatic castor oil; Castor oil USP; Cosmetol; Cosmetol X; Crystal crown; Crystal O; EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 031608; Neoloid; Ricinus oil; Ricirus oil; Oil of palma Christi; Vegetable oil

CAS No.:

8001-79-4

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2263

NAS No.:

2263

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

232-293-8

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Castor oil is obtained by cold expression of kernels, which contain 45 to 50% oil. It has a faint, mild odor and a bland characteristic taste.

Consumption: Annual: 48333.33 lb

Individual: 0.040 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 73.1; 172.510; 172.876; 178et seq.; 181.26 FDA (other): Approved for animal drugs (21 CFR 524.2620); excipient (CDER, 1996) JECFA: ADI: 0 to 0.7 mg/kg bw (1979)

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 20.633 mg

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: (FCC, 1996)

Free fatty acids

Passes test

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Not more than 10 mg/kg

Hydroxyl value

Between 160 and 168

Iodine value

Between 83 and 88

Saponification value

Between 176 and 185

Specific gravity

Between 0.952 and 0.966

Physical–chemical characteristics: The oil is a pale-yellowish or almost colorless, transparent viscid liquid. It is soluble in alcohol, and is miscible with absolute alcohol, glacial acetic acid, chloroform and ether.

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Baked goods

146.90

215.50

Frozen dairy

10.00

550.00

Meat products

0.10

0.10

Nonalcoholic beverages

1.50

140.00

Soft candy

10.08

440.50

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Castoreum

Genus and species: Castor fiber L. and C. canadensis Kuhl.

Animal family: Castoridae

Foreign names: Castoreum (Fr.), Bibergeil (Ger.), Castoreo (Sp.), Castoreo (It.)

Description: Castoreum is a secretion from the male or the female beaver. The name designates the dried follicles and the glandular secretion. The animals are widely encountered in Alaska, Canada and Siberia. Castoreum is removed from the animal during the skinning period and is dried in the sun or sometimes over burning wood. The fresh pouch contains a yellowish, butter-like mass with a fetid, sharp, aromatic odor. The dried product is dark-brown, hard and resinous. Canadian pouches are wrinkled, pear-shaped, almost flat, from 6 to 15 cm long and 4 to 8 cm wide. Siberian pouches are ovoid and smooth, slightly larger in size, but valued less commercially. The part used is scent gland secretion from castor sacs (dried and ground). Castoreum has a warm, animal-sweet odor, becoming more pleasant on dilution. Sometimes a birch, tar-like, musky odor is also perceptible.

Derivatives: Dried secretion, tincture, resinoid, absolute. The resinoid is prepared by extraction of the dried, ground pouches using petroleum ether. The absolute is prepared by the alcoholic extraction of the resinoid.

Consumption: Annual: 43.33 lb

Individual: 0.000036 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Category 5 (additional toxicological and/or chemical information is required). Average maximum use is usually below 94 ppm. Use levels in ppm: Beverages 1 to 90; food 1 to 40. FDA: 21 CFR 182.50, 582.50 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: n/a

Physical–chemical characteristics: Castoreum when fresh is yellow and of the consistency of syrup; when dry it is dark red or brown and of the consistency of hard wax.

Essential oil composition: A resinous and crystalline material (1 to 2%) has been identified in castoreum, together with a butter-like portion containing albumins, fats, urates, salts and probably cholesterols. Castoreum contains castorin (0.33 to 2.5%), volatile oil (1 to 2%), benzoic acid, salicylic acid, cinnamic acid, phenols, chavicol, betuligenol, ketone, ionone derivative, castoramines, quinolizine alkaloids (CoE, 2000).

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Castoreum Extract

Other names: Castorem oil; Castoreum absolute; Castoreum oil; Castoreum resinoid; Castoreum tincture; Hyperabsolute castoreum; Oils castoreum

CAS No.:

8023-83-4

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2261

NAS No.:

2261

CoE No.:

3002 (554)

EINECS No.:

232-427-5

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Prepared by direct extraction with hot alcohol. It is not a true absolute and it is not clearly soluble in cold alcohol. The yield by hot alcohol extraction is about 75 to 80% of a dark-brown, soft, unctuous mass. Extract is used as flavor components (particularly in vanilla flavorings) in most food and beverages. For other details of description, also see Castoreum.

Consumption: Annual: 96.67 lb

Individual: 0.000081 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Category 5. Use levels in ppm: Baked goods 68.47; frozen dairy 26.26; meat products 2; soft candy 44.10; gelatins, puddings 47.34; nonalcoholic beverages 29.77; alcoholic beverages 93.69; gravies 0.60; hard candy 24.17; chewing gum 42.09. FDA: 21 CFR 182.50, 582.50 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 15.479 mg

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: (FEMA, 1994)

Flash point

>200°C

Vapor pressure

~0.3 mmHg

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

79.59

93.69

Baked goods

62.28

68.47

Chewing gum

18.60

42.09

Frozen dairy

24.39

26.26

Gelatins, puddings

43.58

47.34

Gravies

0.30

0.60

Hard candy

24.17

24.17

Meat products

1.00

2.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

24.21

29.77

Soft candy

37.38

44.10

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Castoreum Liquid

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2262

NAS No.:

2262

CoE No.:

3002 (554)

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977016-89-9

Description: See Castoreum.

Consumption: Annual: 151.67 lb

Individual: 0.00012 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Category 5. Use levels in ppm: Baked goods 4.87; frozen dairy 1.46; soft candy 2.92; gelatins, puddings 1.25; nonalcoholic beverages 1.27; hard candy 9.09; chewing gum 0.01 FDA: 21 CFR 182.50, 582.50 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 0.854

IOFI: Natural

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Baked goods

4.87

4.87

Chewing gum

0.01

0.01

Frozen dairy

0.70

1.46

Gelatins, puddings

0.96

1.25

Hard candy

9.09

9.09

Nonalcoholic beverages

1.21

1.72

Soft candy

2.92

2.92

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Catechu Black (Powder)

Botanical name: Acacia catechu (L. f.) Willd.

Botanical family: Fabaceae; (Leguminosae)

Foreign names: Acacie au cachou (Fr.), Catechu (Ger.), Catecù (Sp.), Catecu Terracattu (It.)

Other names: Black cutch

CAS No.:

977090-84-8

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2265

NAS No.:

2265

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Catechu black must not be confused with either the Areca catechu L. (betel) or with the Uncaria gambir Robx. (gambir catechu). Acacia catechu grows as a tree up to 20 m tall with a great number of branches. Acacia catechu grows in India, Ceylon and Jamaica. The trunk has a dark bark; the leaves are about 20 to 50 cm long and fall during the dry season. It has very small cylindrical, spiked flowers. The part used is bark. Catechu black has a bitter, astringent flavor. A. catechu wood yields dye and catechu, an extract chewed with betel nuts and used to treat sore throats.

Derivatives: Decoction is obtained by extracting the bark with water. The liquid is then concentrated, poured into molds, and allowed to dry. The resulting product (a dark-brown, porous, fragile mass) yields the flavor ingredient. Tincture, 20% in 80% ethanol (tannin free), is another derivative.

Consumption: Annual: 43.33 lb

Individual: 0.000036 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 9.971 mg

IOFI: Natural

Composition: 25 to 35% catechtannic acid, 2 to 10% catechin, catechu red, quercetin, gum

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Baked goods

36.00

41.00

Frozen dairy

25.00

32.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

40.00

48.00

Soft candy

40.00

51.00

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Catechu Black Extract

Other names: Black cutch extract; Cutch; Catechu (resin); Catechu extract, black

CAS No.:

8001-76-1

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2264

NAS No.:

2264

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

232-291-7

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Catechu black extract is prepared from heartwood of Acacia catechu Willd. Also see Catechu Black.

Consumption: Annual: 1.67 lb

Individual: 0.0000014 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 21.220 mg

IOFI: Natural

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

96.38

160.00

Baked goods

88.25

98.55

Gelatins, puddings

72.16

79.07

Nonalcoholic beverages

32.31

32.31

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cedar White

Botanical name: Thuja occidentalis L.

Botanical family: Cupressaceae; (Aborvitae)

Other names: Arborvitae; Thuja; Eastern Arbor Vitae

Foreign names: Thuja (Fr.), Thuja (Ger.), Thuja (Sp.), Thuja (It.)

Description: This evergreen conifer grows 1 to 20 m high, and is widespread in the northeastern United States, eastern Canada and also in Japan where it is known as Niohihiba. The plant has appressed, imbricate leaves, pointless scales on the cones and broadly winged seeds. The parts used are the fresh leaves and twigs. Cedar white has a strong, camphoraceous odor reminiscent of sage.

Derivatives: Cedar wood oil alcohol, Cedar wood oil terpenes, Cedar leaf oil

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 (Finished food thujone free) FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: n/a

Essential oil composition: In addition to thujone (56.7%), the main constituents include bornyl acetate, camphor, limonene, fenchone, thujetic acid, tannin, pinipicrin and other terpene hydrocarbons.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 10 ppm: woody, cedar, dry, sandalwood-like with floral nuances.

Cedar Leaf Oil

Other names: Oil of arborvitae; Cedar leaf oil (Thuja occidentalis L.); Oil of cedar leaf; Oil of thuja; Oil of white cedar; Oil thuja; Thuja oil; White cedar oil

CAS No.:

8007-20-3

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2267

NAS No.:

2267

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: The volatile oil obtained by steam distillation from the fresh leaves and branches of at least 15-year-old plants. It has a strong, camphoraceous odor reminiscent of sage and a similar taste.

Consumption: Annual: 38.33 lb

Individual: 0.000032 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 3.198 mg

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: (FCC, 1996)

Angular rotation

Between –10° and –14°

Assay

Not less than 60% ketones, calculated as thujone (C10H16O)

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Passes test

Refractive index

Between 1.456 and 1.459 (20°C)

Solubility in alcohol

Passes test

Specific gravity

Between 0.910 and 0.920 (25°C)

Physical–chemical characteristics: It is a colorless to yellow-greenish liquid. It is soluble in most fixed oils, in mineral oils and propylene glycol. It is practically insoluble in glycerin.

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

7.21

11.83

Baked goods

11.06

16.67

Condiments, relishes

10.00

20.00

Frozen dairy

0.69

1.68

Gelatins, puddings

4.10

13.50

Meat products

13.20

16.54

Nonalcoholic beverages

1.78

2.73

Soft candy

6.29

9.42

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cedarwood Oil Alcohols

Other names: Cedarwood camphor; Cedrenol; cedrol; Alcohols, cedarwood-oil; Cedarwood oil alcohol s; Cedarwood oil alcohols fraction

CAS No.:

68603-22-5

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

7726

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Cedarwood oil alcohols are usually obtained from cedarwood oil by fractional distillation, followed by recrystallization from suitable solvents of the appropriate solid fractions. Cedarwood oil alcohols have a mild odor of cedarwood.

Consumption: Annual: 0.17 lb

Individual: 0.00000014 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: Natural

Empirical Formula/MW:

C15H26O/222.36

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Specifications: (Burdock, 1997)

Melting point

>80°C

Specific gravity

0.98

NOTE: The physical constants refer to the purest grade of cedrol obtained by recrystallization. They do not cover the many grades obtained by distillation or fractional solidification.

Physical–chemical characteristics: White crystals. Soluble in benzyl benzoate, slightly soluble in glycol and mineral oil.

Synthesis: Usually obtained from cedarwood oil by fractional distillation, followed by recrystallization from suitable solvents of the appropriate solid fractions.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Cedrol is found in the wood of several conifers, particularly cypress and cedar: Cedrus atlantica, Cupressus sempervirens, Juniperus virginiana and others; it exhibits a positive optical rotation.

Cedarwood Oil Terpenes

Other names: Cedarwood oil terpenes; Cedarwood oil terpenes fractions; Cedarwood oils, heavy fractions; Terpenes and terpenoids, cedar wood-oil

CAS No.:

68608-32-2

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

6028

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: These terpenes may be prepared synthetically, but the natural product is prepared from distillation of cedarwood. It is found in nature in the α- and β-forms.

Consumption: Annual: 166.67 lb

Individual: 0.0001412 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: Natural

Empirical Formula/MW:

C15H24/204.34 natural and synthetic

Specifications: (Burdock, 1997)

Boiling point

262–263°C

Optical rotation

52°8ʹ to 71°3ʹ

Refractive index

1.4989

Solubility

Alcohol

Specific gravity

0.932–0.939

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 30 ppm: woody, cedar, dry, sandalwood-like with floral nuances.

Celery (Seed)

Botanical name: Apium graveolens L.

Botanical family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae

Foreign names: Céleri (Fr.), Sellerie (Ger.), Apio (Sp.), Sedano (It.)

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2268

NAS No.:

2268

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977007-75-2

Description: This annual or biennial herb, approximately 30 to 60 cm high, is native to Europe, yet grown and consumed worldwide. The plant has a grooved, fleshy, erect stalk, taproot, both radial and stalk leaves, hermaphroditic flowers and humped seeds. It is cultivated for extractive purposes mainly in France, Holland, Hungary, India and California. The parts used are seeds and sometimes roots and leaves. Celery has a rich, long-lasting, spicy odor with a warm, burning taste.

Derivatives: The derivatives are fluid extract, tincture (from roots mainly for pharmaceutical use) and oleoresin (from seeds).

Consumption: Annual: 2,700,000.00 lb

Individual: 2.28 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.10 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 451.513 mg

IOFI: n/a

Essential oil composition: Celery is high in minerals (including sodium and chlorine) and is a poor source of vitamin. The major constituents of celery seed oil are d-limonene (60%), selinene (10%) and a number of related phthalides (3%), which include 3-n-butylphthalide, sedanenolide and sedanoic anhydride. Celery contains a pheromone steroid previously identified in boars and parsnips. *

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Baked goods

273.60

473.40

Condiments, relishes

2254.00

6214.00

Cheese

29.00

29.00

Fats, oils

1002.00

1191.00

Gravies

490.70

2868.00

Meat products

683.90

2280.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

809.90

1094.00

Nut products

776.00

1000.00

Processed vegetables

2019.00

4042.00

Snack foods

625.00

650.50

Soups

1832.00

2559.00

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Celery Seed Extract

CAS No.:

89997-35-3 8015-90-5

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2269

NAS No.:

2269

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

289-668-4

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: See Celery.

Consumption: Annual: 23666.67 lb

Individual: 0.02005 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.20 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 352.909 mg

IOFI: Natural

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

470.00

600.00

Baked goods

1367.00

1497.00

Condiments, relishes

193.00

255.00

Fats, oils

200.00

200.00

Fish products

500.00

1000.00

Frozen dairy

36.83

39.82

Gelatins, puddings

0.10

0.10

Gravies

9.50

618.30

Meat products

277.80

389.70

Nonalcoholic beverages

1095.00

1157.00

Snack foods

1.00

1000.00

Soft candy

117.30

124.30

Soups

41.58

440.50

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Celery Seed Extract Solid

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2270

NAS No.:

2270

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977038-53-1

Description: See Celery.

Consumption: Annual: 24500.00 lb

Individual: 0.02076 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.20 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 120.560 mg

IOFI: Natural

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

326.60

425.00

Baked goods

141.50

201.20

Condiments, relishes

12.51

23.28

Fats, oils

22.00

50.00

Frozen dairy

8.00

10.00

Gelatins, puddings

16.00

48.00

Meat products

979.40

2376.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

121.80

148.80

Soft candy

9.16

14.43

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Celery Seed Oil

Other names: Celery absolute; Celery herb oil; Celery oil; oils, celery; Oil of celery

CAS No.:

8015-90-5

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2271

NAS No.:

2271

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: The volatile oil is obtained by steam distillation of crushed seeds in approximately 1.5 to 2.5% yields. The seed oil has a pleasant, spicy-warm, sweet and rich “soup-like,” long-lasting and powerful, slightly fatty odor, typical of the odor of the seed, but less “fresh” than the odor of the celery plant. The flavor is equally warm and spicy, somewhat burning and very powerful. Celery seed oil has one of the most diffusive odors and one of the most penetrating flavors. The essential oil is sometimes steam-distilled from leaves and stems; however, this oil is of inferior quality. Its addition to celery seed oil lowers the specific gravity and increases the optical rotation of the latter.

Consumption: Annual: 24500.00 lb

Individual: 0.02076 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.20 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 5.357 mg

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: (FCC, 1996)

Acid value (max)

4.5

Angular rotation

Between +48° and +78°

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Passes test

Refractive index

1.480–1.490 (20°C)

Saponification value

Between 25 and 65

Solubility in alcohol

Passes test

Specific gravity

Between 0.870 and 0.910

Physical–chemical characteristics: The oil is a pale-yellow to yellow-brownish liquid. It is soluble in most fixed oils with the formation of a flocculent precipitate, and in mineral oil with turbidity. It is partly soluble in propylene glycol and insoluble in glycerin.

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

17.96

24.95

Baked goods

5.61

7.85

Chewing gum

0.06

0.06

Condiments, relishes

21.86

46.60

Fats, oils

4.00

4.00

Frozen dairy

7.78

9.18

Gelatins, puddings

0.06

0.14

Gravies

13.00

14.00

Hard candy

0.06

0.06

Meat products

29.38

41.15

Nonalcoholic beverages

9.00

10.74

Soft candy

12.40

14.30

Soups

3.84

5.30

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Celery Seed Oleoresin

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

6422

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977090-86-0

Description: Celery seed oleoresin is produced by extraction of celery seed (see Celery Seed Oil) with petroleum ether or other hydrocarbon solvents or with ethyl alcohol. It has a very powerful odor and flavor, typical of the aroma of the seed.

Consumption: Annual: 315000.00 lb

Individual: 0.2669 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.20 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: Natural

Physical–chemical characteristics: Celery seed oleoresin is a dark-green or brownish-green, viscous liquid.

Aroma threshold values: Detection at 5.0%: celery, vegetative, woody, green with a slight savory cooked soupy note and a Dr. Brown’s celery toniclike aroma

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 0.3%: soupy, celery, herbal, savory with a slight astringent bitter nuance.

Centaury

Botanical name: Centaurium umbellatum Gilib. (C. erythraea Rafn.)

Botanical family: Gentianaceae

Other names: Minor centaury; Common centaury; Pink centaury

Foreign names: Petitie centaurée (Fr.) Tausendguldenkraut (Ger.), Centaura menor (Sp.), Centaura minore (It.)

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

6029

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977052-77-9

Description: C. umbellatum is an annual or biennial herb, widespread throughout Europe. It grows 10 to 30 cm in height and exhibits thick, erect, quandrangular, branched stalks with opposite leaves and pink flowers. The part used is the flowering tops. Centaury minor has a bitter, tonic taste.

Derivatives: Tincture (20% in 20 to 40% ethanol), fluid extract, water infusion

Consumption: Annual: 166.67 lb

Individual: 0.0001412 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Flowering tops: Category 4 (with limits on xanthones). Tincture of the herb is used in nonalcoholic beverages 115 ppm and alcoholic beverages 4238 ppm; tincture of flowers is used in nonalcoholic beverages 30 ppm and alcoholic beverages 700 ppm. FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 (in alcoholic beverages only) FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: Natural

Composition: The dried aerial part contains small amounts of the intensively bitter-tasting secoiridoidglycosides: swertiamarin (2 to 8%, 75% of the total iridoid content), sweroside (0.1 to 0.5%) and gentiopicrin (syn. gentiopicroside 0.1 to 0.5%). The active principle of centaury is xanthones.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cherry (Wild) Bark Extract

Other names: Prunus serotina bark extract

CAS No.:

84604-07-9

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2276

NAS No.:

2276

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

283-284-0

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: See Cherry Wild.

Consumption: Annual: 16533.33 lb

Individual: 0.01401 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.20, 582.20 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 88.710 mg

IOFI: Natural

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

341.30

600.90

Baked goods

78.81

102.00

Chewing gum

47.70

179.60

Confection, frosting

50.00

100.00

Fruit juice

350.00

500.00

Frozen dairy

141.80

256.60

Gelatins, puddings

12.38

15.11

Hard candy

78.00

78.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

195.60

313.50

Soft candy

190.30

239.70

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cherry Laurel Leaves

Botanical name: Prunus laurocerasus L.

Botanical family: Rosaceae

Foreign names: Laurier-cerise (Fr.), Kirschorbeer (Ger.), Laurel cerezo (Sp.), Lauro ceraso (It.)

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

6030

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977052-78-0

Description: Cherry laurel is an evergreen shrub that may grow up to 10 m high. It has large shiny leaves, producing flowers in long clusters (April to May). Its berries are black when ripe and contain a round seed. Native to the Middle East, the plant was introduced to Europe in the sixteenth century. It is also cultivated for ornamental purposes. Leaves are the part used. Cherry laurel has an odor reminiscent of bitter almond.

Derivatives: Distillation waters

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 (not to exceed 25 ppm prussic acid) FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: n/a

Essential oil composition: HCN, benzaldehyde, benzaldehyde cyanhydrin, benzyl alcohol

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cherry Laurel Oil

CAS No.:

8000-44-0

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2277

NAS No.:

2277

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: The oil is obtained by steam distillation with very low yields (0.05%) from comminuted leaves previously treated with water. The water triggers the enzymatic hydrolysis of the glucoside (prulaurasin), yielding hydrogen cyanide and benzaldehyde. The oil used by the food industry must be free of hydrogen cyanide. It exhibits a pronounced odor of benzaldehyde.

Consumption: Annual: 8350.00 lb

Individual: 0.007076 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 (not to exceed 25 ppm prussic acid) FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 15.835 mg

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: (Burdock, 1997)

Acid value

1:6–10

Prussic acid (HCN) content

0.5–4.1%

Refractive index

1.539–1.543 (15°C)

Specific gravity

1.046–1.067 (15°C)

Physical–chemical characteristics: It is an almost colorless liquid. Slightly soluble in water; soluble in 2 volumes of 70% alcohol, in benzene, chloroform or ether.

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

31.70

57.00

Baked goods

66.27

90.00

Frozen dairy

107.00

120.30

Nonalcoholic beverages

21.90

33.75

Soft candy

120.00

140.00

Aroma threshold values: Detection at 1.0%: benzaldehyde, sweet almond fruity with cherry and berry nuances.

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 25 ppm: sweet fruity, cherry, berry, benzaldehyde and nutty.

Cherry Laurel Water

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

6031

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977038-56-4

Description: See Cherry Laurel.

Consumption: Annual: 59000.00 lb

Individual: 0.05 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 (not to exceed 25 ppm prussic acid) FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: Natural

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cherry Pits Extract

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2278

NAS No.:

2278

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977038-54-2

Description: See Cherry (Sweet and Sour).

Consumption: Annual: <1.00 lb

Individual: 0.00001578 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 (not to exceed 25 ppm prussic acid) FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 182.559 mg

IOFI: Natural

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

3180.00

3500.00

Baked goods

240.00

260.00

Frozen dairy

486.70

506.70

Gelatins, puddings

172.00

180.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

268.60

298.90

Soft candy

410.00

450.00

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cherry (Sweet And Sour)

Botanical name: Prunus avium L., P. cerasus L.

Botanical family: Rosaceae

Foreign names: P. avium: Cerisier (Fr.), Kirsche (Ger.), Cerezo (S.), Ciliegio (It.); P. cerasus: Griotte (Fr.), Sauerkirsche (Ger.), Cerezo acido (Sp.), Amarena (It.)

Description: P. avium (sweet cherry): The tree grows up to 12 to 15 m high. Native to western Asia and southern Europe, at present it is grown in many countries. It has large white flowers, reddish-brown bark and edible, depressed-globose, red, juicy, sweet fruits (drupes). The most important varieties of P. avium are Hearts (firm, light or dark, sweet fruits), Bigarreaux (light or dark, sweet fruits cultivated mainly in California), and Dukes (light, somewhat acid fruits). The parts used are the fruits and pits. P. avium has a pleasant, sweet taste.

P. cerasus ( sour or merello cherry): A tree of lower growth and rounder head than P. avium, sour cherry has a gray bark, large flowers, and depressed globose, red, acid fruits. The most important varieties are Amarella (light-colored) and Morello (dark-colored). The parts used are the fruits and pits. P. cerasus has an astringent, sour taste.

Derivatives: P. avium: Four- to sixfold concentrated (under vacuum or by freezing) juice; two- to fourfold concentrated juice with added alcohol; two- to fourfold concentrated juice stabilized with sugar; distillate (60% alcohol). P. cerasus: Four- to eightfold concentrated juice; juice partially concentrated with added alcohol; distillates (40, 50 and 60% alcohol).

The residue from the expression of the juice together with the crushed pits of sour or sweet cherry is used for the preparation of a distillate (usually containing 60 to 65% alcohol). This and the fruit distillates are used extensively in liqueurs.

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 (Not to exceed 25 ppm prussic acid) FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: n/a

Essential oil composition: P. avium contains eucalyptol, eugenol, methyl chavicol, pinene, also esters of isobutyric and isovaleric acids.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics of infusion at 2% with 3% sugar: fruity, juicy and cherry pulp.

Cherry, Wild

Botanical name: Prunus serotina Ehrl

Botanical family: Rosaceae

Other names: Wild black cherry; Rum cherry

Foreign names: Cerisier d’automne (Fr.), Traubenkirsche (Ger.), Cerezo de todos los santos (Sp.), Ciliegio d’autunno (It.) Description: Cherry wild is a large tree growing up to 25 m high with reddish-brown branches, aromatic inner bark, lanceolate leaves and purplish-black fruits with a slightly bitter, vinous flavor. The plant is native to southern Ontario, is widespread in the United States, Central America and Europe (England, Germany, Belgium, France). Wild cherry is often confused with P. virginiana L. (choke cherry), which has an erect trunk, smoother bark, and more lanceolate and nervate leaves. The late flowering of P. serotina (June to July) justifies its botanical name. The parts used are the bark and the small branches and twigs. Cherry wild has a sweet, tart, cherry-like flavor.

Derivatives: Fluid extract, tincture (prepared by diluting the fluid extract with 25% ethanol)

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: n/a FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: n/a

Essential oil composition: The main constituents include prunasin (glucoside); the enzyme emulsin is capable of hydrolyzing prunasin to benzaldehyde, glucose and hydrocyanic acid; benzoic, trimethyl gallic and p-coumaric acids; tannin, volatile oil. The leaves contain ursolic acid and the glucoside serotin.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Chervil

Botanical name: Anthriscus cerefolium (L.) Hoffm.

Botanical family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae

Other names: Cerefolium cerefolium (L.) Schinz & Thell.

Foreign names: Cernefil (Fr.), Gartenkerbel (Ger.), Cerefolio (It.), Perifollo-cerifolio (Sp.)

CAS No.:

1338-80-3

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2279

NAS No.:

2279

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: This annual has bright green leaves that are finely divided, curled and branched and flowering stems 40 to 50 cm tall. The sweet-scented leaves are used like parsley for flavoring soups and stews. The plant is grown in mountain areas of southern Europe and in England. It is also grown commercially in the United States. It contains an essential oil and a fixed oil. Chervil is parsley-like, but more aromatic and reminiscent of tarragon (methyl chavicol) and has a tonic, aromatic, aperitive taste. The active principle in chervil is estragole.

Derivatives: Essential oil

Consumption: Annual: 7300.00 lb

Individual: 0.006186 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Category 1. Use levels in ppm: Baked goods 190; frozen dairy 70 ppm; meat products 1140; condiments, relishes 80 ppm; soft candy 80 ppm; nonalcoholic beverages 120 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 182.10; 582.10 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 77.824 mg

IOFI: Natural

Essential oil composition: Aerial parts: Bitter principles; volatile compounds (0.03%). The essential oil contains: alkenylbenzenes (estragole-methyl chavicol 75 to 80%; 1-allyl-2,4-dimethoxy-benzene 16 to 22%; (E)-anethole 0.2%); terpenic hydrocarbons (limonene 0.2%; traces of β-phellandrene; α- + β-pinene; myrcene) (CoE, 2000).

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Baked goods

150.00

190.00

Condiments, relishes

60.00

80.00

Frozen dairy

50.00

70.00

Meat products

570.00

1140.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

100.00

120.00

Soft candy

60.00

80.00

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Chervil Extract

Other names: Anthriscus cerefolium, ext.

CAS No.:

85085-20-7

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

6185

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

285-352-5

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: See Chervil.

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Essential oil category 5 (with limits on estragole) FDA: 21 CFR 182.20; 582.20 FDA (other): See Chervil. JECFA: See Chervil.

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: n/a

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Chestnut Leaves

Botanical name: Castanea dentana (Marsh.) Borkh.

Botanical family: Fagaceae

Other names: American chestnut

Foreign names: Chataignier (Fr.), Edelkastanie (Ger.), Castano (Sp.), Castagno (It.)

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

6032

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977052-79-1

Description: C. dentata (American chestnut) is the variety of C. vulgaris or sativa (maroon) and other Castanea species. C. crenata, the Japanese species, differs in having large fruits. The plant, native to Asia Minor, is widespread in Europe, Asia and North America. American chestnut has been largely exterminated by blight (a fungus imported from Europe). The American chestnut was cultivated in 1800 and was once considered to be the queen of the eastern American forest. With massive, widespreading branches and a deep, broad-rounded crown, the American chestnut was known to reach a height of 30 m. It was commonly found on mountains, hills and slopes in gravelly or rocky, well-drained glacial soils. The parts used are nutmeat and leaves. Chestnut has an astringent, tonic taste.

NOTE: The sweet chestnut (C. sativa) and other Castanea species are derived from a genus separate from the horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum). Chestnut of the genus Aesculus is considered toxic.

Derivatives: Standardized fluid extract and tincture (20% in 50% alcohol)

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: Natural

Composition: The fruits are edible and contain vitamins B and C, starches, proteic substances, sugars and fats. The bark contains tannin. The leaves contain tannic acid, gallic acid, fats, resin, gum, albumin and pectin.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Chestnut Leaves Extract

Other names: American chestnut leaves

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

6033

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977023-21-4

Description: American chestnut leaves were traditionally used as a flavoring ingredient, but a fungal disease introduced into North America decimated the American chestnut population over the past 50 to 60 years. Mediterranean varieties of chestnut, including C. sativa Mill. (also known as C. vesac Gaertn, or C. vulgaris Lamm., sweet or Spanish chestnut), are now used, although much is imported from Hungary and the former Yugoslavia. The leaves of C. sativa Mill. are gathered during the months of September and October. Extracts of chestnut leaves have a strong, astringent effect and are used only sparingly as a flavoring ingredient. Probably a greater use is as an antitussive and expectorant in folk medicine.

Consumption: Annual: 75.00 lb

Individual: 0.00006355 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 FDA (other): See Chestnut Leaves. JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: Natural

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Chestnut Leaves Extract Solid

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

6034

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977038-58-6

Description: See Chestnut and Chestnut Leaves Extract.

Consumption: Annual: 1433.33 lb

Individual: 0.001214 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 FDA (other): See Chestnut Leaves. JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: Natural

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Chicory

Botanical name: Cichorium intybus L.

Botanical family: Compositae; Asteraceae

Other names: Blue sailor’s succory; Chicory, wild succory

Foreign names: Chicorée Sauvage (Fr.), Wilde Zichorie (Ger.), Achicoria amarga (Sp.), Cicoria amara (It.)

Description: Chicory is an annual or perennial herb, growing up to 50 cm high. It is indigenous to Europe, India and Egypt. The plant exhibits leaves stemming directly from the root, similar in shape to those of the related dandelion, but with numerous showy, blue flowers. There are two principal types: the Brunswick variety has deeply cut leaves and spreads horizontally, and the Megdeburg variety has undivided leaves and grows erect. The bright blue flowers bloom from July to September. The dried root is the primary part utilized. Leaves are also used. Chicory has a bitter, tonic flavor.

Derivatives: Tincture (20% in 20 to 40% ethanol), fluid extract, root tincture (20% in 20% ethanol from roasted roots), and soft and dried extracts from roasted roots

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 182.20; 582.20 (as oils, oleoresins and natural extractives) FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: n/a

Essential oil composition: Chicory flowers contain cichorin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin-7-glucoside). The root contains up to 8% inulin, a bitter principle consisting of 1:3 protocatechuic aldehyde to inulin, as well as lactucin and lactucopicrin. * The root contains a large number of steam-distillable aromatic compounds. Acetophenone provides the characteristic chicory aroma.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Chicory Extract

Other names: Chicory, extract (Cichorium intybus L.); Chicory, ext.; Cichorium intybus, ethanol extract

CAS No.:

68650-43-1

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2280

NAS No.:

2280

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

272-045-6

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Soluble chicory extract is the product consisting of the dried solids prepared from a water extract or water extracts of chicory. Also see Chicory.

Consumption: Annual: 101166.67 lb

Individual: 0.08573 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.20; 582.20 FDA (other): See Chicory. JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 138.104 mg

IOFI: Natural

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

384.50

2890.00

Baked goods

75.12

154.30

Frozen dairy

4044.00

6115.00

Gelatins, puddings

19.33

27.62

Hard candy

8.94

60.65

Nonalcoholic beverages

99.31

120.70

Soft candy

164.70

247.60

Sweet sauce

13.50

40.50

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 0.5%: sweet, coffee, caramellic and brown.

Chirata

Botanical name: Swertia chirayita (Robx. Ex Fleming)

Botanical family: Gentianaceae

Other names: Swertia chirata (Robx.) Buch.-Ham.; Swertia Indica; Agathodes chirayata D. Don; Gentiana chirayata Robx.; Ophelia chirayata Griseb.

Foreign names: Chirette indien (Fr.), Indische Chiretta (Ger.), Chiretta (It.)

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

6035

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977052-80-4

Description: Chirata is an annual herbaceous plant native to the Himalayas, but also grown in South Africa. It is about 60 to 70 cm high with a thick, branched stalk, small opposite leaves, and flowering tops. The whole plant is used with small portions of root. Chirata has a bitter, tonic taste. Other Swerita species are sometimes used as adulterants. Xanthones are the active principles of chirata. Average maximum levels of herb use in alcoholic beverages is 0.0016% and nonalcoholic beverages is 0.0008%.

Derivatives: Tincture (20% in 20 to 40% ethanol) and fluid extract

Consumption: Annual: <1.00 lb

Individual: 0.00001491 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Whole plant: Category 4 (with limits on xanthones). Use level in ppm: Herb tincture: nonalcoholic beverages 400 to 1530 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 (in alcoholic beverages only) FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: Natural

Essential oil composition: Bitter secoiridoid glycosides, such as swertiamarin (ca. 0.4%), gentiopikroside (trace amounts to 0.45% in crude drug and sweroside) and the much bitterer biphenylcarboxylic acid esters of sweroside and swertiamarine (CoE, 2000).

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Chirata Extract

CAS No.:

90604-50-5

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

6036

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

292-344-5

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: See Chirata.

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: 0.00009576 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 (in alcoholic beverages only) FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: Natural

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Chives

Botanical name: Allium schoenoprasum L.

Botanical family: Liliaceae

Foreign names: Cive (Fr.), Schnittlauch (Ger.), Ceballino ajopardo (Sp.), Cipollina (It.)

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

6186

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977050-37-5

Description: This mild-flavored member of the onion family is often considered more of an herb than a vegetable. The plant grows in compact tufts or clusters formed by the intertangling of the fibrous root. The leaves are numerous, erect, slender, hollow, pointed and deep green. The tender young leaves are cut and used to season foods. The fine-textured foliage is chopped and used in soups, stews, salads and other recipes. The bulb is small and not usually consumed. Chives are also used as a small ornamental. The plants bear purple flowers early in the year.

Consumption: Annual: 166666.67 lb

Individual: 0.1412 mg/kg/day

Cinchona

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.10; 582.10 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: n/a

Essential oil composition: Chives contain alliin, allicin, S-allyl-cysteine, S-methyl-cysteine.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cinchona

Red and Yellow Botanical name: Chichona spp.; Cinchona succiruba Pav. or its hybrids (red bark); C. officinalis L. * ; C. ledgeriana Moens or C. calisaya Wedd. or hybrids of these with other Cinchona species (yellow bark)

Botanical family: Rubiaceae

Foreign names: Quinauina (Fr.), China rinde (Ger.), Quina (Sp.), China (It.)

Description: Morphologic characteristics of the different varieties of cinchona differ very little. In general, the trees can reach 25 m in height, with opposite leaves and small flowers clustered as flowery tops. Indigenous to Peru, cinchona is cultivated today in all South and Central American countries, in Madagascar and areas of Africa. The part used is the bark from the branches. Commercially, the bark is distinguished as red cinchona (C. succirubra) or yellow cinchona (C. ledgeriana). The bark is collected from the plants more than 15 years old. Cinchona has a bitter, tonic taste.

Derivatives: Tincture, 20% in 70% ethanol (tannin-free or not) or 10% in 60% ethanol (tannin-free or not). Fluid, soft, and dried extracts (the last two can be aqueous or water–alcoholic extracts with or without tannin).

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: See Cinchona Bark. FDA: See Cinchona Bark. FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: n/a

Essential oil composition: The main constituents of the dried product and its derivatives are quinine, quinidine, cinchonidine, cinchonine and tannin. The total alkaloid content determines the quality of the derivatives. Quinine is about 70% of the alkaloid content.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cinchona Bark Red

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2281

NAS No.:

2281

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977052-81-5

Description: See Cinchona.

Consumption: Annual: 15.00 lb

Individual: 0.00001271 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Bark: Category 4 (with limits on quinine). Use levels in ppm: Baked goods 27 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 (in beverages only) (no more than 83 ppm total cinchona alkaloids in finished beverages) FDA (other): See Cinchona. JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 3.567 mg

IOFI: Natural

Composition: The bark contains 5 to 15% total quinoline alkaloids (average 6 to 10% of which 30 to 60% are quinine-type alkaloids) that consist mainly of quinine (1 to 3%), quinidine (0 to 4%) and their respective 6ʹ-demethoxy derivatives, cinchonidine (1.25 to 8%) and cinchonine (2 to 8%) (CoE, 2000).

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Baked goods

26.00

27.00

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 0.1%: bitter, astringent, maple, brown tea and woody notes.

Cinchona Bark Red Extract

CAS No.:

68990-12-5

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2282

NAS No.:

2282

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977038-61-1

Description: See Cinchona.

Consumption: Annual: 91.67 lb

Individual: 0.00007768 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Use levels in ppm: Baked goods 16.3; frozen dairy 40.00; condiments, relishes 85.00; soft candy 20.00; nonalcoholic beverages 146.2; alcoholic beverages 278.3 FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 (in beverages only) (no more than 83 ppm total cinchona alkaloids in finished beverages) FDA (other): See Cinchona. JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 22.844 mg

IOFI: Natural

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

236.40

278.30

Baked goods

7.27

16.30

Condiments, relishes

60.00

85.00

Frozen dairy

25.00

40.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

124.40

146.20

Soft candy

10.00

20.00

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cinchona Bark Yellow

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2283

NAS No.:

2283

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977052-82-6

Description: See Cinchona.

Consumption: Annual: <1.00 lb

Individual: 0.00008771 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Category 4 (with limits on quinine). Use levels in ppm: nonalcoholic beverages 4.40, alcoholic beverages 132.2 FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 (in beverages only) (no more than 83 ppm total cinchona alkaloids in finished beverages) FDA (other): See Cinchona. JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 3.135 mg

IOFI: Natural

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

82.38

132.30

Nonalcoholic beverages

4.40

4.40

Composition: The bark has a higher content of quinine and a lower content of other alkaloids compared to some other species of Cinchona.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cinchona Bark Yellow Extract

CAS No.:

68990-12-5

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2284

NAS No.:

2284

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

977083-24-1

Description: See Cinchona.

Consumption: Annual: <1.00 lb

Individual: 0.00002894 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Use level in ppm: nonalcoholic beverages 140.7; alcoholic beverages 500.00 FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 (in beverages only) (no more than 83 ppm total cinchona alkaloids in finished beverages) FDA (other): See Cinchona. JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 28.493 mg

IOFI: Natural

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

470.00

500.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

127.10

140.70

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cinchona Extract

CAS No.:

68990-12-5

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2285

NAS No.:

2285

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: See Cinchona.

Consumption: Annual: 5100.00 lb

Individual: 0.004322 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Use level in ppm: soft candy 3.00; nonalcoholic beverages 113.3; alcoholic beverages 466.9 FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 (in beverages only) (no more than 83 ppm total cinchona alkaloids in finished beverages) FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 25.180 mg

IOFI: Natural

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

438.60

466.90

Nonalcoholic beverages

105.00

113.30

Soft candy

1.00

3.00

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

1,4-Cineole

Synonyms: 1,4-Cineol; 1,4-Cineole; p-Cineole; 1,4-Epoxy-p-menthane; Isocineole; p-Menthane,1,4-epoxy-; 1-Methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-7-oxabicyclo(2.2.1)heptane; 7-Oxabicyclo(2.2.1)heptane,1-isopropyl-4-methyl-; 7-Oxabicyclo(2.2.1)heptane, 1-methyl -4-(1-methylethyl)-

CAS No.:

470-67-7

FL No.:

03.007

FEMA No.:

3658

NAS No.:

3658

CoE No.:

11225

EINECS No.:

207-428-9

JECFA No.:

1233

Description: 1,4-Cineole has a light and mild camphoraceous odor and a cool, mildly spice-like flavor.

Consumption: Annual: 3050.00 lb

Individual: 0.002584 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2003).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 3.977 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C10H18O/154.25

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Acid value (max)

1.0

Appearance

Colorless mobile liquid

Assay (min)

75%

Boiling point

172–174°C

Refractive index

1.449–1.456 (20°C)

Solubility

Insoluble in water; soluble in oils and ethanol

Specific gravity

0.898–0.902 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

n/a

4.71

Baked goods

n/a

12.14

Chewing gum

n/a

25.00

Frozen dairy

n/a

9.62

Gelatins, puddings

n/a

9.91

Hard candy

n/a

50.00

Meat products

n/a

8.29

Nonalcoholic beverages

n/a

9.21

Soft candy

n/a

11.49

Synthesis: Its structure has been confirmed through synthesis. *

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 40 ppm: cooling, minty, menthol-like, green and herbal, with a terpy and camphoraceous nuance.

Natural occurrence: Reported present in Piper cubeba, lime peel oil, apricot, cardamom (Eleteria cardamomun Maton), orange juice, grapefruit juice, laurel (Laurus nobilis L), rosemary and mastic gum leaf oil. It is also present in various essential oils; Boldea fragrans Juss., Xanthoxylum rhetsa D.C. and Ormenis multicaulis.

Cinnamaldehyde

Synonyms: Acrolein, 3-phenyl-; Benzylideneacetaldehyde; Cassia aldehyde; Cinnamal; Cinnamic aldehyde; Cinnamyl aldehyde; EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 040506; Phenylacrolein; 3-Phenylacrolein; 3-Phenylpropenal; 3-Phenyl-2-propenal; 3-Phenyl-2-propenaldehyde; 2-Propenal, 3-phenyl-; -Phenylacrolein; Zimtaldehyde

CAS No.:

104-55-2

FL No.:

05.014

FEMA No.:

2286

NAS No.:

2286

CoE No.:

102

EINECS No.:

203-213-9

JECFA No.:

656

Description: Cinnamaldehyde has a strong cinnamon odor.

Consumption: Annual: 550000.00 lb

Individual: 0.4661 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Approved FDA: 21 CFR 182.60, 582.60; 27 CFR 21.151 FDA (other): Listed in Inactive Ingredient Guide (CDER, 1996) JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2000).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 179.047 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C9H8O/132.16

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Acid value (max)

10.0

Appearance

Yellow liquid

Assay (min)

98% (by ester determination)

Boiling point

248–250°C

Refractive index

1.619–1.625 (20°C)

Solubility

Insoluble in water; miscible in oils and ethanol

Specific gravity

1.046–1.053 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

435.60

498.80

Baked goods

273.80

367.40

Chewing gum

1533.00

6191.00

Condiments, relishes

17.48

31.87

Frozen dairy

72.98

77.96

Fruit ices

900.00

900.00

Gelatins, puddings

100.30

109.40

Gravies

640.00

800.00

Hard candy

792.20

1003.00

Meat products

39.09

59.29

Nonalcoholic beverages

52.71

67.82

Soft candy

370.00

370.00

Synthesis: By isolation from natural sources; synthetically, by condensation of benzaldehyde with acetaldehyde in the presence of sodium or calcium hydroxide.

Aroma threshold values: Detection at 50 to 750 ppb.

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 0.5 ppm: spicy, cinnamon and cinnamon bark.

Natural occurrence: Reported found in celery seed, cinnamon, cinnamon leaf, cassia leaf, clove stem and lemon balm.

Cinnamaldehyde Ethylene Glycol Acetal

Synonyms: Cinnamaldehyde, cyclic ethylene acetal; 1,3-Dioxolane, 2-(2-phenylethenyl)-; 2-(2-Phenylethenyl)-1,3-dioxolane; 2-styryl-; 1,3-Dioxolane, 2-Styryl-1, 3-dioxolane

CAS No.:

5660-60-6

FL No.:

06.014

FEMA No.:

2287

NAS No.:

2287

CoE No.:

48

EINECS No.:

227-110-3

JECFA No.:

648

Description: Cinnamaldehyde ethylene glycol acetal has a soft, warm, spicy odor reminiscent of cinnamon; sweet, spicy cinnamon– allspice flavor.

Consumption: Annual: 0.50 lb

Individual: 0.00000042 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Approved. Food: 2 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2000).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 100.152 mg

IOFI: Artificial

Empirical Formula/MW:

C11H12O2/176.22

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2000)

Appearance

Nearly colorless, oily liquid

Assay (min)

90%

Boiling point

265°C

Refractive index

1.561–1.570 (20°C)

Solubility

Insoluble in water; soluble in oils; miscible in alcohol

Specific gravity

1.095–1.103 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

620.00

905.00

Baked goods

297.80

440.00

Condiments, relishes

5.00

8.00

Frozen dairy

200.00

270.00

Gelatins, puddings

225.80

312.00

Hard candy

112.50

112.50

Nonalcoholic beverages

250.00

280.00

Soft candy

570.00

681.00

Synthesis: From cinnamic aldehyde and ethylene glycol.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Not reported found in nature.

Cinnamic Acid

Synonyms: Phenylacrylic acid; tert-β-Phenylacrylic acid; 3-Phenylacrylic acid; 3-Phenylpropenoic acid; 3-Phenyl-2-propenoic acid; 2-Propenoic acid, 3-phenyl-

CAS No.:

621-82-9

FL No.:

08.022

FEMA No.:

2288

NAS No.:

2288

CoE No.:

22

EINECS No.:

210-708-3

JECFA No.:

657

Description: Cinnamic acid is almost odorless with a burning taste, and then turning sweet and reminiscent of apricot.

Consumption: Annual: 200.00 lb

Individual: 0.0001694 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Approved. Bev.: 30 ppm; Food: 40 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2000).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 93.436 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C9H8O2/148.16

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2000)

Appearance

White crystalline scales

Assay (min)

98%

Boiling point

300°C

Melting point

132°C

Solubility

Soluble in oils; insoluble in water; slightly soluble in alcohol

Specific gravity

1.2450–1.285 (15°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 2007)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

570.00

712.00

Baked goods

232.88

383.67

Frozen dairy

191.68

262.82

Gelatins, puddings

265.00

290.00

Hard candy

0.01

0.01

Nonalcoholic beverages

300.00

400.00

Soft candy

249.38

356.04

Synthesis: Two isomers, trans- and cis- exist; the trans-isomer is of interest for use in flavoring; in addition to the extraction from natural sources (storax), it can be prepared as follows: (1) from benzaldehyde, anhydrous sodium acetate and acetic anhydride in the presence of pyridine (Perkin reaction); (2) from benzaldehyde and ethyl acetate (Claisen condensation); (3) from benzaldehyde and acetylene chloride; (4) by oxidation of benzylidene acetone with sodium hypochlorite.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: The trans- form has been found among the constituents of the essential oils of basil, Chinese cinnamon, Melaleuca bracteata, Alpinia galanga. It is reported found in Peru balsam, Asian and American storax and cocoa leaves. Also reported found in strawberry fruit, beer, cognac, starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L) and loquat. The cis- form is present in the oil of Alpinia malacensis.

Cinnamon

Botanical name: Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees-Ceylon cinnamom; C. loureirii Nees-Saigon cinnamom; C. cassia Nees-Chinese cinnamom

Botanical family: Lauraceae

Other names: Cinnamomon, Ceylon

Foreign names: Cannelle (Fr.), Zimt (Ger.), Canela (Sp.), Cannella (It.)

Cinnamon

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2289

NAS No.:

2289

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977000-66-0

Description: The Ceylon cinnamon tree can grow to 10 m. It has long, lanceolated leaves, small flowers in clusters and small fruits. It is cultivated by extensive pruning (coppicing). Increasingly, significant plantations are available in the Seychilles and in Brazil. The whole outer bark is peeled from the trees every 2 years; the outer corky layer is removed by careful scraping, and the bark strips are sun-dried. Cinnamon, commercially known as “Saigon cinnamon,” has superior odor and flavor and is produced from the bark of trees grown in the Saigon district of Vietnam. Saigon cinnamon is used mainly as a ground spice. Chinese cinnamon or cassia is the dried bark of C. cassia, a large tree that grows wild in Southeast Asia. The dried inner bark of the shoots of coppiced trees and the leaves are the parts used. Cinnamon has a somewhat bitter flavor, slightly pungent and burning.

The genus Cinnamomum includes several species of great economic importance with various species or parts of the same plant producing different and variable products for human use. For detailed description of cinnamon, refer to Burdock (1997).

Derivatives: Tincture (20% in 60 to 75% ethanol), fluid extract, essential oil, oleoresin, powdered spice

Consumption: Annual: 3,566,666.67 lb

Individual: 3.02259 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.10; 184.1021 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 1.047 mg

IOFI: Natural

Essential oil composition: The essential oils are primarily constituted of 65 to 80% cinnamaldehyde and lesser percentages of various other phenols and terpenens, including eugenol, trans-cinnamic acid, hydroxycinnamaldehyde, o-methoxycinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol and its acetate, limonene, α-terpineol, tannins, mucilage, oligomeric procynidine and trace amounts of coumarin.

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Baked goods

5548.00

12967.00

Gravies

60.05

60.05

Breakfast cereals

2515.00

5102.00

Condiments, relishes

214.00

214.00

Cheese

15.00

15.00

Fats, oils

285.80

324.10

Frozen dairy

356.30

616.10

Fruit juice

614.60

770.50

Gelatins, puddings

1267.00

1428.00

Jams, jellies

950.00

1050.00

Meat products

693.50

1569.00

Milk products

350.00

700.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

20.25

56.99

Soft candy

149.80

155.20

Soups

310.70

371.40

Sweet sauce

5000.00

5000.00

Aroma threshold values: Detection for cinnemaldehyde: 750 ppb

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cinnamon Bark Extract

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2290

NAS No.:

2290

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977038-60-0

Description: See Cinnamon.

Consumption: Annual: 5066.67 lb

Individual: 0.004293 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.20, 582.20 FDA (other): See Cinnamon. JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 226.131 mg

IOFI: Natural

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

468.90

592.90

Baked goods

1053.00

1305.00

Frozen dairy

770.00

900.00

Gelatins, puddings

190.00

270.00

Meat products

6.92

10.31

Nonalcoholic beverages

363.30

472.50

Soft candy

667.60

818.30

Soups

20.00

20.00

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cinnamon Bark Oil

Other names: Artificial cinnamon oil; Cassia oil; Ceylon, cinnamon bark oil; Oil of cinnamon; Oils, cassia; Cinnamon oil, Ceylon; Oil of Chinese cinnamon; Cinnamomum cassia oil

CAS No.:

8007-80-5

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2291

NAS No.:

2291

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: The volatile oil obtained by steam distillation from the dried inner bark of the shoots of coppiced, cultivated bushes of C. zeylanicus Nees. It has an odor of cinnamon and a spicy burning taste.

Consumption: Annual: 16216.67 lb

Individual: 0.01374 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.20, 582.20 FDA (other): See Cinnamon. JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 45.382 mg

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: (FCC, 1996)

Angular rotation

Between –2° and 0°

Assay

Not less than 55% and not more than 78% aldehydes, calculated as cinnamic aldehyde (C9H8O)

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Passes test

Refractive index

Between 1.573 and 1.591 (20°C)

Solubility in alcohol

Passes test

Specific gravity

Between 1.010 and 1.030 (25°C)

Physical–chemical characteristics: It is a yellow liquid and soluble in most fixed oils and propylene glycol. It is insoluble in glycerin and in mineral oil.

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Cinnamon Bark Oleoresin

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

491.40

572.60

Baked goods

97.48

288.90

Chewing gum

23.98

281.30

Condiments, relishes

102.90

128.90

Frozen dairy

205.70

232.00

Gelatins, puddings

171.00

214.80

Gravies

18.00

98.00

Hard candy

7.63

25.01

Jams, jellies

250.70

250.70

Meat products

16.67

42.32

Nonalcoholic beverages

17.54

38.24

Soft candy

149.30

262.10

Soups

25.00

25.00

Aroma threshold values: Aroma characteristics at 1.0%: warm, spicy cinnamon, woody barklike, sweet aromatic with citrus nuances.

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 10 ppm: spicy, woody cinnamon bark with confection and bakery nuances.

Cinnamon Bark Oleoresin

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

6425

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977091-23-8

Description: See Cinnamon.

Consumption: Annual: 30166.67 lb

Individual: 0.02556 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.20, 582.20 FDA (other): See Cinnamon. JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: Natural

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 30 ppm: spicy, cinnamon with woody and bark nuances, characteristic cinnamon.

Cinnamon Flowers

Other names: Cassia buds; Cassia flowers; Cinnamon flowers; Cinnamomum cassia Blume

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2259

NAS No.:

2259

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977091-24-9

Description: See Cinnamon.

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.10; 582.10 FDA (other): See Cinnamon. JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 100.88 mg/kg

IOFI: Natural

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Nonalcoholic beverages

970.00

1100.00

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cinnamon Leaf Oil

Other names: Oils, cinnamon

CAS No.:

8015-96-1

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2292

NAS No.:

2292

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: The volatile oil is obtained by steam distillation from the leaves and twigs of the true cinnamon shrub C. zeylanicus Nees. The commercial oils, according to the geographical areas, are designated as either Cinnamon Leaf Oil, Ceylon or Cinnamon Leaf Oil Seychelles, and the two types differ in physical and chemical properties. The leaf oil has a quite different aromatic character as compared to bark essential oil. It has a spicy cinnamon, clove-like odor and taste.

Consumption: Annual: 12100.00 lb

Individual: 0.01025 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.20; 582.20 FDA (other): See Cinnamon. JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 28.145 mg

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: (FCC, 1996) For both Ceylon-type and Seychelles-type oils

Angular rotation

Ceylon type: Between –2° and +1°; Seychelles type: Between –2° and 0°

Assay

Ceylon type: Not less than 80% and not more than 88%, by volume, of phenols as eugenol; Seychelles type: Not less than 87% and not more than 96%, by volume, of phenols as eugenol

Heavy metals

Passes test

Refractive index

Ceylon type: Between 1.529 and 1.537; Seychelles type: Between 1.533 and 1.540 at 20°

Solubility in alcohol

Passes test

Specific gravity

Ceylon type: Between 1.030 and 1.050; Seychelles type: Between 1.040 and 1.060

NOTE: The above specifications are for Ceylon- and Seychelles-type oils.

Physical–chemical characteristics: The oil is a light- to dark-brown liquid. It is soluble in most fixed oils and propylene glycol. It is soluble with cloudiness, in mineral oil, but it is insoluble in glycerin.

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

87.33

107.10

Baked goods

105.70

176.20

Chewing gum

293.40

1166.00

Condiments, relishes

39.95

52.33

Frozen dairy

181.10

215.90

Gelatins, puddings

117.90

138.50

Gravies

65.00

100.00

Hard candy

55.64

444.80

Meat products

8.28

39.70

Nonalcoholic beverages

17.23

34.63

Processed vegetables

1.56

1.56

Soft candy

35.56

71.52

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cinnamyl Acetate

Synonyms: Acetic acid, cinnamyl ester; Cinnamyl alcohol, acetate; gamma-Phenylallyl acetate; 3-Phenyl-2-propenyl acetate; 3-Phenyl-2-propen-1-ol acetate; 3-Phenyl-2-propen-1-yl acetate; 2-Propen-1-ol, 3-phenyl-, acetate

CAS No.:

103-54-8

FL No.:

09.018

FEMA No.:

2293

NAS No.:

2293

CoE No.:

208

EINECS No.:

203-121-9

JECFA No.:

650

Description: Cinnamyl acetate has a characteristic balsamic-floral odor and burning, sweet taste reminiscent of pineapple. The ester obtained from natural cinnamyl alcohol exhibits a more delicate (hyacinth–jasmine-like) note.

Consumption: Annual: 6100.00 lb

Individual: 0.005169 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Used provisionally. Bev.: 3 ppm; Food: 10 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2000).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 2.024 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C11H12O2/176.21

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2000)

Acid value (max)

3.0

Appearance

Colorless to yellowish liquid

Assay (min)

98%

Boiling point

262–265°C

Refractive index

1.539–1.544 (20°C)

Solubility

Soluble in oils; insoluble in water; miscible in alcohol

Specific gravity

1.047–1.054 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

0.36

3.25

Baked goods

8.71

15.23

Condiments, relishes

1.33

3.66

Frozen dairy

3.35

6.90

Gelatins, puddings

19.39

21.87

Hard candy

73.42

73.42

Meat products

1.00

3.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

1.45

3.74

Soft candy

8.76

17.29

Synthesis: By acetylation of cinnamyl alcohol with acetic acid.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 15 ppm: sweet, spicy, floral, cinnamon and honey with a tutti-fruitti nuance.

Natural occurrence: Reported found in melon, starfruit, tarragon and litchi.

Cinnamyl Alcohol

Synonyms: gamma-Phenylallyl alcohol; 3-Phenylallyl alcohol; 3-Phenyl-2-propen-1-ol; Propenoic acid, 3-phenyl-(trans); 2-Propen-1-ol, 3-phenyl-; 3-Phenyl-2-propenol; 3-Phenyl-2-propen-1-ol; Styrone; Styryl alcohol; Styryl carbinol

CAS No.:

104-54-1

FL No.:

02.017

FEMA No.:

2294

NAS No.:

2294

CoE No.:

65

EINECS No.:

203-212-3

JECFA No.:

647

Description: Cinnamyl alcohol has a pleasant, floral odor and bitter taste.

Consumption: Annual: 39500.00 lb

Individual: 0.03347 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Used provisionally. Bev.: 10 ppm; Food: 30 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515, FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2000).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 1.786 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C9H10O/134.18

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Aldehyde content

Not more than 1.5% (as cinnamic aldehyde)

Appearance

White to yellowish crystalline solid

Assay (min)

98%

Boiling point

258°C

Melting point (min)

30°C

Solubility

Soluble in oils; insoluble to slightly soluble in water; moderately soluble in ethanol

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

2.08

8.97

Baked goods

7.14

17.93

Chewing gum

79.65

304.20

Frozen dairy

5.01

10.11

Gelatins, puddings

8.53

14.80

Hard candy

43.66

137.30

Nonalcoholic beverages

3.15

8.06

Soft candy

11.45

21.30

Synthesis: Obtained originally by saponification of extraction from storax; synthetically, by reduction of cinnamaldehyde with sodium or potassium hydroxide.

Aroma threshold values: Detection: 1 ppm; cis- form, 81 ppb; trans- form, 2.8 ppm

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 20 ppm: green, floral, spicy and honey with a fermented yeasty nuance.

Natural occurrence: Occurring as an ester or in the free state in hyacinth, Aristolochia clematis, Xanthorrhoea hastilis and in the essence of daffodil flowers. It is also reported found in guava fruit and peel, lemon peel oil, cassia leaf, Bourbon vanilla and cinnamon bark, leaf and root.

Cinnamyl Anthranilate (Prohibited)

Synonyms: 2-Aminobenzoic acid 3-phenyl-2-propenyl ester; Anthranilic acid, cinnamyl ester; Benzoic acid, 2-amino-, 3-phenyl-2-propenyl ester; Cinnamyl alcohol, anthranilate; Cinnamyl anthranilate; Cinnamyl anthranilate—prohibite d; Cinnamyl o-aminobenzoate; 3-Phenyl-2-propen-1-ol 2-aminobenzoate; 3-Phenyl-2-propenyl anthranilate; 3-Phenyl-2-propen-1-yl anthranilate; 2-Propen-1-ol, 3-phenyl-, 2-aminobenzoat e

CAS No.:

87-29-6

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2295

NAS No.:

2295

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

201-738-8

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Cinnamyl anthranilate has a balsamic, fruity odor somewhat reminiscent of grape.

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 189.113 (prohibited from use in food) FDA (other): n/a JECFA: Not to be used (1981)

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 1.436 mg

IOFI: n/a

Empirical Formula/MW:

C16H15NO2/253.30

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Specifications: (Burdock, 1997)

Appearance

Brownish powder

Boiling point

332°C

Melting point

>60°C

Solubility

1 g dissolves in 20 mL of 95% alcohol

Specific gravity

1.180 (15.5°C)

Reported uses: Prohibited from use in food.

Synthesis: By esterification of anthranilic acid with cinnamyl alcohol.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Not reported found in nature.

Cinnamyl Benzoate

Synonyms: Benzoic acid, cinnamyl ester; Cinnamyl alcohol, benzoate; 2-Propen- 1-ol, 3-phenyl-, benzoate; 3-Phenyl-2-propen-1-ol benzoate

CAS No.:

5320-75-2

FL No.:

09.780

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

7625

CoE No.:

743

EINECS No.:

226-180-2

JECFA No.:

760

Description: Cinnamyl benzoate has a characteristic balsamic, aromatic, spicy odor.

Consumption: Annual: <1.00 lb

Individual: 0.00001491 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Used provisionally. Food: 1 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2000).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C16H14O2/238.29

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2000)

Acid value (max)

1.0

Appearance

White, crystalline powder

Assay (min)

98%

Boiling point

335°C

Melting point

31°C

Solubility

Soluble in oils; insoluble in water; miscible in alcohol

Synthesis: From cinnamyl alcohol and benzoyl chloride in pyridine.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Found in Siam benzoin.

Cinnamyl Butyrate

Synonyms: Phenyl propenyl-n-butyrate; Butanoic acid, 3-phenyl-2-propenyl este r; Butyric acid, cinnamyl ester; Phenylpropenyl n-butyrate; 3-Phenyl-2-propenyl butanoate; Butanoic acid, 3-phenyl-2-propen-1-yl ester

CAS No.:

103-61-7

FL No.:

09.053

FEMA No.:

2296

NAS No.:

2296

CoE No.:

279

EINECS No.:

203-128-7

JECFA No.:

652

Description: Cinnamyl butyrate has a fruity, slightly floral odor and sweet taste reminiscent of honey. It is used in orange and citrus flavors.

Consumption: Annual: 21.67 lb

Individual: 0.00001836 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Used provisionally. Bev.: 2 ppm; Food: 11 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2000).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 1.081 mg

IOFI: n/a

Empirical Formula/MW:

C13H16O2/204.27

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2000)

Acid value (max)

3.0

Appearance

Colorless to yellowish liquid

Assay (min)

98%

Boiling point

300°C

Refractive index

1.532–1.537 (20°C)

Solubility

Insoluble in water; miscible in alcohol

Specific gravity

1.029–1.034 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

0.28

2.34

Baked goods

5.06

12.50

Chewing gum

80.64

80.64

Condiments, relishes

1.00

3.00

Frozen dairy

2.39

9.39

Gelatins, puddings

2.30

3.99

Hard candy

0.81

2.88

Meat products

1.00

3.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

1.32

3.04

Soft candy

4.92

12.23

Synthesis: By esterification of cinnamic alcohol with n-butyric acid.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Reported found in fresh apple and caja fruit (Spondias lutea L.).

Cinnamyl Cinnamate

Synonyms: Cinnamic acid, cinnamyl ester; Cinnamyl alcohol, cinnamate; Phenylallyl cinnamate; 3-Phenyl-2-propen-1-yl cinnamate; 3-Phenyl-2-propenyl 3-phenyl-2-propenoate; 2-Propenoic acid, 3-phenyl-, 3-phenyl-2-propenyl ester; Styracin

CAS No.:

122-69-0

FL No.:

09.739

FEMA No.:

2298

NAS No.:

2298

CoE No.:

332

EINECS No.:

204-566-1

JECFA No.:

673

Description: Cinnamyl cinnamate has a characteristic, faintly sweet, resinous odor.

Consumption: Annual: 833.33 lb

Individual: 0.0007062 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Used provisionally. Bev.: 1 ppm; Food: 10 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2000).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 4.774 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C18H16O2/264.32

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2000)

Acid value (max)

2.0

Appearance

White or colorless crystals

Assay (min)

95%

Boiling point

370°C

Melting point

42°C

Solubility

Soluble in oils; insoluble in water; moderately soluble in alcohol

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

0.09

0.71

Baked goods

20.62

24.62

Chewing gum

0.05

0.45

Condiments, relishes

8.86

13.86

Frozen dairy

15.91

16.93

Gelatins, puddings

22.67

27.62

Hard candy

0.55

0.90

Meat products

5.00

10.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

4.47

5.42

Soft candy

23.62

27.79

Synthesis: It can be extracted from storax; synthetically, by prolonged reaction of aluminum ethylate with cinnamic aldehyde in absolute ether.

Aroma threshold values: Aroma characteristics at 1%: mild, floral, balsamic, sweet, floral, jasmine and rose, with a cinnamon spicy nuance.

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 10 to 25 ppm: spicy, cinnamic balsamic, with a floral, yeasty note and a lingering spicy aftertaste.

Natural occurrence: Cinnamyl cinnamate is one of the most important constituents of storax: Liqidambar orientale, Liquidambar styracifluum L. It is also found in white Peru and Honduras balsams.

Cinnamyl Formate

Synonyms: Cinnamyl alcohol, formate; Cinnamyl methanoate; Formic acid, cinnamyl ester; gamma-Phenylallyl formate; 3-Phenyl-2-propen-1-ol formate; 3-Phenyl-2-propen-1-yl formate; 2-Propen-1-ol, 3-phenyl-, 1-formate

CAS No.:

104-65-4

FL No.:

09.085

FEMA No.:

2299

NAS No.:

2299

CoE No.:

352

EINECS No.:

203-223-3

JECFA No.:

649

Description: Cinnamyl formate has a balsamic, fruital-floral odor and bittersweet taste reminiscent of apple.

Consumption: Annual: 6.67 lb

Individual: 0.00000564 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Used provisionally. Bev.: 1 ppm; Food: 10 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2000).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 0.494 mg

IOFI: n/a

Empirical Formula/MW:

C10H10O2/162.19

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2000)

Acid value (max)

3.0

Appearance

Colorless to yellowish liquid

Assay (min)

95%

Boiling point

250°C

Refractive index

1.550–1.556 (20°C)

Solubility

Soluble in oils; insoluble in water; miscible in alcohol

Specific gravity

1.075–1.082 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

0.51

1.22

Baked goods

1.24

8.02

Condiments, relishes

10.00

15.00

Frozen dairy

1.16

8.54

Gelatins, puddings

3.70

7.73

Hard candy

78.97

155.60

Nonalcoholic beverages

0.55

1.29

Soft candy

1.58

6.95

Synthesis: By esterification of cinnamyl alcohol with formic acid.

Aroma threshold values: Detection at 1.0%: cinnamon spicy, slightly balsamic, cherry fruity with berry and tropical nuances.

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 5 ppm: sweet, cinnamon-like, astringent, with woody resinous and balsamic nuances.

Natural occurrence: Reported found in narcissus.

Cinnamyl Isobutyrate

Synonyms: Isobutyric acid, cinnamyl ester; 2-Methyl-propanoic acid, 3-phenyl-2-propenyl ester; Propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, 3-phenyl-2-propenyl ester

CAS No.:

103-59-3

FL No.:

09.470

FEMA No.:

2297

NAS No.:

2297

CoE No.:

496

EINECS No.:

203-126-6

JECFA No.:

653

Description: Cinnamyl isobutyrate has a sweet, balsamic, fruity odor and sweet taste reminiscent of apple and banana.

Consumption: Annual: 350.00 lb

Individual: 0.0002966 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Used provisionally. Bev.: 2 ppm; Food: 20 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2000).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 0.773 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C13H16O2/204.27

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2000)

Acid value (max)

3.0

Appearance

Colorless to yellowish liquid

Assay (min)

96%

Boiling point

254°C

Refractive index

1.520–1.528 (20°C)

Solubility

Soluble in oils; insoluble in water; miscible in alcohol

Specific gravity

1.005–1.014 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

0.25

1.46

Baked goods

3.56

9.16

Chewing gum

12.93

12.93

Condiments, relishes

1.00

3.00

Frozen dairy

1.87

7.29

Gelatins, puddings

2.09

3.18

Hard candy

0.67

0.70

Meat products

1.00

3.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

0.76

1.77

Soft candy

2.92

7.86

Synthesis: By esterification of cinnamic alcohol with isobutyric acid.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Not reported found in nature.

Cinnamyl Isovalerate

Synonyms: Butanoic acid, 3-methyl-, 3-phenyl-2-propenyl ester; Cinnamyl 3-methyl butyrate; Isovaleric acid, cinnamyl ester; 3-Methylbutanoic acid 3-phenyl-2-propenyl ester; 3-Phenylallyl isovalerate

CAS No.:

140-27-2

FL No.:

09.459

FEMA No.:

2302

NAS No.:

2302

CoE No.:

454

EINECS No.:

205-407-9

JECFA No.:

654

Description: Cinnamyl isovalerate has a characteristic rose-like odor and an apple-like taste.

Consumption: Annual: 333.33 lb

Individual: 0.0002824 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Used provisionally. Bev.: 2 ppm; Food: 10 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2000).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 0.998 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C14H18O2/218.29

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2000)

Acid value (max)

3.0

Appearance

Colorless to pale-yellowish liquid

Assay (min)

95%

Boiling point

313°C

Refractive index

1.520–1.528 (20°C)

Solubility

Insoluble in water; miscible in oils and alcohol

Specific gravity

1.005–1.014 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

0.85

2.34

Baked goods

4.37

7.40

Chewing gum

28.00

28.00

Frozen dairy

2.81

4.44

Gelatins, puddings

5.93

10.44

Hard candy

11.18

14.12

Nonalcoholic beverages

1.38

2.63

Soft candy

3.78

6.15

Synthesis: By esterification of cinnamic alcohol with isovaleric acid.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 25 ppm: fruity, sweet, pineapple, with waxy and spicy nuances.

Natural occurrence: Not reported found in nature.

Cinnamyl Phenylacetate

Synonyms: Benzeneacetic acid, 3-phenyl-2-propenyl ester

CAS No.:

7492-65-1

FL No.:

09.708

FEMA No.:

2300

NAS No.:

2300

CoE No.:

235

EINECS No.:

231-322-1

JECFA No.:

655

Description: Cinnamyl phenylacetate has a deep, rich, chrysanthemum-like odor and a spicy, honey-like flavor.

Consumption: Annual: 0.17 lb

Individual: 0.00000014 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Used provisionally. Bev.: 3 ppm; Food: 10 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2000).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 3.706 mg

IOFI: Artificial

Empirical Formula/MW:

C17H16O2/252.32

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2000)

Acid value (max)

1.0

Appearance

Colorless, slightly viscous liquid

Assay (min)

96%

Boiling point

333–335°C

Refractive index

1.575–1.581 (20°C)

Solubility

Insoluble in water; miscible in alcohol

Specific gravity

1.089–1.095 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

1.00

2.70

Baked goods

16.10

20.17

Frozen dairy

6.60

10.50

Gelatins, puddings

37.00

41.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

4.57

7.35

Soft candy

11.27

15.24

Synthesis: From cinnamylchloride and sodium phenylacetate; also by esterification.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Not reported found in nature.

Cinnamyl Propionate

Synonyms: Cinnamyl alcohol, propionat e; 3-Phenyl-2-propen-1-ol propanoate; 3-Phenyl-2-propenyl propionate; 3-Phenyl-2-propen-1-yl propionate; 2-Propen-1-ol, 3-phenyl-, propanoat e; Propionic acid, cinnamyl ester

CAS No.:

103-56-0

FL No.:

09.133

FEMA No.:

2301

NAS No.:

2301

CoE No.:

414

EINECS No.:

203-124-5

JECFA No.:

651

Description: Cinnamyl propionate has a spicy, fruital odor with a woody, balsamic undernote and a sweet, warm, powerful, spicy taste.

Consumption: Annual: 633.33 lb

Individual: 0.0005367 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Used provisionally. Bev.: 1 ppm; Food: 8 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2000).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 1.618 mg

IOFI: n/a

Empirical Formula/MW:

C12H14O2/190.24

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2000)

Acid value (max)

3.0

Appearance

Colorless to pale-yellow liquid

Assay (min)

98%

Boiling point

289°C

Refractive index

1.532–1.537 (20°C)

Solubility

Insoluble in water; miscible in alcohol

Specific gravity

1.029–1.034 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

1.00

1.50

Baked goods

9.08

13.63

Chewing gum

17.84

240.10

Frozen dairy

2.40

3.45

Gelatins, puddings

4.08

5.68

Hard candy

16.28

29.84

Nonalcoholic beverages

1.41

2.26

Soft candy

6.10

7.81

Synthesis: By esterification of cinnamic alcohol with propionic acid.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 10 ppm: sweet, floral, waxy, balsamic, green, punch, grape and cherry.

Natural occurrence: Not reported found in nature.

Citral (Neral)

Synonyms: 3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadienal; 3,7-Dimethyl-trans-2,6-octadienal; 3,7-Dimethyl-1,2,6-octadienal; EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 040510; Geranial; 2,6-Octadienal, 3,7-dimethyl-; Citral

CAS No.:

5392-40-5

FL No.:

05.020

FEMA No.:

2303

NAS No.:

2303

CoE No.:

109

EINECS No.:

226-394-6

JECFA No.:

1225

Description: Citral has a strong, lemon-like odor and a characteristic bittersweet taste. Commercially, the product is a mixture of two geometric isomers—α-citral and β-citral, each exhibiting cis- and trans-isomers because of the position of the double bond.

Consumption: Annual: 59500.00 lb

Individual: 0.05042 mg/kg/day

Citral Diethyl Acetal

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Approved FDA: 21 CFR 182.60, 582.60 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: 0 to 0.5 mg/kg bw (1979)

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 25.273 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C10H16O/152.24

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Acid value (max)

5.0

Appearance

Pale-yellow oily liquid

Assay (min)

96% (sum of cis- and trans-isomers)

Boiling point

228°C

Refractive index

1.486–1.490 (20°C)

Solubility

Insoluble in glycerol; very slightly soluble in water; soluble in fixed oils, mineral oils, propylene glycol and ethanol

Specific gravity

0.885–0.891 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

3.29

5.90

Baked goods

132.80

177.50

Cheese

0.00

0.20

Chewing gum

146.90

429.80

Condiments, relishes

10.00

10.00

Frozen dairy

22.29

33.55

Gelatins, puddings

173.70

209.70

Gravies

0.50

0.75

Hard candy

7.68

114.50

Meat products

1.00

2.25

Nonalcoholic beverages

17.33

27.72

Soft candy

142.20

181.10

Synthesis: Citral is usually isolated from the citral-containing oil by chemical means or by chemical synthesis (from β-pinene, isoprene, etc.).

Aroma threshold values: Detection at 1.0%: characterizing lemon-like, distilled lime peel, intense aldehydic citruslike.

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 5 ppm in 5% sugar and 0.1% CA: characteristic lemon, peely, citrus, green floral juicy with woody and candy notes.

Natural occurrence: Reported found in apricot, clary sage, ginger, grape, grapefruit, lemon, lime, mandarin, orange, raspberry, tamarind, tangerine, tea and tomato.

Citral Diethyl Acetal

Synonyms: 1,1-Diethoxy-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-diene; 1,1-Diethoxy-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadiene; 3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadienal diethyl acetal;2,6-Octadienal, 3,7-dimethyl-, diethyl acetal; 2,6-Octadiene, 1,1-diethoxy-3,7-dimethyl-

CAS No.:

7492-66-2

FL No.:

06.004

FEMA No.:

2304

NAS No.:

2304

CoE No.:

38

EINECS No.:

231-323-7

JECFA No.:

948

Description: Citral diethyl acetal has a mild, green, citrus odor and a green, oily, citrus-peel flavor.

Consumption: Annual: <1.00 lb

Individual: 0.00000438 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Approved FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2001).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 8.325 mg

IOFI: Artificial

Empirical Formula/MW:

C14H26O2/226.36

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Acid value (max)

2.0

Appearance

Colorless liquid

Assay (min)

92% (sum of cis and trans-isomers)

Boiling point

230°C; 140–142 (15 mmHg)

Other requirements

Minimum assay (sum of isomers + hemiacetals + citral): 98%

Refractive index

1.445–1.455 (20°C)

Solubility

1:2–2.6 in 80% alcohol; almost insoluble in water; soluble in propylene glycol

Specific gravity

0.864–0.879 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

0.01

1.00

Baked goods

55.00

62.00

Frozen dairy

5.00

7.00

Gelatins, puddings

8.00

10.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

2.35

4.72

Soft candy

41.83

53.99

Synthesis: From ethyl orthoformate and citral.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 10 ppm: green, citrus lemon with waxy nuance.

Natural occurrence: Reported not found in nature.

Citral Dimethyl Acetal

Synonyms: 1,1-Dimethoxy-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-ocadiene; 1,1-Dimethoxy-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octa-diene; 1,1-Dimethoxy-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-diene; 2,6-Octadiene, 1,1-dimethoxy-3, 7-di-methyl-; 2,6-Octadiene, 1,1-dimethoxy-3,7-dimethyl-, (cis and trans)

CAS No.:

7549-37-3

FL No.:

06.005

FEMA No.:

2305

NAS No.:

2305

CoE No.:

39

EINECS No.:

231-434-0

JECFA No.:

944

Description: Citral dimethyl acetal has a fresh, lemon-like odor. The commercial product consists of a mixture of cis- and trans-isomers.

Consumption: Annual: 5.00 lb

Individual: 0.00000423 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Approved. Bev.: 5 ppm; Food: 60 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2001).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 17.048 mg

IOFI: Artificial

Empirical Formula/MW:

C12H22O2/198.30

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Acid value (max)

2.0

Appearance

Colorless to yellowish liquid

Assay (min)

92% (sum of isomers)

Boiling point

105–106°C (10 mmHg)

Other requirements

Minimum assay (sum of isomers + hemiacetals + citral): 98%

Refractive index

1.450–1.463 (20°C)

Solubility

Insoluble in water; miscible in ethanol at room temperature; soluble in organic solvents and oils

Specific gravity

0.881–0.893 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

0.01

7.00

Baked goods

86.48

102.50

Frozen dairy

44.21

62.76

Gelatins, puddings

80.00

100.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

19.99

25.59

Soft candy

58.59

74.65

Synthesis: n/a

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 10 ppm: green, citrus, lemon, grapefruit, lime with woody and terpy nuance.

Natural occurrence: Reported not found in nature.

Citral Propylene Glycol Acetal

Synonyms: Citral, 1,2-propylene glycol acetal; 2-(2,6-Dimethylhepta-1,5-dienyl)-4-methyl-1,3-dioxolane; 1,3-Dioxolane, 2-(2,6-dimethyl-1,5-heptadienyl)-4-methyl-

CAS No.:

10444-50-5

FL No.:

06.035

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

7626

CoE No.:

2343

EINECS No.:

233-929-7

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Citral propylene glycol acetal has a sweet, citrus, lemon–orange odor; mild, lemony flavor changing to a lemon flavor in aqueous media.

Consumption: Annual: 0.33 lb

Individual: 0.00000028 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Approved. Bev.: 3 ppm; Food: 10 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: n/a

Empirical Formula/MW:

C13H22O2/210.32

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Specifications: (Burdock, 1997)

Appearance

Colorless, oily liquid

Solubility

Slightly soluble in water (with some decomposition); soluble in propylene glycol, alcohol, and oils

Reported uses (ppm): n/a

Synthesis: Condensation of citral with propylene glycol using a catalyst.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Not reported found in nature.

Citric Acid

Synonyms: 2-Hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid; Anhydrous citric acid; Citric acid, anhydrous; Citric acid, monohydrate; Citretten; Citro; EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 021801; β-Hydroxytricarballylic acid; β-Hydroxy-tricarboxylic acid; 2-Hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid; 1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-; Citric acid [USAN:JAN]

CAS No.:

77-92-9

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2306

NAS No.:

2306

CoE No.:

20

EINECS No.:

201-069-1

JECFA No.:

218

Description: Citric acid and its salts are naturally occurring constituents and common metabolites in plant and animal tissues. Citric acid is an intermediary compound in the Krebs cycle linking oxidative metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and fat. The concentration of naturally occurring citrate is relatively higher in fruits, particularly citrus fruits and juices than vegetables and animal tissues. Typical concentrations, fresh weight, are about 1% in orange juice and up to 8% in unripe lemon juice as compared to less than 0.1% in peas, corn and cabbage and about 0.1% in human milk. Citric acid has a pleasant acid taste and is odorless. *

Consumption: Annual: 106,833,333.33 lb

Individual: 90.5367 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Approved FDA: 21 CFR 131et seq. 133et seq., 145et seq. 146et seq. 150et seq. 155.130, 161.190,163et seq. 169.115, 169.140, 169.150, 172.755, 172.370, 172.832, 172.841, 172.861, 173et seq. 178et seq. 184.1007, 184.1033, 184.1140, 184.1195, 184.1296, 184.1298, 184.1307c, 184.1386, 184.1449, 184.1625, 184.1751, 184.1851, 184.1848, 184.1911 582.1033, 582.6033, 573.580 FDA (other): Approved for OTC use (21 CFR 310.545, 331.11); excipient (CDER, 1996); 27CFR 24.182, 24.246, 24.244, 24.178, 5.23 JECFA: ADI: Not limited. Group ADI for citric acid and its calcium, potassium and ammonium salts (1973).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 3.126 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW: Empirical Formula/MW:

C6H8O7/192.12

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Appearance

White or colorless, crystalline solid

Assay (min)

99.5%

Melting point

152–154°C for anhydrous form, about 100 for the monohydrate

Solubility

Very soluble in water; slightly soluble in ether; freely soluble in ethanol

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

6.62

8.25

Baked goods

2.13

2.65

Breakfast cereals

0.13

0.13

Cheese

0.38

0.87

Condiments, relishes

0.38

0.81

Confection, frosting

0.28

0.93

Egg products

0.60

0.60

Fats, oils

0.46

0.84

Fish products

0.31

0.39

Frozen dairy

1.31

2.91

Fruit ices

1.01

1.82

Fruit juice

12.90

15.93

Gelatins, puddings

2.62

3.89

Gravies

0.99

1.63

Jams, jellies

2.27

5.51

Meat products

0.82

0.89

Milk products

0.83

1.34

Nonalcoholic beverages

1.71

2.94

Other grains

0.40

0.40

Poultry

0.98

0.98

Processed vegetables

0.50

1.15

Reconstituted vegetables

33.00

33.00

Snack foods

0.38

1.08

Soft candy

2.19

13.76

Soups

0.20

0.22

Sweet sauce

2.66

3.30

Synthesis: By mycological fermentation using molasses and strains of Aspergillus niger; from citrus juices and pineapple wastes.

Aroma threshold values: Detection: 9.6 to 350 ppm

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Extremely widespread in nature; also identified in the flowers of Hibiscus subdariffa, cocoa and kiwifruit.

Citric And Fatty Acid Esters Of Glycerol

Synonyms: Citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides; Citroglyceride s

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

4307

NAS No.:

n/a

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: n/a FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 0.301 mg

IOFI: n/a

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 2007)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Baked goods

0.80

1.50

Chewing gum

45.00

90.00

Condiments, relishes

0.20

0.40

Confections, frostings

4.50

9.00

Fish products

0.03

0.06

Gelatins, puddings

2.50

5.00

Gravies

0.10

0.20

Hard candy

2.00

4.00

Instant coffee/tea

0.60

1.30

Meat products

0.002

0.004

Milk products

0.30

0.60

Nonalcoholic beverages

0.20

0.30

Poultry

0.003

0.006

Seasonings flavors

0.10

0.20

Soft candy

3.00

6.00

Soups

0.10

0.20

Synthesis: n/a

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: n/a

Citronella

Botanical name: Cymbopogon winterianus (Andropogon nardus), Java de Tong (Java citronella), C. nardus Randle (Andropogon nardus), Ceylon de Tong (Ceylon citronella)

Botanical family: Poaceae

Foreign names: Citronelle (Fr.), Citronel (Ger.), Citronella (Sp.), Citronella (It.)

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

n/a

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Ceylon citronella (C. nardus) and Java citronella (C. winterianus) are both perennial grasses growing more than 1 m high. The herb is harvested two to three times a year in Ceylon. The freshly cut or partially dried herb is steam distilled. The plant yields the largest amount of essential oil at about its third year of growth. Citronella is also cultivated and distilled in Java, Guatemala, Taiwan, Hainan, Argentina and New Guinea. The Java-type essential oil is considered to be of superior quality over the Ceylon type. Citronella has a characteristic citronella, rose- and lemon-like odor. The Council of Europe (CoE, 2000) has described Ceylon citronella and Java Citronella separately.

Consumption: Annual: 1050.00 lb

Individual: 0.0008898 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Ceylon-type: Herb, category 3 (with limits on methyleugenol); Java-type: Herb, category 1. FDA: 21 CFR, 182.20 (as oils, oleoresins and natural extractives), 582.20 (as oils, oleoresins and natural extractives) FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 1.116 mg

IOFI: Natural

Essential oil composition: Citronella oil contains a number of fragrant fractions of which citronellal, geraniol and citronellol are the major components. Ceylon citronella oil contains 55 to 65% total acetylizable alcohols (calculated as citronellol) and 7 to 15% total aldehyde (calculated as citronellal). The main constituents are geraniol (18 to 20%), citronellol (6.4 to 8.4%), citronellal (5 to 15%), geranyl acetate (2%); limonene (9 to 11%) and methyl isoeugenol (7.2 to 11.3%). Other constituents are camphene, caryophyllene, linalool, citral (neral and geranial), methylheapenone, methyleugenol, l-borneol, nerol, eugenol and farnesol. * Java citronella oil contains not less than 35% alcohols (calculated as citronellol) and not less than 35% aldehydes (calculated as citronellal). The Java type appears to have higher concentrations of citronellol (35%) and geraniol (21%) than does the Ceylon type (citronellol 10% and geraniol 18%).

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

1.31

5.04

Baked goods

6.07

7.96

Chewing gum

5.15

9.85

Frozen dairy

2.42

4.61

Gelatins, puddings

1.20

3.17

Hard candy

4.79

4.79

Nonalcoholic beverages

1.20

4.88

Soft candy

4.31

6.62

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 10 ppm: floral, green, rosy and citrus-lemon.

Citronella Oil

Other names: Citronella oil (C. nardus Rendle); EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 021901; Essential oil of Cymbopogon nardus; Oil of citronella; Oils, citronella

CAS No.:

8000-29-1

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2308

NAS No.:

2308

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: There are two essential oils: Ceylon citronella oil and Java citronella oil. Ceylon citronella oil is obtained by steam distillation of the partially dried herb known as the lanabatu variety, while the Java citronella oil is obtained by steam or water distillation of the freshly cut or partially dried herb known as the maha pengira variety. It differs from the Ceylon citronella oil in both composition and odor. The Ceylon type has a characteristic citronellal-like odor. Java-type oil has a pronounced aldehyde (rose, lemon-like) odor.

Consumption: Annual: 1350.00 lb

Individual: 0.001144 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: See Citronella. FDA: 21 CFR 182.20; 582.20 FDA (other): 27 CFR 21.105, 21.65, 21.151 JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 9.461 mg

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: (Burdock, 1997)

Aldehyde content

Ceylon type: 7–15%; Java type: 30–45%

Optical rotation (20°C)

Ceylon type: –9° to –18°; Java type: –9° to 0°

Refractive index (20°C)

Ceylon type: 1.479–1.495; Java type: 1.466–1.475

Solubility

Ceylon type: 1:2 in 80% ethanol; Java type: 1:2 in 80% ethanol

Specific gravity (20°C)

Ceylon type: 0.894–0.906; Java type: 0.878–0.895

Total alcohol (as geraniol)

Ceylon type: 55–65%; Java type: 32–35%

Physical–chemical characteristics: The Ceylon oil is a pale yellow to yellowish-brown liquid. The Java-type oil is a clear, mobile, light yellow to brownish liquid.

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

32.96

40.00

Baked goods

34.95

47.61

Frozen dairy

31.60

42.58

Breakfast cereals

17.80

28.80

Gelatins, puddings

24.95

38.92

Nonalcoholic beverages

16.60

26.23

Soft candy

33.24

45.88

Hard candy

3.28

12.98

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Citronellal

Synonyms: β-Citronellal; Citronellel; Citronellol, (D); 3,7-Dimethyl-6-octenal; 3,7-Dimethyl-6-octen-1-al; 6-Octenal,3,7-dimethyl-; Poly((1,3a,4,6,7,7a-hexahydro-1,3-dioxo-3H-furo(3,4-c)pyran-4,6-d-iyl)(tetrahydro-2,5-dioxo-3,4-furandiyl)methylene); D-Rhodinal; Rhodinal

CAS No.:

106-23-0

FL No.:

05.021

FEMA No.:

2307

NAS No.:

2307

CoE No.:

110

EINECS No.:

203-376-6

JECFA No.:

1220

Description: Citronellal has an intense, lemon-, citronella-, rose-type odor.

Consumption: Annual: 1050.00 lb

Individual: 0.0008898 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Approved FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): 27 CFR21.105 JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2003).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 1.116 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C10H18O/154.25

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Acid value (max)

3.0

Appearance

Colorless to slightly yellow liquid

Assay (min)

85% (aldehydes as C10H18O)

Boiling point

206°C

Refractive index

1.446–1.456 (20°C)

Solubility

Insoluble in water, glycerol; soluble in fixed oils and ethanol; slightly soluble in propylene glycol

Specific gravity

0.850–0.860 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

1.31

5.04

Baked goods

6.07

7.96

Chewing gum

5.15

9.85

Frozen dairy

2.42

4.61

Gelatins, puddings

1.20

3.17

Hard candy

4.79

4.79

Nonalcoholic beverages

1.20

4.88

Soft candy

4.31

6.62

Synthesis: Can be prepared by chemical synthesis or by fractional distillation of natural oils, such as citronella. Industrially prepared by hydrogenation of β-citronellol or by catalytic hydrogenation of citral; also in the laboratory by dehydration of hydroxydihydrocitronellal.

Aroma threshold values: Detection: 31 to 100 ppb

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 10 ppm: floral, green, rosy and citrus-lemon.

Natural occurrence: The d-form of citronellal has been reported in the oil of citronella (Ceylon, Jammus, Kaschmis), in the oil from leaves of Barosma pulchella, in the oil from roots of Phebalium nudum, in the oils of Eucalyptus citriodora, Leptospermum citratum and Baeckea citriodora; the l-form is present in the oils of Backhousia citriodora var. A, Eucalyptus citridora, Litsea cubeba (fruits) and lemongrass. Citronellal also is present in the oils of lemon, mandarin, Lavandula delphinensis, Ocimum canum f. citrata, lime and kumquat, swangi (Citrus hystrix D.C.), ginger pepper and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.).

Citronellic Acid

Synonyms: 3,7-Dimethyl-6-octenoic acid; Rhodinic acid; Rhodinolic acid; 6-Octenoic acid, 3,7-dimethyl-

CAS No.:

502-47-6

FL No.:

08.036

FEMA No.:

3142

NAS No.:

3142

CoE No.:

616

EINECS No.:

207-939-7

JECFA No.:

1221

Description: Citronellic acid has a green-grassy odor.

Consumption: Annual: 3.33 lb

Individual: 0.00000282 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Approved. Bev.: 0.2 ppm; Food: 0.2 ppm FDA: n/a FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2003).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 0.240 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C10H18O7/170.25

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Appearance

Colorless liquid

Assay (min)

90%

Boiling point

121–122°C (1 mmHg)

Refractive index

1.455–1.462 (20°C)

Solubility

Insoluble in glycerol, water; soluble in most fixed oils, propylene glycol and ethanol

Specific gravity

0.920–0.926 (20°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Baked goods

0.60

1.25

Frozen dairy

1.10

2.25

Gelatins, puddings

0.60

1.25

Nonalcoholic beverages

1.07

2.25

Soft candy

1.07

1.25

Synthesis: By oxidation of citronellal; also by the conversion of pulegone.

Aroma threshold values: Detection at 1%: fatty, waxy, heavy, floral with a slight citronella nuance. It also has vegetative and tobacco nuances.

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 5 to 30 ppm: mild, floral, rosy, fruity melon with slight hints of citronella and citrus.

Natural occurrence: The d-form is reportedly a constituent of Java citronella, geranium, Borosma pulchellum, Xanthoxylum piperitum, bitter-orange leaves, lemongrass, Calytrix virgata and Calytrix tetragona leaves; the l-form has been reportedly identified in cypress oil (Callitirs glauca R. Br.), Callitirs intratropica, in the oil of Chamaecyparis obtusa and of Thujopsis dolabrata; the d,l-form is isolated from camphor oil. Also reported found in mandarin peel oil, swangi (Citrus hystrix D.C.), peppermint oil and black tea.

Citronellol

Synonyms: d-Citronellol; 3,7-Dimethyl-6-octen-1-ol; for the l-form see Rhodinol

CAS No.:

106-22-9

FL No.:

02.011

FEMA No.:

2309

NAS No.:

2309

CoE No.:

59

EINECS No.:

203-375-0

JECFA No.:

1219

Description: Citronellol has a characteristic rose-like odor. Because odor plays such an important part in selecting this material, there may be special grades of citronellol that do not meet the Essential Oil Association specification. These limits have been broadened enough to include best qualities of commercial citronellol and chemically pure citronellol. l-Citronellol has a sweet, peach-like flavor; d-citronellol has a bitter taste.

Consumption: Annual: 3766.67 lb

Individual: 0.003192 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Approved FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: 0 to 0.5 mg/kg bw (1979)

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 1.156 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C10H20O/156.27

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Acid value (max)

1.0

Appearance

Colorless liquid

Assay (min)

90% (total alcohols as C10H20O)

Boiling point

225°C

Refractive index

1.454–1.462 (20°C)

Solubility

Insoluble in glycerol; slightly soluble in water; soluble in most fixed oils, propylene glycol and ethanol

Specific gravity

0.850–0.860 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

1.03

4.21

Baked goods

6.47

20.26

Chewing gum

7.87

9.23

Frozen dairy

1.41

39.50

Gelatins, puddings

1.70

6.32

Hard candy

1.87

1.94

Nonalcoholic beverages

1.30

4.41

Soft candy

4.46

18.16

Synthesis: It is generally accepted to distinguish rhodinol as the product isolated from geranium consisting of a mixture of l-citronellol and geraniol, whereas the name l-citronellol should be used to indicate the corresponding synthetic product with the highest level of purity; dl-citronellol can be prepared by catalytic hydrogenation of geraniol or by oxidation of allo-cyrnene; l-citronellol is prepared from (+) d-pinene via (+) cis-pinene to (+) 2,6-dimethyl-2,7-octadiene and, finally, isolating l-citronellol by hydrolysis of the aluminum-organo compound.

Aroma threshold values: Detection at 11 ppb to 2.2 ppm; l-form, 40 ppb

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 20 ppm: floral, rose, sweet and green with fruity citrus nuances.

Natural occurrence: l-Citronellol has been found in the plants of the Rosaceae family; d- and dl-citronellol have been identified in Verbenaceae, Labiatae, Rutaceae, Geraniaceae and others; citronellol has been reported in about 70 essential oils and in the oil of Rosa bourbonia; the Bulgarian rose oil has been reported to contain more than 50% l-citronellol, whereas East African geranium contains more than 80% of the d-isomer; the natural product is always optically active. Reported found in guava fruit, orange, bil-berry, blackcurrant, nutmeg, ginger, corn mint oil (Mentha arvensis L. var. piperascens), mustard, pennyroyal oil (Mentha pulegium L.), hop oil, tea, coriander seed, cardamom, beer, rum, and apple juice.

Citronellyl Acetate

Synonyms: Acetic acid, citronellyl ester; Citronellol acetate; Acetic acid, 3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-1-yl ester; 1-Acetoxy-3,7-dimethyloct-6-ene; Citronellyl acetate; β-Citronellyl acetate; 3,7-Dimethyl-6-octen-1-ol acetate; 3,7-Dimethyl-6-octen-1-yl acetate; Natural rhodinol, acetylated; 2-Octen-8-ol, 2,6-dimethyl-, acetate; 6-Octen-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-, acetate

CAS No.:

150-84-5

FL No.:

09.012

FEMA No.:

2311

NAS No.:

2311

CoE No.:

202

EINECS No.:

205-775-0

JECFA No.:

57

Description: Citronellyl acetate has a fresh, fruity odor reminiscent of rose and a pungent taste at the beginning, turning to sweet, apricot-like taste afterward.

Consumption: Annual: 683.33 lb

Individual: 0.0005790 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Approved. Bev.: 3 ppm; Food: 10 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2002).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 2.338 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C12H22O2/198.30

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Specifications: (JECFA, 1997)

Acid value (max)

1.0

Appearance

Colorless liquid

Assay (min)

92%

Boiling point

229°C

Refractive index

1.440–1.450 (20°C)

Solubility

1:9 in 70% alcohol; soluble in alcohol, most fixed oils; insoluble in glycerin, propylene glycol and water

Specific gravity

0.883–0.893 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

2.75

4.78

Baked goods

10.36

20.10

Chewing gum

5.68

5.68

Frozen dairy

8.13

13.93

Gelatins, puddings

6.06

10.49

Hard candy

28.33

28.33

Nonalcoholic beverages

3.99

6.54

Soft candy

10.80

19.88

Synthesis: By direct acetylation of citronellol (natural or synthetic); its physical–chemical characteristics vary, depending on the quality of the starting alcohol.

Aroma threshold values: Detection: 1 ppm

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 30 ppm: floral, green, fruity, sweet, citrus and waxy character.

Natural occurrence: Reported in the oil of citronella, Chamaecyparis lawsoniana Parl, orange juice, lemon juice, lemon and grapefruit peel oil, swangi (Citrus hystrix D.C.), ginger, tarragon, myrtle leaf, nutmeg, Cympogon citralis oil and beer.

Citronellyl Anthranilate

Synonyms: 6-Octen-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-, 2-aminobenzoate; 3,7-Dimethyloct-6-enyl 2-aminobenzoate

CAS No.:

68555-57-7

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

4086

NAS No.:

n/a

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

271-433-2

JECFA No.:

1539

Description: Colorless liquid; rose, fruity aroma.

Consumption: Odor and/or flavor used in floral, frangipanni plumeria, freesia, neroli, orange blossom fleur d’oranger, petitgrain, and rose. Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: n/a FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable (conditional). No safety concern (conditional) at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2005).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 4.628 mg

IOFI: Artificial

Empirical Formula/MW:

C17H25O2N/275.39

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Acid value (max)

1.0

Assay (min)

96%

Boiling point

160°C (0.1 mmHg) 365°C

Refractive index

1.531–1.537 (20°C)

Solubility

Insoluble in water; soluble in ethanol

Specific gravity

1.001–1.007 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 2005)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

10.00

100.00

Baked goods

10.00

50.00

Breakfast cereals

1.00

25.00

Chewing gum

5.00

25.00

Confection, frosting

10.00

50.00

Frozen dairy

1.00

5.00

Fruit ices

20.00

100.00

Gelatins, puddings

25.00

50.00

Hard candy

10.00

100.00

Jams, jellies

10.00

100.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

10.00

100.00

Processed fruits

10.00

100.00

Snack foods

5.00

25.00

Soft candy

10.00

100.00

Sweet sauce

1.00

25.00

Synthesis: n/a

Aroma threshold values: Medium strength odor, floral type.

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Not reported found in nature.

Citronellyl Butyrate

Synonyms: Butanoic acid, 3,7-dimethyl-6-octenyl ester; Butyric acid, 3,7-dime-thyl-6-octenyl ester; Citronellyl butyrate; Citronellyl n-butyrate; 2,6-Dimethyl-2-octen-8-ol, butyrate; 2,6-Dimethyl-2-octen-8-yl butyrate; 3,7-Dimethyl-6-octenyl butanoate; Natural rhodinol, butylated; 6-Octen-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-, butyrate; Rhodinyl butyrate; Butanoic acid, 3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-1-yl ester

CAS No.:

141-16-2

FL No.:

09.049

FEMA No.:

2312

NAS No.:

2312

CoE No.:

275

EINECS No.:

205-463-4

JECFA No.:

65

Description: Citronellyl butyrate has a strong, fruity and rose-like odor with sweet, plum-like taste.

Consumption: Annual: 88.33 lb

Individual: 0.00007485 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Approved. Bev.: 4 ppm; Food: 10 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2002).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 3.300 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C14H26O2/226.36

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Specifications: (JECFA, 1997)

Acid value (max)

1.0

Appearance

Colorless liquid

Assay (min)

92%

Boiling point

243°C

Refractive index

1.455–1.462 (20°C)

Solubility

1:6 to 1:9 in 80% alcohol; soluble in alcohol and most fixed oils; insoluble in glycerin, propylene glycol and water

Specific gravity

0.889–0.904 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

2.25

4.50

Baked goods

14.20

23.56

Chewing gum

0.61

0.75

Frozen dairy

13.96

22.11

Gelatins, puddings

11.41

16.34

Hard candy

22.28

22.28

Nonalcoholic beverages

5.67

8.99

Soft candy

14.63

22.97

Synthesis: n/a

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 30 ppm: fruity, sweet, waxy, green with perfume nuance.

Natural occurrence: Reported in Ceylon citronella oil, orange juice, tomato, passion fruit and juice.

Citronellyl Formate

Synonyms: 2,6-Dimethyl-2-octen-8-yl formate; 3,7-Dimethyl-6-octen-1-ol formate; 3,7-Di-methyl-6-octen-1-yl formate; Formic acid, citronellyl ester; Formic acid, 3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-1-yl ester; 6-Octen-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-, format e

CAS No.:

105-85-1

FL No.:

09.078

FEMA No.:

2314

NAS No.:

2314

CoE No.:

345

EINECS No.:

203-338-9

JECFA No.:

53

Description: Citronellyl formate has a strong, fruity, rose-like odor with a sweet, fruity taste.

Consumption: Annual: 46.67 lb

Individual: 0.00003954 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Approved. Bev.: 15 ppm; Food: 30 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2002).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 6.165 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C11H20O2/184.28

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Specifications: (JECFA, 1997)

Acid value (max)

3.0

Appearance

Colorless liquid

Assay (min)

86%

Boiling point

235°C

Refractive index

1.443–1.452 (20°C)

Solubility

1:3 in 80% alcohol; soluble in alcohol and most fixed oils; slightly soluble in propylene glycol; insoluble in glycerin and water

Specific gravity

0.890–0.903 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

6.68

11.14

Baked goods

25.35

34.54

Frozen dairy

22.90

28.81

Gelatins, puddings

17.92

25.31

Hard candy

0.15

0.15

Nonalcoholic beverages

13.02

20.72

Soft candy

28.27

37.92

Synthesis: By direct esterification of citronellol with formic acid.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 20 ppm: floral, waxy, fruity, citrus and tangerine.

Natural occurrence: Reported present in geranium essential oil and in the oils of Rosa borbonica, Cupressus lusitanica. Reported found in mandarin, satsuma and kumquat peel oil, laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), lovage root, black currant buds, basil and honey.

Citronellyl Isobutyrate

Synonyms: 3,7-Dimethyloct-6-enyl isobutyrate; Isobutyric acid, 3,7-dimethyl-6-octenyl ester; Propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, 3,7-dimethyl-6-octeny l; Propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, 3,7-di-methyl-6-octenyl ester; Rhodinyl isobutyrate; Propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, 3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-1-yl ester

CAS No.:

97-89-2

FL No.:

09.421

FEMA No.:

2313

NAS No.:

2313

CoE No.:

296

EINECS No.:

202-616-7

JECFA No.:

71

Description: Citronellyl isobutyrate has a sweet, fruity and rose-like odor with a slightly sweet, apricot-like taste.

Consumption: Annual: 25.00 lb

Individual: 0.00002118 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Approved. Bev.: 2 ppm; Food: 10 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2002).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 2.643 mg

IOFI: n/a

Empirical Formula/MW:

C14H26O2/226.36

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Specifications: (JECFA, 1997)

Acid value (max)

1.0

Appearance

Colorless liquid

Assay (min)

92%

Boiling point

249°C

Refractive index

1.440–1.448 (20°C)

Solubility

1:6 in 80% alcohol; miscible with alcohol, chloroform, ether and most fixed oils; insoluble in water

Specific gravity

0.870–0.880 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

2.57

4.43

Baked goods

17.63

22.57

Frozen dairy

0.017

0.023

Gelatins, puddings

1.00

10.00

Hard candy

0.25

0.25

Nonalcoholic beverages

1.00

10.00

Soft candy

2.70

40.00

Synthesis: By direct esterification of citronellol with isobutyric acid via azeotropic conditions or using isobutyric anhydride.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 25 ppm: waxy, fruity, green, with a citrus and tropical nuance.

Natural occurrence: Reported in Ceylon citronella oil.

Citronellyl Oxyacetaldehyde

Synonyms: Acetaldehyde, ((3,7-dimethyl-6-octenyl)oxy)-; ((3,7-Dimethyl-6-octenyl)oxy)acetaldehyde; Citronelloxyacetaldehyde; Citronellyloxyacetaldehyde; 6,10-Di-methyl-3-oxa-9-undecenal; Acetaldehyde, 2-((3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-1-yl)oxy)-

CAS No.:

7492-67-3

FL No.:

05.079

FEMA No.:

2310

NAS No.:

2310

CoE No.:

2012

EINECS No.:

231-324-2

JECFA No.:

592

Description: Citronellyl oxyacetaldehyde has a strong, floral odor.

Consumption: Annual: 1.67 lb

Individual: 0.00000141 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Used provisionally. Bev.: 1 ppm; Food: 5 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2002).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 4.317 mg

IOFI: Artificial

Empirical Formula/MW:

C12H22O2/198.30

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Appareance

Colorless viscous liquid

Assay (min)

75%

Boiling point

239; 130°C (12 mmHg)

Refractive index

1.461–1.471 (20°C)

Solubility

Insoluble in water; soluble in alcohol

Specific gravity

0.922 (20°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

0.01

1.20

Baked goods

18.45

23.25

Frozen dairy

15.40

18.25

Gelatins, puddings

23.00

30.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

8.01

10.10

Soft candy

15.35

21.15

Synthesis: Interaction of bromoacetals with sodium or potassium alcoholates.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 20 ppm: citrus, bitter, floral with a slight soapy and woody nuance.

Natural occurrence: Reported not found in nature.

Citronellyl Phenylacetate

Synonyms: Acetic acid, phenyl-, 3,7-dimethyl-6-octenyl ester; Benzeneacetic acid, 3,7- di-methyl-6-octenyl ester; 3,7-Dimethyl-6-octenyl phenylacetate; 3,7-Dimethyl-6-octenyl benzeneacetate; 3,7-Dimethyl-6-octen-1-yl phenylacetate; Benzaeneacetic acid, 3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-1-yl ester

CAS No.:

139-70-8

FL No.:

09.785

FEMA No.:

2315

NAS No.:

2315

CoE No.:

2157

EINECS No.:

205-373-5

JECFA No.:

1021

Description: Citronellyl phenylacetate has a sweet herbaceous, rose-like, yet heavy and very tenacious odor, reminiscent of rose petals.

Consumption: Annual: <1.00 lb

Individual: 0.0001341 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Used provisionally. Food: 20 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2002).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 5.879 mg

IOFI: Artificial

Empirical Formula/MW:

C18H26O2/274.40

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Acid value (max)

1.0

Appearance

Colorless, somewhat viscous liquid

Assay (min)

98%

Boiling point

342°C

Refractive index

1.492–1.510 (20°C)

Solubility

Insoluble in water; soluble in oils; miscible in ethanol at room temperature

Specific gravity

0.958–0.960 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

0.01

1.50

Baked goods

25.01

28.37

Frozen dairy

26.99

32.61

Gelatins, puddings

28.00

33.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

9.78

15.86

Soft candy

28.89

34.57

Synthesis: n/a

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Not reported found in nature.

Citronellyl Propionate

Synonyms: 3,7-Dimethyl-6-octen-1-yl propionate; 3,7-Dimethyl-6-octen-1-ol propanoate; 6-Octen-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-, propanoate; 6-Octen-1-ol-, 3,7-dimethyl-, 1-propanoate

CAS No.:

141-14-0

FL No.:

09.129

FEMA No.:

2316

NAS No.:

2316

CoE No.:

410

EINECS No.:

205-461-3

JECFA No.:

61

Description: Citronellyl propionate has a rose-like odor; bittersweet, plum-like taste.

Consumption: Annual: 26.67 lb

Individual: 0.00002259 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Approved. Bev.: 3 ppm; Food: 20 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2002).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 4.476 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C13H24O2/212.33

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Specifications: (JECFA, 1997)

Acid value (max)

1.0

Appearance

Colorless liquid

Assay (min)

90%

Boiling point

242°C

Refractive index

1.443–1.449 (20°C)

Solubility

1:3 in 80% alcohol; miscible with alcohol and most fixed oils; insoluble in water

Specific gravity

0.877–0.886 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

2.50

4.25

Baked goods

20.76

27.68

Confection, frosting

1.00

10.00

Frozen dairy

15.42

20.45

Gelatins, puddings

23.16

31.75

Hard candy

0.22

0.22

Nonalcoholic beverages

5.69

10.94

Soft candy

15.07

19.82

Synthesis: By direct esterification of citronellol with propionic acid under azeotropic conditions on using propionic anhydride.

Aroma threshold values: Detection at 2%: floral, green, waxy and citrus with fruity nuances.

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 10 ppm: floral, green, waxy, rosy and citrus with fruity nuances.

Natural occurrence: Reported found in tomato.

Citronellyl trans-2-Methyl-2-Butenoate

Synonyms: Citronellyl tiglate; Citronellyl tiglinate; 3,7-Dimethyl-6-octenyl trans-2-methyl-2-butenoate; 3,7-Dimethyl-6-octenyl 2-methylcrotonate; (E)-Citronellyl 2-methylbut-2-enoate; 3,7-Dimethyloct-6-enyl 2-methylbutanoate; 3,7-Dimethyl-6-octenyl 2-methylisocrotonate; 2-Methyl-2-butenoic acid (2E)-3,7-dimethyl-6-octenyl ester

CAS No.:

24717-85-9 84254-89-7 a

FL No.:

09.340

FEMA No.:

4295

NAS No.:

n/a

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.

246-426-2 282-535-1 a

JECFA No.:

1823

Notes:

a  CAS No.: 84254-89-7 and EINECS No.: 282-535-1 are for isomer 3,7-dimethyloct-6-enyl (Z)-2-methylbut-2-enoate.

Description: Colorless liquid; winey rosy aroma.

Consumption: Odor and/or flavor used in balsam, geranium, wild rose, tobacco, etc.

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: n/a FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 3.788 mg

IOFI: n/a

Empirical Formula/MW:

C15H26O2/238.37

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Specifications:

Assay (min)

95%

Boiling point

143–145°C (7 mmHg)

Refractive index

1.460–1.470 (20°C)

Solubility

Practically insoluble to insoluble in water; soluble in ethanol

Specific gravity

0.901–0.911 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 2007)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Baked goods

10.00

50.00

Breakfast cereal

5.00

25.00

Cheese

7.00

35.00

Condiments, relishes

5.00

25.00

Confections, frostings

10.00

50.00

Fats, oils

5.00

25.00

Fish products

2.00

10.00

Frozen dairy

7.00

35.00

Fruit ices

10.00

50.00

Gravies

20.00

110.00

Imitation dairy

7.00

35.00

Jams, jellies

20.00

110.00

Meat products

2.00

10.00

Milk products

7.00

35.00

Other grains

5.00

25.00

Poultry

2.00

10.00

Processed fruits

7.00

35.00

Seasonings, flavors

5.00

25.00

Soups

5.00

25.00

Sweet sauces

5.00

25.00

Synthesis: n/a

Aroma threshold values: Medium strength odor, floral type.

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Reported found in geranium petiole oil India (3.93%), geranium stem oil India (1.88%), geranium leaf oil Rwanda (0.14%) and geranium leaf oil India (1.40%).

Citronellyl Valerate

Synonyms: 3,7-Dimethyl-6-octen-1-yl valerate; Citronellyl valerate; 3,7-Dimethyl-6-octenyl pentanoate; 3,7-Dimethyloct-6-enyl valerate; Pentanoic acid, 3,7-dimethyl-6-octenyl ester; Pentanoic acid, 3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-1-yl este r

CAS No.:

7540-53-6

FL No.:

09.151

FEMA No.:

2317

NAS No.:

2317

CoE No.:

469

EINECS No.:

231-416-2

JECFA No.:

69

Description: Citronellyl valerate has a characteristic rose-, herb-, honey-like odor.

Consumption: Annual: < 1.00 lb

Individual: 0.00000001 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Approved. Bev.: 1 ppm; Food: 10 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (1997).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 6.139 mg

IOFI: n/a

Empirical Formula/MW:

C15H28O2/240.38

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2000)

Appearance

Liquid

Assay (min)

85% (min 98% valerate esters of citronellol and related terpene alcohols)

Boiling point

237°C

Refractive index

1.44 (20°C)

Specific gravity

0.890 (15.5°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

0.10

1.10

Baked goods

23.42

29.49

Frozen dairy

19.99

23.78

Gelatins, puddings

33.00

40.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

15.42

19.41

Soft candy

23.07

28.97

Synthesis: n/a

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Reported in the essence of Boronia citriodora.

Citrus Peel

Botanical name: Citrus spp.

Botanical family: Rutaceae and the subfamily, Aurantoideae Description: Family Rutaceae is composed of a variety of trees and thorny shrubs, but within the subfamily Aurantoideae; 6 of the 28 genera are true citrus fruit trees. Of the six, Citrus may be the most important. Citrus has a berry-type fruit characterized by a juicy pulp made of vesicles filling the segments of the fruit not occupied by seeds. The part used is the peel, either the rind or the pericarb.

Derivatives: Citrus flavonoids consist of the dried concentrate of water-soluble flavonoids from washed, de-oiled, ground peel and pulp of oranges, grapefruit and tangerines for use in special dietary foods.

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: See Citrus Peel Extract. FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: n/a

Composition: Flavonoids found in citrus are a group of naturally occurring compounds, which are among the most ubiquitous in the plant kingdom.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Citrus Peel Extract

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2318

NAS No.:

2318

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977038-62-2

Description: Citrus bioflavonoid extracts are substances considered as subfractions of the citrus peel extract. The extract is prepared from washed, de-oiled, ground peel and pulp of oranges, grapefruit and tangerines for use in special dietary foods in amounts up to 600 mg/day.

Consumption: Annual: <1.00 lb

Individual: 0.005760 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.20 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 310.535 mg

IOFI: Natural

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

1729.00

4500.00

Baked goods

1106.00

1157.00

Frozen dairy

935.40

989.30

Gelatins, puddings

750.00

800.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

542.30

542.30

Soft candy

1199.00

1250.00

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Civet

Genus species: Viverra civetta Schreber and V. zibetha Schreber (Civet cats)

Animal Family: Viverridal

Other names: Zibeth; Zibet; Zibetum

Foreign names: Civette (Fr.), Zibet (Ger.), Algalia (Sp.), Zibetto (It.)

Description: Civet cats are native to Africa. The animals are also found in India, Malaysia, Indochina and Indonesia. The product consists of odorous glandular secretion of the male and female civets. The largest quantities come from Africa, where the animals are kept captive on farms. The animal glands are drained of the secretion approximately once a week. Civet has a very strong, putrid odor, becoming sweet on dilution.

Derivatives: Absolute, tincture (10 or 20% after a preliminary maceration in 95% alcohol)

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: See Civet Absolute. FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: n/a

Composition: African civet contains approximately 1.0% skatole.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Civet Absolute

Other names: Civet extract; Civet; Civet oil; Civet, secretion; Civet (secretion); Civet tincture; Hyperabsolute civet; Oil of civet

CAS No.:

68916-26-7

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2319

NAS No.:

2319

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

272-826-1

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Civet absolute has a sweet animal-like odor, not very strong but rich and tenacious.

Consumption: Annual: 48.33 lb

Individual: 0.00004096 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.50 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 2.140 mg

IOFI: n/a *

Specifications: (Burdock, 1997)

Acid value (total)

51

Acid value (volatile insoluble acids)

2

Acid value (volatile soluble acids)

6

Ester value

26

Iodine value

38

Unsaponifiable matter (after ether extract)

62%

Physical–chemical characteristics: It is a yellowish to brownish, honey-like paste.

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

3.79

5.71

Chewing gum

1.10

1.10

Baked goods

11.35

13.10

Frozen dairy

4.74

6.01

Gelatins, puddings

6.62

10.25

Hard candy

0.25

0.25

Nonalcoholic beverages

1.32

2.11

Soft candy

11.28

14.16

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Clary

Botanical name: Salvia sclarea L.

Botanical family: Lamiaceae (Libiatae)

Other names: Clary sage

Foreign names: Sauge sclarée (Fr.), Muscateller Salbei (Ger.), Salvia muscatel (Sp.), Salvia sclarea (It.)

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2320

NAS No.:

2320

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977051-94-7

Description: Clary is a biennial or perennial plant cultivated for extractive purposes in the Mediterranean basin, central Europe and Russia. It is about 1.5 m tall with a taproot; hairy erect stalk; wide, woody, oval leaves; and white or light-violet flowers (July) in terminal clusters. The flowering tops and leaves are the parts used. Clary has an herb-like odor and wine-like taste.

Derivatives: Tincture (20% in 65% ethanol) and distillate (70 to 80% ethanol)

Consumption: Annual: <1.00 lbIndividual: 0.00000614 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.10; 582.10 FDA (other): HOC, 1992 JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 4.212 mg

IOFI: Natural

Essential oil composition: The oil contains C6, C7, C8 and C9 aldehydes, benzoic aldehyde, linalyl acetate, α- and β-pinene and camphene. The main constituents are linalyl acetate and linalool.

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

113.60

144.70

Nonalcoholic beverages

5.00

9.00

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 20 ppm: green, sweet, perfume-like with a slight floral spice backnote.

Clary Oil

Other names: Clary, oil (Salvia sclarea L.); Clary sage oil; Oil of clary sage; Oil of muscatel; Oil, clary sage; Sage (clary) oil; Sage (clary) oil, absolute; Sage oil clary; Sclaree sage oil

CAS No.:

8016-63-5

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2321

NAS No.:

2321

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: The essential oil, sometimes called muscatel, is obtained by steam or water distillation of flowering tops and leaves with yields ranging between 0.7 to 1.5%. It is produced in large quantities in France, Russia and Morocco. The Italian production is fairly small.

Consumption: Annual: 450.00 lb

Individual: 0.0003813 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.20; 582.20 FDA (other): See Clary. JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 4.658 mg

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: (FCC, 1996)

Acid value (max)

2.5

Angular rotation

Between –6° and –20°

Assay

Not less than 48% and not more than 75% esters, calculated as linalyl acetate (C12H20O2)

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Passes test

Refractive index

Between 1.458 and 1.473 (20°C)

Solubility in alcohol

Passes test

Specific gravity

Between 0.886 and 0.929 (25°C)

Physical–chemical characteristics: The essential oil of French production is a yellow liquid. The physical–chemical characteristics vary, depending on the source; minor components also vary. The oil is soluble in most fixed oils, and in mineral oil up to three volumes, but becomes opalescent on further dilution. It is insoluble in glycerin and in propylene glycol.

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

100.00

100.00

Baked goods

9.00

13.00

Condiments, relishes

10.00

20.00

Frozen dairy

1.20

3.90

Nonalcoholic beverages

0.41

1.80

Soft candy

2.10

5.30

Aroma threshold values: Detection at 1.0%: green, sweet, floral, spicy, tea and hay-like with a fruity nuance.

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 20 ppm: green, sweet, spicy floral, woody, minty with hay and tobacco notes.

Cloves

Botanical name: Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb.

Botanical family: Myrtaceae

Other names: Caryophyllus

Foreign names: Girofle (Fr.), Nelken (Ger.), Jerofle Clavus (Sp.), Garofano (It.)

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2327

NAS No.:

2327

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977007-79-6

Description: Cloves are dried, unopened flower buds and twig tips of the evergreen tree Eugenla caryophyllata Thunberg. The clove tree can grow to 20 m (66 ft), and is native to tropical regions of Asia (Molucca Islands, Réunion, Penang, Zanzibar, Pemba, Tanzania, Malagasy Republic and Madagascar) and South America. Cloves have been used in China and India for centuries, even before the time of Christ. Cloves entered the western European market in the sixth century. In the United States, cloves have been used since colonial times. The principal use of cloves is in flavoring of foods and tobacco; minor uses of cloves are as analgesics and germicides.

The quality of the clove product is dependent on the development stage of the flower bud. Clove buds are typically dark brown with four calyx lobes. Buds and stems are harvested by hand, sun-dried and marketed. The highest quality buds are sold as whole cloves, whereas lower quality buds, stems and leaves are used in the production of essential oils. The aroma is strongly aromatic and spicy. The flavor is warm. A major component of clove is eugenol, which has served as a medicinal agent for the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers, disinfectant for root canals, local anodyne for relief of hypersensitive dentin and inflamed vital pulps and a component of temporary fillings for carious teeth.

Derivatives: Tincture (20% in 60 to 80% ethanol), extract, oleoresins (from buds only), and the various essential oils

Derivative names: Clove bud extract, clove bud oil, clove bud oleoresin, clove lead oil, clove stem oil

Consumption: Annual: 508333.33 lb

Individual: 0.4307 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 184.1257; 184.1021, 582.10 FDA (other): Approved for OTC use (21 CFR 310.544 as cloves); excipient (CDER, 1996, as oil); HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 172.722 mg

IOFI: Natural

Essential oil composition: Clove buds are known to yield approximately 15 to 20% of the volatile oil that is responsible for the characteristic aroma and flavor. The stems yield about 5% and the leaves yield about 2% oil. The bud also contains a tannin complex, a gum and resin and a number of glucosides of sterols. Clove bud oil contains mainly eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol). Other constituents include acetyleugenol (10%) and small quantities of gallic acid, sesquiterpenes, furfural, vanillin and methyl-n-amyl ketone.

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

1.59

3.00

Condiments, relishes

1015.00

2359.00

Baked goods

385.00

1238.00

Cheese

15.00

15.00

Fats, oils

184.00

338.50

Frozen dairy

20.00

40.00

Fruit juice

187.20

332.00

Gravies

32.34

131.9

Meat products

304.90

969.30

Nonalcoholic beverages

129.00

141.10

Processed vegetables

484.40

484.40

Soft candy

219.40

225.20

Soups

153.40

795.50

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Clove Bud Extract

Other names: Clove, extract; Clove bud, extract (Ieugenia spp.)

CAS No.:

84961-50-2

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2322

NAS No.:

2322

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

284-638-7

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Clove bud extract is obtained by solvent extraction of clove buds. The odor of the clove bud extract is oily-sweet, intensely rich and spicy, slightly sour-fruity and refreshing. The odor is very closely reminiscent of dry clove buds.

Consumption: Annual: 3216.67 lb

Individual: 0.002725 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 184.1257, 582.20 FDA (other): Approved for OTC use (21 CFR 310.544, as cloves); excipient (CDER, 1996, as oil); HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 41.741 mg

IOFI: Natural

Physical–chemical characteristics: The clove bud extract is a semisolid mass or viscous liquid of dark-brown or pale olive-green color.

Composition: Extract contains the essential oil, triglycerides and other lipids

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

125.00

150.00

Baked goods

108.00

127.00

Condiments, relishes

130.00

180.00

Frozen dairy

26.00

39.75

Gelatins, puddings

315.00

350.00

Meat products

165.30

220.90

Nonalcoholic beverages

11.63

14.58

Soft candy

78.75

102.50

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Clove Bud Oil

Other names: Clove oil; Clove absolute; Clove bud absolute; Clove oil, bud; Clove oil, redistilled; Clove oil, stem; Oil of clove, Oil of clove bud; Oils, clove; Oils, clove stem; Oleum caryohylii

CAS No.:

8000-34-8

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2323

NAS No.:

2323

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Clove bud oil is obtained by the distillation of buds with water or steam. The yield is typically between 15 and 18%, but is dependent on the quality of the buds, precautions exercised and distiller efficiency. Of the clove oils, clove bud oil is the most expensive. Approximately 50 tons is produced each year in Madagascar. The oil has the characteristic clove-like aroma and a burning, spicy flavor.

Consumption: Annual: 53500.00 lb

Individual: 0.04533 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 184.1257, 582.20 FDA (other): Approved for OTC use (21 CFR 310.544, as cloves); excipient (CDER, 1996, as oil); HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 25.399 mg

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: (FCC, 1996)

Angular rotation

Between –1.5° and 0°

Assay

Not less than 85%, by volume, of phenols as eugenol

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Passes test

Phenol

Passes test

Refractive index

Between 1.527 and 1.535 (20°C)

Solubility in alcohol

Passes test

Specific gravity

Between 1.038 and 1.060 (25°C)

Physical–chemical characteristics: The oil is clear and mobile. The color usually darkens with age.

Essential oil composition: Clove bud oil contains 70 to 90% eugenol, 2 to 17% eugenyl acetate, 5 to 12% α- and β-caryophyllene and traces of caryophyllene epoxide, gallic acid, flavonoids, oleanolic acid, rhamnetin, methyl salicylate, methyl-n-amyl ketone, methyl-n-heptyl ketone, methyl-n-amyl carbinol, methyl-n-heptyl carbinol, methyl alchohol, methyl benzoate, furfural, α-methyl furfural, furfuryl alchohol, vanillin and possibly β-pinene, valeraldehyde, methyl furfuryl alcohol and dimethyl furfural. *

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

152.50

198.10

Baked goods

37.18

86.63

Chewing gum

191.60

2847.00

Condiments, relishes

59.52

91.19

Fats oils

21.00

85.00

Frozen dairy

35.63

40.78

Gelatins, puddings

23.12

28.15

Gravies

8.44

258.10

Hard candy

19.22

161.70

Meat products

127.00

161.70

Nonalcoholic beverages

11.59

14.50

Processed vegetables

11.79

17.50

Snack foods

160.00

320.00

Soft candy

96.85

138.10

Soups

1.41

9.86

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 20 ppm: sweet, woody, eugenol, spicy, medicinal, fresh and slightly balsamic with a nice bite.

Natural occurrence: Reported found in clove bud.

Clove Bud Oleoresin

Other names: Clove bud, oleoresin (Eugenia spp.)

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2324

NAS No.:

2324

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977017-85-8

Description: Clove bud oleoresin is a commercial name for various extracts of clove buds. The direct extraction product from the buds with boiling ethyl alcohol is quite common. Its odor is often perceptibly affected by the presence of small amounts of solvent (ethyl alcohol). Upon aging, the oleoresins develop a wine-like note, but the overall fragrance is very typical of the spice itself. The alcohol-extracted oleoresin generally makes for a more powerful perfume and flavor material than any of the other types of extract. Also see Clove.

Consumption: Annual: 1300.00 lb

Individual: 0.001101 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 184.1257; 582.20 FDA (other): Approved for OTC use (21 CFR 310.544, as cloves); excipient (CDER, 1996, as oil); HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 102.342 mg

IOFI: Natural

Physical–chemical characteristics: It is a viscous, brown liquid, occasionally separating waxy particles on standing.

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

725.00

775.00

Baked goods

241.80

277.50

Condiments, relishes

126.80

150.00

Frozen dairy

160.00

175.00

Gelatins, puddings

122.50

148.90

Gravies

265.70

524.60

Meat products

240.10

306.40

Nonalcoholic beverages

127.30

146.90

Soft candy

625.00

650.00

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Clove Leaf Oil

Other names: Clove buds or leaves; Cloveleaf oil; Clove leaf oil (Eugenia spp.); Clove leaf oil Indonesia; Clove leaf oil rectified; Clove oil, leaf; Oil clove leaf; clove leaf; Oil of clove leaf, Madagscar

CAS No.:

8015-97-2

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2325

NAS No.:

2325

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Clove leaf oil is obtained by steam distillation. Typical yield of oil from clove leaves is 2%. Approximately 2,000 tons of clove leaf oil is produced worldwide. The main producers of clove leaf oil are Madagascar (900 tons), Indonesia (850 tons), Tanzania (200 tons), Sri Lanka and Brazil. It has the characteristic odor of eugenol.

Consumption: Annual: 44333.33 lb

Individual: 44333.33 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 184.1257, 582.20 FDA (other): Approved for OTC use (21 CFR 310.544, as cloves); excipient (CDER, 1996, as oil); HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 38.516 mg

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: (FCC, 1996)

Angular rotation

Between –2° and 0°

Assay

Not less than 84% and not more than 88%, by volume, of phenols as eugenol

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Passes test

Refractive index

Between 1.531 and 1.535 (20°C)

Solubility in alcohol

Passes test

Specific gravity

Between 1.036 and 1.046

Physical–chemical characteristics: Freshly distilled oil is yellow, but turns dark violet after aging in iron containers. It is soluble in propylene glycol and in most fixed oils, with slight opalescence. It is relatively insoluble in glycerin and in mineral oil.

Essential oil composition: The oil has a high concentration of eugenol, making it a preferred source for eugenol and subsequent conversion to isoeugenol, derivatives of eugenol and vanillin. Trace quantities of naphthalene and a bicyclic sesquiterpene alcohol may be present in the leaf oil. Little or no eugenyl acetate is present.

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

84.98

104.90

Baked goods

39.66

99.53

Chewing gum

284.90

854.30

Condiments, relishes

21.88

45.31

Frozen dairy

17.67

24.21

Gelatins, puddings

5.06

9.80

Gravies

260.00

270.00

Hard candy

65.52

65.52

Meat products

318.80

457.20

Nonalcoholic beverages

9.38

12.11

Processed vegetables

11.68

11.88

Soft candy

59.97

100.90

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 20 ppm: sweet with clove, spicy, woody, eugenol and medicinal nuances.

Clove Stem Oil

Other names: Clove stems; Clove stem oil (Eugenia spp.)

CAS No.:

8015-98-3

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2328

NAS No.:

2328

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Clove stem oil is obtained by steam distillation of the stem upon which the clove buds grow. Prior to distillation, the stems are sun-dried, but not pulverized. See Clove and Clove Leaf Oil above. The oil has a strong spicy, somewhat woody, but quite pleasant odor. The odor is not very different from that of eugenol (which is sweeter and less woody). Typical yield of oil from clove stems is 5%. Approximately 100 tons of clove stem oil is produced each year by Tanzania, Madagascar and Indonesia. Also see Clove.

Consumption: Annual: 29166.67 lb

Individual: 0.02471 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 184.1257, 582.20 FDA (other): Approved for OTC use (21 CFR 310.544, as cloves); excipient (CDER, 1996, as oil); HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 66.658 mg

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: (FCC, 1996)

Angular rotation

Between –1.5° and 0°

Assay

Not less than 89% and not more than 95%, by volume, of phenols as eugenol

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Passes test

Refractive index

Between 1.534 and 1.538 (20°C)

Solubility in alcohol

Passes test

Specific gravity

Between 1.048 and 1.056 (25°C)

Physical–chemical characteristics: When fairly fresh and well stored it is a pale-yellow to straw-yellow liquid. It is soluble in fixed oils and in propylene glycol, but it is relatively insoluble in glycerin and in mineral oil.

Essential oil composition: Similar to the leaf oil, clove stem oil has a high composition of eugenol, making it a preferred source for eugenol and subsequent conversion to isoeugenol, derivatives of eugenol and vanillin. Caryophyllene, furfural and methyl alcohol are also present. Trace quantities of naphthalene and a bicyclic sesquiterpene alcohol may be present in the stem oil. Little or no eugenyl acetate is present.

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

500.00

600.00

Baked goods

32.23

40.89

Chewing gum

139.00

186.60

Condiments, relishes

16.19

60.25

Frozen dairy

107.10

129.40

Gelatins, puddings

99.83

124.70

Hard candy

203.60

1071.00

Meat products

432.10

524.60

Nonalcoholic beverages

45.86

52.61

Soft candy

391.20

414.40

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Clover

Botanical name: Trifolium species

Botanical family: Fabaceae

Foreign names: Trefle (Fr.), Klee (Gr.), Trifolglio (It.)

CAS No.:

977002-83-7

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

6187

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Clover is a tufted or diffuse herb with trifoliate leaves and toothed leaflets. Flowers consist of dense heads or spikes. More than 80 varieties of this herb are recognized. Varieties grown in Europe include T. pratense L. (reddish-pink flowers), T. repens

L. and T. incarnatum L. T. pratense L. is also grown in central and northern Asia. The flowers have an intense and unpleasant odor.

Derivatives: Soft dried extract

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 2.1 CFR 133.186, 182.10, 582.10 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: n/a

Essential oil composition: The main constituents of clover are coumarin, genistein, pectolinarin and bichanin A. The herb red clover (Trifolium pratense) contains isoflavones, genistein and daidzein. Analysis of the flavonoids and their glycoside malonates of the flowers extract of red clover (T. pratense) resulted in approximately 20 flavonoid glycoside malonates in the flower extract. Eight were identified as genistin 6ʺ-O-malonate, formononetin 7-O-beta-D-glucoside 6ʺ-O-malonate, biochanin A 7-O-beta-D-glucoside 6ʺ-O-malonate, trifoside 6ʺ-O-malonate, irilone 4ʹ-O-beta-D-glucoside 6ʺ-O-malonate, pratensein 7-O-beta-D-glucoside 6ʺ-O-malonate, isoquercitrin 6ʺ-O-malonate, and 3-methylquercetin 7-O-beta-D-glucoside 6ʺ-O-malonate. About 15 other flavonoids and clovamides were proved to be present in this extract. *

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Clover Extract

CAS No.:

977070-51-1

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

6188

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977070-51-1

Description: See Clover.

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.20, 582.20 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: Natural

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Clover Oil

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

6189

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977042-18-4

Description: Obtained by steam distillation of dried or fresh flowers. Yield of oil from T. pratense is approximately 0.006% (fresh flower) and 0.028% (dried flower). The odor is intense and unpleasant.

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.20, 582.20 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: Specific gravity at 20°C: 0.9476; Optical rotation: +4°10ʹ

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Clover Tops Red Extract

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2326

NAS No.:

2326

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977038-65-5

Description: See Clover.

Consumption: Annual: 23.33 lb

Individual: 0.00001977 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.20; 582.20 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 4.794 mg

IOFI: Natural

Physical–chemical characteristics: Appearance: Free flowing fine powder. Moisture: <8% loss on dry.

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Cheese

97.75

97.75

Baked goods

9.35

12.79

Frozen dairy

1.73

3.09

Gravies

1.25

1.25

Jams, jellies

400.00

525.0

Nonalcoholic beverages

1.66

2.77

Soft candy

14.67

23.35

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Coca

Botanical name: Erythroxylon coca Lam.

Botanical family: Erythroxylaceae

Foreign names: Coca (Fr.), Coca (Ger.), Coca (Sp.), Coca (It.)

Description: A shrub that grows 3 to 4 m (10 to 13 ft) tall in the tropical regions. The plant is native to Peru, but grown throughout South America, Java, India and Ceylon. Branches are slender and the leaves alternate and are olive green. The flowers are small, axillary with a tea-like odor, and a slightly bitter taste. Ancient Peruvian Indians chewed coca leaves mixed with ashes to relieve hunger, thirst and body fatigue. The word “coca” comes from the Aymara word q’oka, which means “food for travelers and workers.”

Derivatives: A fluid, tincture, soft aqueous extract.

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.20 (oils, oleoresins and natural extractives); 582.20 (oils, oleoresins and natural extractives); 1308.12 (Schedule II controlled substance) FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: n/a

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Coca Leaf Extract

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2329

NAS No.:

2329

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.:

977073-62-3

Description: Effects of coca leaf and its extracts are distinct from those of cocaine, which is but one of a number of active compounds in the leaf. An extract from the coca leaf—though not cocaine—is still used in the popular soft drinks as a flavoring agent.

Consumption: Annual: <1.00 lb

Individual: 0.00002807 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.20 (oils, oleoresins and natural extractives); 582.20 (oils, oleoresins and natural extractives); 1308.12 (Schedule II controlled substance) FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 27.980 mg

IOFI: Natural

Composition: Alkaloid content of coca leaves varies between 0.5 and 1.5%. However, Java coca leaves may contain 2.5% alkaloids. The main alkaloid in coca leaves is cocaine (50%). The pharmacologic value of coca leaf is derived from its relatively high cocaine content. Therefore, derivatives for flavor use must be decocainized. Other constituents include benzoylecgonine, cinnamyl cocaine, α- and β-truxilline, hydrine and cuskhygrine. The essential oil of coca leaves contains methyl salicylate, acetone and methanol (Burdock, 1997).

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

40.00

130.00

Frozen dairy

397.50

550.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

141.20

201.20

Soft candy

313.70

412.50

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cochineal

Genus and species: Coccus cacti L. Family: Coccidae

CAS No.:

1343-78-8

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2330

NAS No.:

n/a

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Cochineal is a red coloring material from the dried bodies of the female insect Coccus cacti and harvested from cultivated cacti. The raw material is obtained primarily from the Canary Islands and parts of South America. Boiling cochineal with mineral acid produces carmine red (ClH12O7). Precipitating a mixture of cochineal and alum produces a bright red pigment. Cochineal is used as a color additive in food, drugs and cosmetics. It is also used as a microscopic stain and biological marker.

Derivatives: Cochineal has been traditionally extracted with water or aqueous alcohol at 90 to 100°C by a batch or continuous process.

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 73et seq. FDA (other): JECFA: ADI: No ADI allocated for cochineal extract (1977)

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 0.384 mg

IOFI: n/a

Essential oil composition: The principal pigment in cochineal is a protein-bound glycoside of the anthraquinone, carminic acid.

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

7.00

100.00

Meat products

2.00

4.00

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cochineal Extract

Other names: 2-Anthracenecarboxylic acid, 7-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-9,10-dihydro-3,5,6,8-tetrahydroxy-1-methyl-9,10-dioxo-; 2-Anthracenecarboxylic acid, 7-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-9,10-dihydro-3,5,6,8-tetrahydroxy-1-methy-l-9,10-dioxo; 1-Anthroic acid,9,10-dihydro-2,5,7,8-tetrahydroxy-4-methyl-9,10-dioxo-6-(2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxyhexanoyl)-; Carmin e; Carminic acid; Cinatural red 4; C.I. Natural Red 4; Cochineal; Cochineal tincture; 7-α-d-Glucopyranosyl-9,10-dihydro-3,5,6,8-tetrahydroxy-1-methyl-9,10-dioxo-2-anthracene-carboxylic acid

CAS No.:

1260-17-9

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2330

NAS No.:

1309

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

215-023-3

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Cochineal extract is a concentrated solution obtained after removing alcohol from an aqueous–alcoholic extract of cochineal (Dactylopius coccus Costa, also called Coccus cati L.). This extract is used as a color additive, the primary colorant being carminic acid.

Consumption: Annual: 3166.67 lb

Individual: 0.002683 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 73et seq. FDA (other): JECFA: ADI: No ADI allocated for cochineal extract (1977)

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 0.384 mg

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: (Burdock, 1997)

Arsenic (as As)

Not less than 1 ppm

Carminic acid

Not less than 1.8%

Lead (as Pb)

Not more than 10 ppm

Methyl alcohol

Not more than 150 ppm

pH

Between 5.0 and 5.5

Total solids

Between 5.7 and 6.3%

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

7.00

100.00

Meat products

2.00

4.00

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cocoa Extract

CAS No.:

84649-99-0

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

6376

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

283-480-6

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Cocoa extract is one of the three main products obtained from cocoa seeds. The other two products are cocoa powder and cocoa butter. Following curing and fermentation, the beans are dried and roasted to yield the desired flavor, color and aroma.

Consumption: Annual: 198333.33 lb

Individual: 0.1680 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.20, 582.20 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: Natural

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Coffee (Concentrate Pure)

Botanical name: Coffea arabica L.

Botanical family: Rubiaceae

Foreign names: Café (Fr.), Kaffee (Ger.), Café (Sp.), Caffé (It.)

CAS No.:

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

n/a

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS

977091-25-0

Description: A shrub native to Ethiopia and now cultivated in tropical and equatorial regions. It can grow 10 m (33 ft) tall, but is pruned to 4 to 5 m (13 to 16 ft) when cultivated. The branches are long with persistent leaves and white flowers. The ovary develops into an ovoidal berry. The berry turns red as it ripens and contains two seeds (beans). The raw beans are gray or yellow in color; the exact color depends on the quality of the bean. When roasted, the beans darken. Coffee has a distinct aroma and bitter taste.

Derivatives: Infusion, soft extract, dried extract, tincture (20% in 40 to 70% ethanol) and distillate (65% proof alcohol).

Consumption: Annual: <1.00 lb

Individual: 0.003874 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 135.140, 163et seq., 182.20 (as oils, oleoresins and natural extractives), 582.20 (as oils, oleoresins and natural extractives) FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: n/a

Composition: Roasted coffee beans are known to contain over 1,000 compounds identified as volatile flavor components. These volatiles include pyrazines, aldehydes, furans, acids and thiols. Pyrazines (2-methoxy-3-isopropyl pyrazine, 2-methoxy-3-isobutyl pyrazine, etc.) contribute as much as 14% of volatiles in roasted coffee. Three furanones also contribute to the aroma/flavor characteristic of roasted coffee, which include 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone, 5-ethyl-4-methyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone and 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone. Constituents present in the oil of the bean include furfural, sulfur derivatives and volatile acids. The stimulation effect of coffee is due to the presence of alkaloids (caffeine, adenine, guanine, xanthine, etc.).

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Coffee Extract

CAS No.:

84650-00-0

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

6192

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

283-481-1

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Roasted coffee beans consist of soluble and insoluble products. Under laboratory conditions, it is possible to extract a high percentage of the soluble compounds, whereas in normal household brews, this percentage is likely to be only 15 to 25%. Yields and concentrations vary widely due to differences in beans, the size of the grinds, type of brewing process and degree of roasting. In general, home brewing of coffee uses 42, 48 and 57 g of ground, roasted coffee per liter of water in the United States, United Kingdom and Europe, respectively. Therefore, the final beverage consists of <2% w/w soluble products of coffee. Soluble coffee extract is the product consisting of the dried solids prepared from a water extract or water extracts of coffee.

Consumption: Annual: 276666.67 lb

Individual: 0.2344 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 135.140, 163et seq., 182.20, 582.20 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: Natural

Composition: Aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 13 compounds as important contributors to the aroma of the roasted coffee: 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methional, 3-mercapto-3-methylbutylformate, 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon), 4-ethylguaiacol, 5-ethyl-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-2(5H)-furanone, 4-vinylguaiacol and (E)-beta-damascenone

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 500 ppm: bitter, astringent roasted coffee with burnt brown hydrolyzed vegetable protein nuances and a lingering bitter coffee aftertaste.

Coffee Extract Solid

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

n/a

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.

977091-26-1

Description: See Coffee.

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 135.140, 163et seq., 173et seq.; 182.20, 582.20 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: Natural

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 75 ppm: Coffee oil has a beany, roasted coffee taste with an astringent, brown bitter aftertaste.

Cognac Oil

Source: Wine lees and dregs

Foreign names: Lie de vin (Fr.), Cognacoel (Ger.), Vinaccioli (It.)

Description: Cognac is a by-product from the distillation of cognac (brandy). It is present in cognac to the extent of approximately 2%. The aromatic substances present in cognac oil are derived partly from the activities of the particular yeast used and partly from the fermented grapes. It has an intensely strong, almost harsh fruity, oily-fatty, yet green herbaceous odor of outstanding tenacity and great diffuse power. Also see Cognac Green and Cognac White oil.

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.50, 582.50 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: Natural

Physical–chemical characteristics: Cognac oil is a pale-yellow or greenish, somewhat oily liquid.

Aroma threshold values: Aroma characteristics at 1.0%: sweet, fruity estry, winy, fatty, waxy, alcoholic rum, whiskey and fusel-like with fermented pineapple nuances.

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 10 ppm: sweet, estry fruity and slightly winy, waxy and slightly soapy with alcoholic whiskey-like depth notes, fruity pineapple nuance.

Cognac Green Oil

Other names: Cognac, green, oil; Ethyl oenanthate; Natural cognac oil; Oils, cogna c; Wineless oil

CAS No.:

8016-21-5

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2331

NAS No.:

2331

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

232-403-4

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Cognac green oil is formed during the fermentation of yeast and other sediments in wine lees or from the residual cakes of wine expression in 0.07 to 0.12% and 0.036 and 0.066% yields, respectively. It is the primary constituent responsible for the distinct cognac aroma in wines (i.e., a fruity note).

Consumption: Annual: 733.33 lb

Individual: 0.0006214 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.50; 582.50 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 14.628 mg

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: (FCC, 1966)

Acid value

Between 32 and 70

Angular rotation

Between –1° and +2°

Ester value

Between 200 and 245

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Passes test

Refractive index

Between 1.427 and 1.430 (20°C)

Solubility in alcohol

Passes test

Specific gravity

Between 0.864 and 0.870

Physical–chemical characteristics: Cognac green oil is a green to bluish-green liquid. It is soluble in most fixed oils and in mineral oil. It is very slightly soluble in propylene glycol and is insoluble in glycerin.

Essential oil composition: Contains aldehydes (acetaldehyde, cuminaldehyde, formaldehyde), acetone, various esters, acids and alcohols.

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

215.40

240.50

Baked goods

39.25

55.65

Chewing gum

3.67

45.31

Condiments, relishes

0.79

1.68

Frozen dairy

34.49

47.26

Gelatins, puddings

25.71

42.06

Gravies

0.35

0.75

Hard candy

6.73

8.41

Nonalcoholic beverages

6.04

38.85

Soft candy

33.17

46.16

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cognac White Oil

CAS No.:

8016-21-5

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2332

NAS No.:

2332

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

232-403-4

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.

977050-49-9

Description: Cognac white oil is obtained by rectifying raw cognac oil. Cognac white oil exhibits an intense, green, herbaceous odor with a fruity undertone.

Consumption: Annual: 933.33 lb

Individual: 0.0007909 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.50, 582.50 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 3.617 mg

IOFI: Natural

Physical–chemical characteristics: The oil may appear slightly yellow.

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

4.29

12.32

Baked goods

20.27

37.31

Chewing gum

22.01

637.70

Fats, oils

0.75

1.15

Frozen dairy

5.93

15.91

Gelatins, puddings

5.93

24.35

Hard candy

1.04

1.65

Nonalcoholic beverages

3.55

8.11

Soft candy

6.21

17.46

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Copaiba

Botanical name: South American species of Copaifera L.

Botanical family: Leguminosae

Other names: Balsams, copaiba; Balsam capivi; Balsam copaiba; Balsam copaiba, dewaxed; Copaiba; Copaiba balsam; Copaiba balsam extract; Copaiba oleoresin; Jesuit’s balsam

Foreign names: Copahu (Fr.), Copaiva (Ger.), Copaiba (Sp.), Copaive (It.)

CAS No.:

8001-61-4

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

6040

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

232-288-0

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: The commercially most important species of Copaifera are C. reticulata Ducke, C. guayanensis Benth, C. multijuga Hayne, C. officinalis L., C. martii var. rigida and C. coriacea. All species consist of highly branched trees growing in the northern regions of South America (Brazil, Venezuela and Colombia). The trees yield an oleoresin that gathers in pockets of the tree and is collected by drilling holes in the trunk. This resin is commercially known as copaiba balsam. It has a characteristic aromatic odor. It is slightly bitter and has a pungent taste.

Consumption: Annual: 18.33 lb

Individual: 0.00001553 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: Natural.

Specifications: (Burdock, 1997). Depending on the sources, specifications of copaiba resin vary considerably.

Acid value

48–86

Essential oil content

26–63%

Optical rotation

–15°45ʹ to –37°10ʹ

Specific gravity

0.888–1.004 (15°C)

Physical–chemical characteristics: Copaiba resin is a viscous, pale-yellow to yellowish-brown liquid. However, depending on the sources, the physical–chemical characteristics can vary considerably.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Copaiba Oil

Other names: Copaiba oil; Copaiba, oil; Oil of copaiba; Oils, copaiba

CAS No.:

8013-97-6

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

6041

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Obtained by steam distillation of the natural resin, the Brazilian quality is preferred because of its higher content of essential oil. It has a characteristic odor and aromatic, slightly bitter, spicy taste.

Consumption: Annual: 266.67 lb

Individual: 0.0002259 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: (FCC, 1996)

Angular rotation

Between –7° and –33°

Gurjun oil

Passes test

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Passes test

Refractive index

Between 1.493 and 1.500 (20°C)

Specific gravity

Between 0.880 and 0.907 (25°C)

Physical–chemical characteristics: The oil is a colorless to slightly yellow liquid. It is soluble in alcohol, most fixed oils, and mineral oil. It is insoluble in glycerin and practically insoluble in propylene glycol.

Essential oil composition: Main constituents include alpha- and beta-caryophyllene, l-cadinene and other sesquiterpenes.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Coriander

Botanical name: Coriandrum sativum L.

Botanical family: Umbelliferae

Foreign names: Coriandre (Fr.), Koriander (Ger.), Gilantro (Sp.), Coriandolo (It.)

Other names: Coriander extract

CAS No.:

84775-50-8

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2333

NAS No.:

2333

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

283-880-0

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.

977007-81-0

Description: An annual, herbaceous plant originally from the Middle East, it grows from 25 to 60 cm (9 to 24 in.) in height. It has thin, spindle-shaped roots, erect stalk, alternate leaves and small, pinkish-white flowers. It flowers from June to July and yields round fruits consisting of two pericarps. The part used is the ripe fruits (seeds). When ripe, the fruits exhibit a warm, pleasant odor.

Derivatives: Infusion (3%), tincture and fluid extract. Also, a brownish-yellow liquid, oleoresin, is produced from selected quality seed.

Consumption: Annual: 1,501,666.67 lb

Individual: 1.2725 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.10, 501.22, 582.10 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 335.527 mg

IOFI: n/a

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

259.00

1045.00

Baked goods

513.80

1491.00

Condiments, relishes

591.40

2518.00

Cheese

303.00

303.00

Fats, oils

2508.00

3162.00

Frozen dairy

1.00

2.00

Gravies

357.6

1429.00

Meat products

1656.00

5205.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

399.70

399.70

Other grain

123.00

123.00

Snack foods

900.00

900.00

Soft candy

10.00

49.99

Soups

814.30

5000.00

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Coriander Oil

Other names: Coriander Oil; Coriander, oil; Coriander fruit oil; Oil of coriander; Oils, coriander

CAS No.:

8008-52-4

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2334

NAS No.:

2334

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Obtained by steam distillation of the dried fully ripe fruits (seeds), which are comminuted just before distilling; yields range between 0.3 and 1.1%. It has a characteristic odor of linalool. It has a mild, sweet, warm, aromatic flavor. The floral–balsamic undertone and peppery–woody, suave top note are characteristic features of this delightful fragrance.

Derivatives: Infusion (3%), tincture and fluid extract.

Consumption: Annual: 58000.00 lb

Individual: 0.04915 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.20; 582.20 FDA (other): See Coriander. JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 16.641 mg

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: (FCC, 1996)

Angular rotation

Between +8° and +15°

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Passes test

Refractive index

Between 1.462 and 1.472 (20°C)

Solubility in alcohol

Passes test

Specific gravity

Between 0.863 and 0.875 (25°C)

Physical–chemical characteristics: The oil is a clear, mobile, colorless to light-yellow liquid.

Essential oils composition: The main constituents of the oil include d- and dl-alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, dipentene, p-cymene, d-linalool, aldehyde C10, geraniol and acetic acid.

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

105.70

121.20

Baked goods

53.60

62.06

Chewing gum

0.09

6.62

Condiments, relishes

46.02

109.7

Confection, frosting

8.90

13.80

Frozen dairy

39.15

47.35

Gelatins, puddings

26.18

32.86

Hard candy

7.51

7.51

Meat products

43.00

68.47

Nonalcoholic beverages

2.77

8.94

Soft candy

42.14

46.91

Aroma threshold values: Detection: 37 ppm

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 50 ppm: sweet, fresh, herbal, spicy, terpy and cilantro-like.

Cork Oak

Botanical name: Quercus suber L. or Q. occidentalis Gray

Botanical family: Fagaceae

Foreign names: Sughero (It.)

CAS No.:

977038-68-8

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

6042

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Cork oak is an evergreen tree that grows to 15 m (50 ft) high. It has a broad, round-topped head and thick, deeply furrowed, spongy, elastic bark. Its leaves are ovate to oblong and the fruits are short-stalked. The acorn is ovate with thick scales. It is native to southern Europe, northern Africa, eastern India and California. Q. occidentalis differs chiefly in that its fruits ripen the second year and has less persistent leaves. Its bark is not distinguished commercially from that of true cork oak. The bark is the part used.

Consumption: Annual: <1.00 lb

Individual: 0.01453 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: Natural

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cornmint Oil, Mentha Arvensis L.

Botanical name: Mentha arvensis var. piperascens

Botanical family: Labiatae

Other names: Corn mint oil; Cornmint oil; Japanese mint oil; Mentha arvensis oil; Mentha arvensos oil (Commint oil) (Mentha arvensis); Mentha oil; Oil Mentha arvensis; Oils, mint, Mentha arvensis piperascens; Wild mint oil; Field mint oil

CAS No.:

68917-18-0

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

4219

NAS No.:

N/A

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: The oil is steam distilled from the herb of Mentha arvensis L. immediately prior to the inflorescence of the plant. It is known in the United States as mint oil or cornmint oil, while it is quite commonly called peppermint oil in other parts of the world. The latter term is definitely wrong and misleading. Only the plant Mentha piperita yields true peppermint oil.

Consumption: Odor and/or flavor used in herbal, mint and peppermint. Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: n/a FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 672.112 mg

IOFI: Natural

Essential oil composition:

Physical–chemical characteristics: Colorless to pale yellow clear liquid; minty herbal fresh aroma.

Specifications:

Optical rotation

–21 to –28 (20°C)

Refractive index

1.449–1.462 (20°C)

Solubility

Insoluble in water and glycerin; soluble in fixed oils, paraffin oil, and propylene glycol

Specific gravity

0.895–0.899 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 2005)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

2240.00

5000.00

Baked goods

2000.00

Chewing gum

8300.00

16000.00

Condiments, relishes

500.00

1000.00

Confection, frosting

650.00

1500.00

Frozen dairy

110.00

200.00

Fruit ices

110.00

200.00

Gelatins, puddings

2200.00

4000.00

Hard candy

2000.00

4000.00

Imitation dairy

100.00

200.00

Instant coffee, tea

200.00

400.00

Jams, jellies

500.00

1000.00

Meat products

210.00

20.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

2100.00

4000.00

Seasonings, flavors

2000.00

4000.00

Soft candy

1200.00

2000.00

Sweet sauce

100.00

200.00

Aroma threshold values: High strength odor, mentholic type, recommend smelling in a 10% solution or less.

Taste threshold values: n/a

Corn Silk

Botanical name: Zea mays L.

Botanical family: Gramineae, Poaceae

Other names: Zea alba Mill., Zea americana Mill., Zea vulgaris Mill.

Foreign names: Maïs (Fr.), Mais (Ger.), Granoturco, Frumentone, Maiz (Sp.)

CAS No.:

977000-79-5

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2335

NAS No.:

2335

CoE No.:

488

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Corn silk is the fresh style and stigmas of Zia mays L., collected when the corn is in milk. The filaments are extracted with dilute ethanol to produce corn silk extract.

Derivatives: Corn silk, corn silk extract and corn silk oil

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Corn silk and corn silk oil: Category 4 (with limits on carvacrol). Use levels in ppm: Baked goods 26.4; frozen dairy 10.9; soft candy 16.7; gelatins, puddings 2.7; nonalcoholic beverages 21.6; alcoholic beverages 0.2 FDA: 21 CFR 184.1262, 582.20 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 3.832 mg

IOFI: n/a

Specifications: The FDA, in cooperation with NAS, is developing food-grade specifications for corn silk and corn silk extract. In the interim, this ingredient must be of suitable purity for its intended use.

Composition: Corn silk is rich in potassium salts. Other constituents are 12% polyphenoles (tannins), flavonoids, lipids (about 2% fatty oils), 3.8% gums, 2.7% resin, 3.2% saponines, 1.2% butter glycosides, possibly up to 0.85% alkaloids, vitamins C and K, sitosterol, stigmasterol, plant acids, anthocyanins, reducing sugars, glucides, 0.1 to 0.2% essential oil with 18% carvacrol and other terpenes, mucilage (CoE, 2000).

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

0.15

0.20

Baked goods

17.92

26.42

Frozen dairy

4.91

10.88

Gelatins, puddings

1.33

2.71

Nonalcoholic beverages

11.10

21.55

Soft candy

10.56

16.67

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Costmary

Botanical name: Crysanthemum balsamita L. (Tanacetum balsamita L.; Balsamita major L. Desf.)

Botanical family: Compositae, Asteraceae

Foreign names: Tanaise balsamite (Fr.), Marien balsam (Ger.), Balsamite (Sp.), Balsamite (It.)

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

6043

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.

977017-86-9

Description: Suffrutescent plant similar to tansy; grows more than 1 m (39 in.) high. The plant is covered by hairs, has a fibrous, spindle-shaped root, alternate green leaves and small, yellow flowers. The plant grows wild or can be cultivated; it is widespread throughout southern Europe. It has a pleasant, clary sage, tansy or mint-like odor.

Derivatives: Tincture (10% in 65 to 70% ethanol), essential oil

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: (Burdock, 1997)

Specific gravity

0.943 (15°C)

Optical rotation

–43°4ʹ to –53°48ʹ

Solubility

1:1 in 90% ethanol, hazy upon further addition of alcohol; insoluble in 80% ethanol

Physical–chemical characteristics: Obtained in approximately 0.6% yields by steam distillation of the whole fresh plant; the light yellow oil distills between 207 and 283°C.

Essential oil composition: In the oils of costmary, 78 volatile compounds have been identified, of which 58 (19 tentatively, 39 positively) have not been reported in this plant previously. Carvone and α-thujone were found to be dominating compounds constituting from 51.8 to 68.0% and from 9.0 to 16.1% in the total oil, respectively. *

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Costus

Botanical name: Costus L., Saussurea lappa Clark (Aplotaxis lappa Dec., A. auriculata D.C.; Aucklandia costus Falc.)

Botanical family: Costaceae

Foreign names: Costus (Fr.), Costus (Ger.), Costus (Sp.), Costus (It)

Description: Costus is a perennial herb, more than 2 m (7 ft) high, with a central stem bearing numerous, almost black flowers. The plant grows wild in the Himalayan highlands (especially in Kashmir) and is cultivated in Nepal and throughout the surrounding area. The part used is the root (cleaned and sometimes slightly roasted). Costus has a peculiar, long-lasting odor reminiscent of orris, violet and vetiver.

Derivatives: Concrete, commercially known as resinoid (from which an essential oil can be distilled), and absolute. The absolute is a semisolid mass with an odor reminiscent of the oil.

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: n/a

Aroma threshold values: n/a Taste threshold values: n/a

Costus Root Oil

Other names: Changala; CHOB-i-QUT; Costus absolute; Costus oil; Costus root; Costus root oil; Costus root, oil; Essential oil; Goshtam; Hyperabsolute costus; Kashmirja; Kastam; Koost; Koot; Kost; Kur; Kushtha; Kusta; Kuth; Oils, costus; Ouplate; Pachak; Patchuk; Putchuk; Seppudy; Sepuddy; Upalet

CAS No.:

8023-88-9

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2336

NAS No.:

2336

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: The oil is obtained in approximately 0.7% yields by steam distillation after maceration in water of the comminuted dried roots. Since the oil contains water-soluble components and has a specific gravity similar to that of water, it is subsequently recovered from the distillation waters by extraction with solvents. The oil has a characteristic persistent odor reminiscent of orris, violet and vetiver.

Consumption: Annual: 5.00 lb

Individual: 0.00000423 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 0.568 mg

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: (FCC, 1996)

Acid value

Not more than 42

Angular rotation

Between +10° and +36°

Ester value

Between 90 and 150

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Passes test

Refractive index

Between 1.512 and 1.523 (20°C)

Solubility in alcohol

Passes test

Specific gravity

Between 0.995 and 1.039 (25°C)

Physical–chemical characteristics: Costus oil is a viscous, pale-yellow to yellowish-brown liquid. It is soluble in most fixed oils and in mineral oil. It is insoluble in glycerin and propylene glycol.

Essential oil composition: The main constituents include myrcene, p-cymene, l-limalool, β-ionone, sesquiterpenes, costolactone and a small amount of palmitic acid.

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

3.53

4.05

Baked goods

2.43

4.16

Confection, frosting

0.03

0.30

Frozen dairy

2.25

2.85

Gelatins, puddings

0.70

1.07

Nonalcoholic beverages

0.41

0.73

Soft candy

0.98

2.10

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Coumarin (Prohibited)

Synonyms: cis-o-Coumaric acid anhydride; o-Hydroxycinnamic acid lactone; 1,2-Benzopyrone; Benzo-α-pyrone; 2H-1-Benzopyran-2-one; 2H-Benzo(b)pyran-2-one; 2H-1-Benzopyran, 2-oxo-; cis-o-Coumarinic acid lactone; Coumarinic anhydride; Coumarinic lactone; Cumarin; EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 127301; Tonka bean camphor

CAS No.:

91-64-5

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

n/a

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

202-086-7

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Coumarin has a sweet, fresh, hay-like, odor similar to vanilla seeds, and a burning taste with bitter undertone and nut-like flavor on dilution.

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 189.130 (prohibited from use in food) FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: n/a

Empirical Formula/MW:

C9H6O2/146.14

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Specifications: (Burdock, 1997)

Boiling point

297–299°C (161–162°C at 14 mmHg); sublimes; not volatile in steam except when superheated

Congealing point (min)

68°C

Melting point

68–70°C

Solubility

8% in alcohol; 0.3% in water; soluble in boiling water, alcohol, ether and chloroform

Synthesis: May be extracted from tonka beans; from salicylaldehyde and acetic anhydride in the presence of sodium acetate; also from o-cresol and carbonyl chloride followed by chlorination of the carbonate and fusion with a mixture of alkali acetate, acetic anhydride and a catalyst.

Aroma threshold values: Detection at 34 to 50 ppb; recognition, 250 ppb

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Reported in tonka bean (Dipteryx odorata) seed, the flowers of Melilotus officinalis, the leaves of Melilotus albus, in Liatris odoratissima, Asperula odorosa, wild vanilla (Achys triphylla), lavender oil and several varieties of orchid. Also reported found in cinnamon bark and leaf, cassia leaf, peppermint oil, green tea and bilberry.

m-Cresol

Synonyms: Bacticin; Celcure dry mix (chemicals for wood preserving); Cresol; Cresol, meta; m-Cresol (DOT, OSHA); meta-Cresol; 3-Cresol; m-Cresole; m- Cresylic acid; meta-Cresylic acid; EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 022102; Franklin cresolis; 1-Hydroxy-2-methylbenzene; 1-Hydroxy-3-methylbenzene; m-Hydroxytoluene; 3-Hydroxy -toluene; m-Methylphenol; 3-Methylphenol; 3-Methyl phenol; m-Oxytoluene; Phenol, 3-methyl-; m-Toluol; Metacresol

CAS No.:

108-39-4

FL No.:

04.026

FEMA No.:

3530

NAS No.:

3530

CoE No.:

617

EINECS No.:

203-577-9

JECFA No.:

692

Description: m-Cresol has a dry, tarry, medicinal–leathery odor. m-Cresol and p-cresol very often occur together and are difficult to separate.

Consumption: Annual: 1.67 lb

Individual: 0.00000141 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Approved. Food: 1 ppm FDA: n/a FDA (other): Approved for OTC use (21 CFR 310.545); excipient (CDER, 1996) JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2000).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 0.142 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C7H8O/108.14

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2000)

Appearance

Colorless to yellow-brown liquid

Assay (min)

98%

Boiling point

201°C

Refractive index

1.537–1.543 (20°C)

Solubility

Slightly soluble in water; soluble in oils; miscible in alcohol

Specific gravity

1.028–1.033 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Baked goods

0.50

1.00

Gravies

0.30

0.50

Instant coffee, tea

0.30

0.50

Meat products

0.30

0.50

Nut products

0.30

0.50

Seasonings, flavorings

0.30

0.50

Snack foods

0.30

0.50

Soups

0.30

0.50

Synthesis: One process involving butylation and separation and followed by dealkylation produces m-cresol and ditertiary butyl p-cresol. From m, p-cresol (which is the main product of the recovery process) pure m-cresol can be obtained by extraction.

Aroma threshold values: Aroma characteristics at 1.0%: phenolic, spicy eugenol-like, medicinal, smoky powdery with a leather-like note.

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 2 ppm: phenolic, smoky, balsamic, medicinal and spicy eugenol-like.

Natural occurrence: Reported found in beer, coffee, egg, grape, Oriental tobacco, roasted barley, rum, sherry and whiskey.

o-Cresol

Synonyms: Cresol, o-; o-Cresol (DOT, OSHA); 2-Cresol; Cresols (o-,m-,p-); Cresylic acid; o- Cresylic acid; 1-Hydroxy-2-methylbenzene; o-Hydroxytoluene; 2-Hydroxy-toluene; o-Methylphenol; 2-Methylphenol; o-Methylphenylol; Orthocresol; o-Oxytoluene; Phenol, 2-methyl-; o-Toluol

CAS No.:

95-48-7

FL No.:

04.027

FEMA No.:

3480

NAS No.:

3480

CoE No.:

618

EINECS No.:

202-423-8

JECFA No.:

691

Description: o-Cresol has a musty, phenolic aftertaste.

Consumption: Annual: 1.17 lb

Individual: 0.00000098 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Approved. Food: 1 ppm FDA: n/a FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2000).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 0.015 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C7H8O/108.14

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2000)

Appearance

Colorless to pale brown crystals

Assay (min)

98%

Boiling point

191°C

Melting point

31–32°C

Refractive index

1.544–1.548 (20°C)

Solubility

Water soluble; very soluble in alcohol

Specific gravity

1.041–1.046 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Breakfast cereals

0.10

0.50

Condiments, relishes

0.10

0.50

Gravies

0.10

0.50

Meat products

0.10

0.50

Seasonings, flavorings

0.10

0.50

Soups

0.10

0.50

Synthesis: n/a

Aroma threshold values: Aroma characteristics at 1.0%: phenolic, medicinal, sweet spicy, smoky with a methyl salicylate nuance.

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 2.0 ppm: sweet medicinal, phenolic and tarlike.

Natural occurrence: Reported found in cinnamon, coffee, Oriental tobacco, rum, sherry, tea, tomato and whiskey.

p-Cresol

Synonyms: Cresols (o-,m-,p-); Cresol, para; p-Cresol (DOT, OSHA); para- Cresol; 4-Cresol; p- Cresylic acid; para-Cresylic acid; 1-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzene; p-Hydroxytoluene; 4-Hydroxytoluene; p-Kresol; p-Methylhydroxybenzene; 1-Methyl-4-hydroxybenzene; p-Methyl phenol; 4-Methylphenol; p-Oxytoluene; Paracresol; Paramethyl phenol; Phenol, 4-methyl-; p-Toluol; p-Tolyl alcohol

CAS No.:

106-44-5

FL No.:

04.028

FEMA No.:

2337

NAS No.:

2337

CoE No.:

619

EINECS No.:

203-398-6

JECFA No.:

693

Description: p-Cresol has a characteristics phenol-like odor.

Consumption: Annual: 16.67 lb

Individual: 0.00001412 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Approved. Bev.: 1 ppm; Food: 1 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.105, 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2000).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 1.369 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C-H8OS/108.14

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2000)

Appearance

Colorless to pink crystals

Assay (min)

99%

Boiling point

201–202°C

Melting point

32–36°C

Refractive index

1.5395 (20°C)

Solubility

Slightly soluble in water; very soluble in alcohol

Specific gravity

1.004 (58°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

0.50

1.00

Baked goods

3.68

5.45

Frozen dairy

3.83

5.20

Gelatins, puddings

3.34

6.67

Hard candy

0.98

1.88

Meat products

6.50

19.50

Nonalcoholic beverages

1.43

2.62

Soft candy

3.96

7.70

Synthesis: It can be prepared by fractional distillation of coal tar where it occurs together with the ortho- and para- isomers.

Aroma threshold values: Detection: 55 to 100 ppb.

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Reported in Acacial farnesiana, ylang-ylang oil (probably as p-cresyl acetate), jasmine absolute, orange oil from leaves, the essence from flowers of Lilium candidum, anise seed oil, the essence of Artemisia santolinoflia, and some sea algae. Also reported found in asparagus, peppermint oil, cheddar cheese, provolone cheese, butter, milk, lean fish, boiled egg, smoked pork, rum, Scotch whiskey, red wine, white wine, coffee and mango.

Cubeb

Botanical name: Piper cubeba L.

Botanical family: Piperaceae

Foreign names: Cubebe (Fr.), Kubebe (Ger.), Cubeba (Sp.), Cubebe (It.)

Other names: Cubeb pepper

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

FEMA No.:

2338

NAS No.:

2338

CoE No.:

345

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.

977000-82-0

Description: Cubeb is a climbing perennial vine native to Java and Indonesia. It is presently cultivated in Indonesia, tropical Asia, and Africa (Congo). The plant yields small, round berries that are harvested before they are ripe and from which the seeds are extracted. The part used is the unripe berries (seeds). Cubeb has a warm, woody, spicy odor reminiscent of guaiac with a bitter tonic taste. The flavor of the oleoresin obtained by hydrocarbon extraction is bitter, while the alcohol extract is peppery.

Derivatives: Fluid extract, oleoresin, tincture (20% in 60% ethanol)

Consumption: Annual: <1.00 lb

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Cubeb fruit: Category 5 (additional toxicological and/or chemical information required). Use level in ppm in nonalcoholic beverages 850. FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 62.400 mg

IOFI: Natural

Composition: Fruits contain 10 to 20% volatile oil, 2.5% cubebin, 1 to 1.7% amorphous cubebic acid, resin, gum lignans and fat (CoE, 2000).

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Nonalcoholic beverages

600.00

850.00

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cubeb Oil

Other names: Cubeb oil; Cubebs, oil; Oil of cubeb; Oils, cubeb

CAS No.:

8007-87-2

FL No.:

FEMA No.:

2339

NAS No.:

2339

CoE No.:

345

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: The volatile oil is obtained by steam distillation of mature, unripe, sun-dried fruit. The oil exhibits a characteristic spicy, camphor-like odor. The yields of oil ranges from 10 to 18%.

Consumption: Annual: 816.67 lb

Individual: 0.0006920 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Cubeb oil: Category 5. Use level in ppm: nonalcoholic beverages 7.8; ice cream 17.2; candy 18.2; baked goods 16.5; condiments 38.2; meats 102.1; alcoholic beverages 30.0; gelatins and puddings 14.4. FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 9.912 mg

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: (FCC, 1996)

Acid value (max)

2.0

Angular rotation

Between –12° and –43°

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Passes test

Refractive index

Between 1.492 and 1.502 (20°C)

Saponification value

Not more than 8

Solubility in alcohol

Passes test

Specific gravity

Between 0.898 and 0.928

Physical–chemical characteristics: It is a pale yellow to bluish-green, slightly viscous liquid. It is soluble in most fixed oils and in mineral oil, but it is insoluble in glycerin and propylene glycol.

Essential oil compositon: Main constituents of the oil include 1,4-cineol, terpene and sesquiterpene alcohols and cubebin. Cubeb oil contains 17% sesquiterpenes (caryopyllene, cadinene, 14% in oil), α- and β-cubebene, copaene, and 1-isopropyl-4-methylene-7-methyl-1,2,3,6,7,8,9-heptahydratonaphthalene) and 9.5% monoterpenes (sabinene (5 to 33% in oil), α-thujene (1.5% in oil), β-phellandrene, α-pinene, traces of myrcene, p-cymene, terpinolene, β-pinene, α-phellandrene, γ- and α-terpinene, lomonene and ocimene) (CoE, 2000).

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

25.00

30.00

Baked goods

12.15

16.45

Chewing gum

0.01

0.01

Condiments, relishes

30.04

38.21

Frozen dairy

12.87

17.23

Gelatins, puddings

12.47

14.39

Meat products

76.97

102.1

Nonalcoholic beverages

4.67

7.81

Soft candy

11.03

18.24

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 15 ppm: spicy, terpy and peppery with a citrus and herbal nuance.

Cumin

Botanical name: Cuminum cyminum L.

Botanical family: Apiaceae or Umbelliferae

Other names: Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.); Cummin

Foreign names: Cumin officinal (Fr.), Kreuztkummel (Ger.), Comino comun (Sp.), Comino comune (It.)

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2340

NAS No.:

2340

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAFUS No.

977050-55-7

Description: This small annual herbaceous plant native to Egypt grows 20 to 80 cm (8 to 32 in.) tall, with tapered roots, erect stalk, alternate leaves, white or purple flowers, pubescent fruits and fusiform seeds. Flowers occur from June to August. It is commercially cultivated in Morocco, Cyprus, Egypt, India, China and Iran. Cumin seeds from ripe fruits are extensively used in cooking to flavor commercial food products. It is a major component of the curry and chili powder. Cumin has a strong, distinctive aromatic odor of cuminaldehyde and a spicy, faintly pungent flavor.

Derivatives: Infusion (2%), tincture (20% in 60% ethanol), the fluid extract and an oleoresin.

Consumption: Annual: 2,300,000.00 lb

Individual: 1.9491 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.10; 582.10 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: Natural

Essential oil composition: Cumin seeds generally contain up to 5% of the volatile oil. In addition the volatile oil seeds yield approximate fats (22%), several free amino acids and flavonoid glycosides, including derivatives of apigenin and luteolin. *

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Baked goods

1868.00

1871.00

Condiments, relishes

205.30

250.40

Fats, oils

60.00

100.00

Gravies

740.90

2777.00

Meat products

984.70

2804.00

Other grain

40000.00

40000.00

Processed vegetables

721.40

1192.00

Snack foods

445.60

610.70

Soups

2609.00

4307.00

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cumin Oil

Other names: Oils, cumin; Cumin oil (Cuminum cyminum L.); Oils, Cuminum cyminum

CAS No.:

8014-13-9

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2343

NAS No.:

2343

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: The oil is obtained by steam distillation of the finely comminuted seeds in average yields of about 3%. Its odor is extremely powerful, diffusive, green-spicy, slightly fatty, but at the same time not sharp or pungent, almost soft and mellow. The softness is one of the characteristics of cumin oil and is difficult to reproduce artificially with cumin aldehyde.

Consumption: Annual: 1500.00 lb

Individual: 0.001271 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.20; 582.20 FDA (other): See Cumin. JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 1.422 mg

IOFI: Natural

Specifications: (FCC, 1996)

Angular rotation

Between +3° and +8°

Assay

Not less than 45% and not more than 54% aldehydes, calculated as cuminaldehyde (C10H12O)

Heavy metals (as Pb)

Passes test

Refractive index

Between 1.500 and 1.506 (20°C)

Solubility in alcohol

Passes test

Specific gravity

Between 0.905 and 0.925 (25°C)

Physical–chemical characteristics: The oil is a yellow-amber liquid that tends to darken on aging. The oil is quite sensitive to daylight, air, moisture and metals as well as alkali.

Essential oil composition: The volatile oil is primarily composed of cuminaldehyde (up to 60%). Besides cuminaldehyde, it also contains α- and β-pinene, p-cymene, β-phellandrene and cuminyl alcohol.

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

0.32

0.48

Baked goods

0.03

1.00

Chewing gum

0.00

0.00

Condiments, relishes

12.00

100.00

Fats, oils

0.50

0.80

Frozen dairy

0.36

0.66

Fruit ices

0.36

0.36

Gravies

7.73

50.00

Hard candy

0.035

1.00

Meat products

4.66

50.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

0.018

0.018

Other grain

0.10

0.20

Processed vegetables

5.00

50.00

Seasonings, flavors

10.00

100.00

Snack foods

82.16

200.00

Soft candy

0.035

1.00

Soups

10.00

50.00

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Cuminaldehyde

Synonyms: Cumaldehyde; Cuminal; Cuminic aldehyde; p-Isopropyl benzaldehyde; Benzaldehyde, p- isopropyl-; Benzaldehyde, 4-(1-methylethyl)-; p-Cumic aldehyde; Cuminal; Cuminal aldehyde; Cuminic aldehyde; Cuminyl aldehyde; p-Isopropylbenzalde-hyde; 4-Isopropylbenzaldehyd e; p-Isopropylbenzenecarboxaldehyde; 4-(1-Methylethyl) benzaldehyde

CAS No.:

122-03-2

FL No.:

05.022

FEMA No.:

2341

NAS No.:

2341

CoE No.:

111

EINECS No.:

204-516-9

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: Cuminaldehyde has a strong, pungent, cumin-like odor and similar taste.

Consumption: Annual: 233.33 lb

Individual: 0.0001977 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Used provisionally. Bev.: 15 ppm; Food: 15 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 5.588 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C10H12O/148.20

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Specifications: (Burdock, 1997)

Appearance

Colorless to yellowish liquid

Assay (min)

95%

Boiling point

232°C

Refractive index

1.5290–1.5340 (20°C); 1.5301 (20°C)

Solubility

1:4 in 70% alcohol; soluble in most organic solvents

Specific gravity

0.976–0.980 (25°C); 0.9818 (15°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

3.00

13.00

Baked goods

23.04

27.22

Chewing gum

34.51

38.45

Condiments, relishes

2.77

4.77

Frozen dairy

21.26

29.26

Gelatins, puddings

19.83

29.33

Hard candy

0.03

0.03

Nonalcoholic beverages

11.58

17.96

Soft candy

24.98

30.42

Synthesis: Prepared synthetically by heating p-isopropyl benzoyl chloride with an aqueous or alcoholic hexamethylenetetraamine solution.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 10 ppm: spicy with green cumin and herbal nuances.

Natural occurrence: Reported in a large number of essential oils, cumin, Acacia farnesiana, cinnamon, bitter orange, Mexican lime, Eucalyptus globulus, rue, boldus, Artemisia hausiliensis and others. Also reported in lemon and mandarin peel oil, cinnamon bark, anise, clove bud, cumin seed, turmeric, parsley, calabash nutmeg (Monodora myristica Dunal), angelica root, thyme, beef, brandy, grape and mastic gum fruit oil.

Curacao Peel *

Botanical name: Citrus aurantium L. (so-called varietas curassaviensis)

Botanical family: Rutaceae and the subfamily, Aurantoideae

Other names: Curacao sour orange (peel), Curacao bitter orange (peel)

Description: Sour oranges have only minor uses as fresh fruit but are normally used for processing (marmalade or rind oil). True Curacao peel is derived from a variety of the bitter orange tree, the so-called varietas curassaviensis. The tree is cultivated on the island of Curacao. The peel is the only part used. The green peels are also dried and sold for pharmaceutical and botanical uses. Curacao peel has a powerful, fresh and rich, grape-like, citrus-peel odor. It is reminiscent of expressed lime oil, petitgrain oil and bitter orange oil.

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: n/a FDA (other): HOC, (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: n/a

Essential oil composition: Five compounds, auraptene, marmin, tangeretin, nobiretin and 5-[(6ʹ,7ʹ-dihydroxy-3ʹ,7ʹ-dimethyl-2-octenyl)oxy]psoralen, were isolated from Citrus aurantium L.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Curacao Peel Extract

Other names: Citrus aurantium peel extract; Curacao peel extract; Orange peel extract, bitter

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2344

NAS No.:

2344

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: See Curacao Peel.

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.20, 582.20 FDA (other): See Curacao Peel. JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 300.822 mg

IOFI: Natural

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

1560.00

2072.00

Baked goods

1150.00

1200.00

Frozen dairy

1150.00

1200.00

Gelatins, puddings

750.00

800.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

388.00

428.50

Soft candy

1250.00

1300.00

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 100 ppm: sweet, orange and fruity with brown fusel winey nuances.

Natural Occurrence: Reported found in Citrus aurantium.

Curacao Peel Oil

Other names: Bitter orange oil

CAS No.:

68916-04-1

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2345

NAS No.:

2345

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: The oil is hand-pressed, from the peel of green (immature) bitter oranges. The odor of Curacao oil is slightly sweeter than other oils and almost perfumery.

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 182.20, 582.20 FDA (other): See Curacao Peel. JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 45.318 mg

IOFI: Natural

Physical–chemical characteristics: It is an olive-green mobile liquid.

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

204.80

246.70

Baked goods

90.41

144.00

Frozen dairy

112.50

135.10

Gelatins, puddings

225.00

250.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

120.20

139.00

Soft candy

1084.00

1130.00

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Currant Black (Leaves)

Botanical name: Ribes nigrum L.

Botanical family: Grossulariaceae

Foreign names: Groseillier noir (Fr.), Schwarze Hohannisbeere (Ger.), Groselheira negra (Sp.), Ribes nero (It.)

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

6044

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EFAUS No.

977032-41-9

Description: Currant black is a shrub with woody, erect stems covered by a brown bark; alternate, palmately lobed, toothed leaves covered with tiny yellow glands; flowers arranged in loosely drooping racemes, internally purplish and externally greenish; fruits (June to July) consisting of several clustered, globose, black, fleshy berries, exhibiting a pleasant, slightly acid taste. The plant grows up to 3 m (10 ft) tall. It grows wild in several European countries and is extensively cultivated in France. The parts used are the leaves, fruits and flower buds. In Siberia, a drink is made of the leaves that when young, make common spirits resembling brandy. An infusion of them is like green tea, and can change the flavor of black tea. Currant black has a strong, aromatic, terpene-like odor. The fruits and the juice exhibit a slightly sour, pleasant flavor.

Derivatives: Juice (by expression of the fruits), distillation waters (from leaves), infusion (5% from dried leaves), fluid extract (from leaves), concrete, absolute (tincture from flower buds)

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 FDA (other): HOC (1992) JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: Natural

Essential oil composition: Black currant seed oil is rich in both gamma-linolenic (18:3n-6) and alpha-linolenic (18:3n-3) acids. Black currant contains flavonoids, such as quercetin, myricetin and kaempferol.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Currant Buds Black Absolute

Other names: Currant, Ribes nigrum, ext.

CAS No.:

68606-81-5

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

2346

NAS No.:

2346

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

271-749-0

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: See Currant Black (Leaves). The oil is obtained by steam distillation of the flower buds in approximately 0.75% yields. It is a mobile, pale green liquid with a cymene-like odor.

Consumption: Annual: 14700.00 lb

Individual: 0.01245 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 FDA (other): See Currant Black (Leaves). JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 55.334 mg

IOFI: Natural

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

1598.00

1598.00

Baked goods

20.00

35.00

Frozen dairy

8.00

10.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

3.21

3.42

Soft candy

20.00

35.00

Aroma threshold values: Aroma characteristics at 1.0% EtoH: green, woody berry, fruity, blackberry and currant-like.

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 5.0 ppm in 5% sugar solution: green, leafy, berry, jamy fruity, cassis-like with a slight sulfurous top note.

Currant Juice Black

CAS No.:

n/a

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

n/a

NAS No.:

n/a

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

n/a

EAUS No.

977038-70-2

Description: See Currant Black (Leaves). Black currant juice is used in the treatment of diarrhea.

Consumption: Annual: 2850.00 lb

Individual: 0.002415 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.510 FDA (other): See Currant Black (Leaves). JECFA: n/a

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: n/a

IOFI: Natural

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

beta-Cyclodextrin

Synonyms: Cycloheptapentylose; Cycloamylose; Cyclodextrin; beta-Cycloamylose; Cycloheptaamylose; Cycloheptaglucan; Cycloheptaglucosan; Cyclomaltoheptaose; beta-Dextrin; Schardinger beta-dextrin

CAS No.:

7585-39-9

FL No.:

n/a

FEMA No.:

4028

NAS No.:

n/a

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

231-493-2

JECFA No.:

n/a

Description: beta Cyclodextrin is a virtually odorless, slightly sweet-tasting, white or almost white crystalline solid or fine powder.

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: 0.07 mg/kg/day (GRAS notice, FDA estimate)

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Approved (2000) FDA: GRAS (Notice No. 74, 2001) FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: 0 to 5 mg/kg body weight (1995)

Trade association guidelines: PADI: 1674 mg (FEMA)

IOFI: n/a

Empirical Formula/MW:

C42H70O35/1134.98

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Specifications: (FCC, 2003)

Appearance

White, fine crystalline solid, frequently a fine crystalline powder

Assay

Not less than 98% and not more than 101% (C6H10O5)7 as beta-cyclodextrin, calculated on the anhydrous basis

Lead

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Reducing sugars

Not more than 1%

Residue on ignition

Not more than 0.1%

Solubility

Slightly soluble in water

Specific rotation

Between +160° and +164°, calculated on the anhydrous basis

Toluene

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Trichloroethylene

Not more than 1 mg/kg

Water

Not more than 14%

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 2001)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Baked goods

5000.00

5000.00

Breakfast cereals

5000.00

5000.00

Cheese

4000.00

4000.00

Chewing gum

5000.00

5000.00

Gelatins/puddings

5000.00

5000.00

Hard candy

4000.00

4000.00

Instant coffee/tea

3000.00

3000.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

3000.00

3000.00

Snack foods

5000.00

5000.00

Soups

2000.00

2000.00

Synthesis: Usually produced commercially from Bacillus macerans or B. circulans fermentation of starch or starch hydrolysate.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Reported to have a taste threshold value lower than that of sucrose with a detection level of 3.9 to 27 ppm and a recognition level of 11 to 52 ppm

Natural occurrence: A derivative of naturally occurring starch.

Cycloheptadeca-9-En-1-One

Synonyms: 3,7-Dimethyl-6-octen-1-yl butyrate; Civetone; cis-Civetone; Cycloheptadeca-9-en-1-one; 9-Cycloheptadecen-1-one; 9-Cycloheptadecen-1-one,(Z)-; (Z)-9- Cyclohepta-decen-1-one

CAS No.:

542-46-1

FL No.:

07.110

FEMA No.:

3425

NAS No.:

3425

CoE No.:

11744

EINECS No.:

208-813-4

JECFA No.:

1401

Description: Cycloheptadeca-9-en-1-one has an obnoxious animal-gland odor. It can be pleasant at extreme dilutions.

Consumption: Annual: 1.00 lb

Individual: 0.00000084 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: n/a FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2004).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 0.004 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C17H30O/250.42

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Appearance

White or colorless crystalline mass

Assay (min)

99%

Melting point

32°C

Solubility

Soluble in oils and ethanol; slightly soluble in water

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

0.002

0.030

Baked goods

0.02

0.05

Confection, frosting

0.02

0.05

Frozen dairy

0.01

0.03

Gelatins, puddings

0.01

0.02

Nonalcoholic beverages

0.01

0.03

Soft candy

0.005

0.050

Synthesis: From aleuritic acid, the trans- form only; the cis- and trans-forms from ethyl-9-keto heptadecanedioate.

Aroma threshold values: Detection: 3 ppb

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: In civet (cis-form).

Cyclohexane Acetic Acid

Synonyms: Cyclohexaneacetic acid; Cyclohexylacetic acid; Cyclohexylethanoic acid

CAS No.:

5292-21-7

FL No.:

08.034

FEMA No.:

2347

NAS No.:

2347

CoE No.:

34

EINECS No.:

226-132-0

JECFA No.:

965

Description: Cyclohexane acetic acid has a sharp acetic odor.

Consumption: Annual: <1.00 lb

Individual: 0.00001166 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Used provisionally. Bev.: 2 ppm; Food: 2 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2002).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 0.090 mg

IOFI: n/a

Empirical Formula/MW:

C8H14O2/142.20

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Appearance

Colorless crystalline mass or white crystals

Assay (min)

98%

Boiling point

242°C

Melting point

28–33°C

Refractive index

1.459–1.467 (20°C)

Solubility

Slightly soluble in water; miscible in ethanol at room temperature

Specific gravity

1.001–1.009 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Baked goods

0.50

2.00

Frozen dairy

0.50

2.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

0.05

1.50

Soft candy

0.50

2.00

Aroma threshold values: Detection: 19 ppm

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 100 ppm: honey, caramellic, maple and cocoa.

Natural occurrence: Reported not found in nature.

Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acid

Synonyms: Benzoic acid, hexahydro-; Carboxycyclohexane; Cyclohexanecarboxylic acid; Cyclohexanoic acid; Hexahydrobenzoic acid

CAS No.:

98-89-5

FL No.:

08.060

FEMA No.:

3531

NAS No.:

3531

CoE No.:

11911

EINECS No.:

202-711-3

JECFA No.:

961

Description: Cyclohexanecarboxylic acid has a cheese-like odor.

Consumption: Annual: 111.67 lb

Individual: 0.00009463 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: n/a FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2002).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 0.426 mg

IOFI: Artificial

Empirical Formula/MW:

C7H12O2/128.17

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Appearance

White solid

Assay (min)

98%

Boiling point

232–233°C

Melting point

28–32°C

Refractive index

1.516–1.520 (20°C)

Solubility

Slightly soluble in water; miscible in fat; miscible in ethanol at room temperature

Specific gravity

1.029–1.037 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Baked goods

2.00

2.00

Chewing gum

1.50

1.50

Confection, frosting

2.00

2.00

Frozen dairy

1.00

1.00

Fruit ices

1.00

1.00

Gelatins, puddings

1.00

1.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

1.00

1.00

Synthesis: n/a

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 5 ppm: fruity, woody, berry-like with green dirty nuances.

Natural occurrence: Reported not found in nature.

Cyclohexaneethyl Acetate

Synonyms: Acetic acid, cyclohexylethyl ester; Cyclohexane ethyl acetate; Cyclohexaneethyl acetate; Cyclohexylethyl acetate; 2-Cyclohexylethyl acetate; Ethylcyclohexyl acetate

CAS No.:

21722-83-8

FL No.:

09.028

FEMA No.:

2348

NAS No.:

2348

CoE No.:

218

EINECS No.:

244-543-3

JECFA No.:

964

Description: Cyclohexaneethyl acetate has a powerful, sweet-fruity odor of considerable tenacity.

Consumption: Annual: <1.00lb

Individual: 0.00000621 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2002).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 1.546 mg

IOFI: n/a

Empirical Formula/MW:

C10H18O2/170.25

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Acid value (max)

1.0

Appearance

Colorless oily liquid

Assay (min)

98%

Boiling point

211°C (766 mmHg)

Refractive index

1.442–1.450 (20°C)

Solubility

Insoluble in water; soluble in oils; miscible in ethanol at room temperature

Specific gravity

0.945–0.948 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Baked goods

10.00

25.00

Frozen dairy

1.50

4.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

1.20

2.70

Soft candy

1.80

7.00

Synthesis: From the corresponding alcohol by acetylation with sodium acetate in acetic acid solution.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Reported found in beli (Aegle marmelos Correa) and passion fruit juice.

Cyclohexanone

Synonyms: Anon; Cyclohexenyl ketone; Hexanon; Hytrol O; Ketohexamethylene; Nadone; Pimelic ketone; Sextone

CAS No.:

108-94-1

FL No.:

07.148

FEMA No.:

3909

NAS No.:

n/a

CoE No.:

11047

EINECS No.:

203-631-1

JECFA No.:

1100

Description: Peppermint or acetone-like odor.

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 184.1009 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2002).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 1.2240 mg

IOFI: n/a

Empirical Formula/MW:

C6H10O/98.14

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Appearance

Oily liquid

Assay (min)

99%

Boiling point

154–156°C

Refractive index

1.447–1.453 (20°C)

Solubility

Soluble in water, ether, chloroform, organic solvents; miscible in ethanol at room temperature

Specific gravity

0.947–0.950 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Baked goods

6.00

12.00

Chewing gum

100.00

200.00

Frozen dairy

2.00

5.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

2.50

5.00

Soft candy

12.00

25.00

Synthesis: It may be synthesized on a laboratory scale by the oxidation of cyclohexanol.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Reported present in Cistus labdaniferus.

Cyclohexyl Acetate

Synonyms: Acetic acid, cyclohexyl ester; Adronal acetate; Cyclohexanol, acetate; Cyclohexanol, acetate-; Cyclohexanyl acetate; Cyclohexyl acetate; Hexalin acetate

CAS No.:

622-45-7

FL No.:

09.027

FEMA No.:

2349

NAS No.:

2349

CoE No.:

217

EINECS No.:

210-736-6

JECFA No.:

1093

Description: Cyclohexyl has an odor reminiscent of amyl acetate.

Consumption: Acetate: 933.33 lb

Individual: 0.0007909 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Used provisionally. Bev.: 20 ppm; Food: 100 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2002).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 17.597 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C8H14O2/142.20

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Acid value (max)

1.0

Appearance

Oily liquid

Assay (min)

98%

Boiling point

175–177°C

Refractive index

1.436–1.443 (20°C)

Solubility

Insoluble in water; miscible in ether; miscible in ethanol at room temperature

Specific gravity

0.971–0.978 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

11.00

20.00

Baked goods

95.18

104.70

Frozen dairy

20.44

32.57

Gelatin, pudding

28.18

32.26

Nonalcoholic beverages

25.80

38.25

Soft candy

68.86

78.09

Synthesis: By heating the corresponding alcohol with acetic anhydride or acetic acid in the presence of traces of sulfuric acid.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 30 ppm: solventy and slightly cooling with sweet banana and apple notes.

Natural occurrence: Reported found in sauerkraut.

Cyclohexyl Anthranilate

Synonyms: Cyclohexyl 2-aminobenzoate; Cyclohexyl o-aminobenzoate; Benzoic acid, 2-amino-, cyclohexyl ester; Cyclohexyl anthranilate

CAS No.:

7779-16-0

FL No.:

09.722

FEMA No.:

2350

NAS No.:

2350

CoE No.:

257

EINECS No.:

231-920-2

JECFA No.:

1541

Description: Cyclohexyl anthranilate has a faint, fruity, orange blossom-like odor, and a sweet, fruity, grape-like taste.

Consumption: Annual: 8.33 lb

Individual: 0.00000706 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Used provisionally. Bev.: 10 ppm; Food: 10 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2005).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 6.734 mg

IOFI: Artificial

Empirical Formula/MW:

C13H17O2N/219.28

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Acid value (max)

1.0

Appearance

Pale-yellow liquid

Assay (min)

97%

Boiling point

318°C

Refractive index

1.571–1.577 (20°C)

Solubility

Insoluble in water; soluble in alcohol

Specific gravity

1.015–1.021 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

5.50

12.50

Baked goods

33.33

38.00

Frozen dairy

9.10

14.60

Gelatins, puddings

12.54

14.82

Nonalcoholic beverages

13.17

22.17

Soft candy

21.30

26.17

Synthesis: From isatoic anhydride and cyclohexanol.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Not reported found in nature.

Cyclohexyl Butyrate

Synonyms: Butanoic acid, cyclohexyl ester; Butyric acid, cyclohexyl ester; Cyclohexanyl butyrate; Cyclohexyl butanoate

CAS No.:

1551-44-6

FL No.:

09.230

FEMA No.:

2351

NAS No.:

2351

CoE No.:

2082

EINECS No.:

216-290-9

JECFA No.:

1094

Description: Cyclohexyl butyrate has a fresh, floral odor reminiscent of benzyl butyrate; and an intense, sweet taste.

Consumption: Annual: 6.67 lb

Individual: 0.00000564 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Used provisionally. Bev: 3 ppm; Food: 10 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2002).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 4.666 mg

IOFI: n/a

Empirical Formula/MW:

C10H18O2/170.25

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Acid value (max)

1.0

Appearance

Colorless liquid

Assay (min)

98%

Boiling point

212°C

Refractive index

1.439–1.451 (20°C)

Solubility

Almost insoluble in water; miscible in ethanol at room temperature

Specific gravity

0.953–0.959 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

1.38

3.75

Baked goods

26.87

37.94

Frozen dairy

14.84

20.30

Gelatins, puddings

4.57

6.56

Nonalcoholic beverages

2.62

4.41

Soft candy

32.63

40.75

Synthesis: By esterification of cyclohexanol with isobutyric acid.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Reported found in kumquat peel oil and passion fruit juice.

Cyclohexyl Cinnamate

Synonyms: Cyclohexyl β-phenylacrylate; Cyclohexyl 3-phenylpropenoate; 2-Propenoic acid, 3-phenyl-, cyclohexyl este r

CAS No.:

7779-17-1

FL No.:

09.744

FEMA No.:

2352

NAS No.:

2352

CoE No.:

337

EINECS No.:

231-921-8

JECFA No.:

667

Description: Cyclohexyl cinnamate has a fruity, peach-, cherry- and almond-like odor and similar flavor notes.

Consumption: Annual: 3.33 lb

Individual: 0.00000282 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Used provisionally. Bev.: 5 ppm; Food: 5 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2000).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 4.267 mg

IOFI: Artificial

Empirical Formula/MW:

C15H18O2/230.31

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2000)

Acid value (max)

1.0

Appearance

Colorless to light yellow liquid

Assay (min)

95%

Boiling point

195°C

Refractive index

1.558–1.564 (20°C)

Solubility

Insoluble in water; miscible in alcohol

Specific gravity

1.047–1.056 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

0.50

2.00

Baked goods

23.94

32.22

Frozen dairy

9.74

14.19

Gelatins, puddings

9.70

12.50

Nonalcoholic beverages

3.90

7.00

Soft candy

19.56

27.00

Synthesis: n/a

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Not reported found in nature.

Cyclohexyl Formate

Synonyms: Cyclohexyl formate; Formic acid, cyclohexyl ester

CAS No.:

4351-54-6

FL No.:

09.160

FEMA No.:

2353

NAS No.:

2353

CoE No.:

498

EINECS No.:

224-415-3

JECFA No.:

1095

Description: Cyclohexyl formate has a pleasant, cherry-like odor.

Consumption: Annual: 10.00 lb

Individual: 0.00000847 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Used provisionally. Bev. 10 ppm; Food: 10 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2002).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 4.846 mg

IOFI: Artificial

Empirical Formula/MW:

C7H12O2/128.17

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Acid value (max)

2.0

Appearance

Light, colorless liquid

Assay (min)

97%

Boiling point

162–163°C

Refractive index

1.439–1.445 (20°C)

Solubility

Soluble in acetic and formic acids; insoluble in water; miscible in ethanol at room temperatue

Specific gravity

1.052–1.060 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

3.00

8.00

Baked goods

25.50

33.50

Frozen dairy

11.50

16.71

Gelatins, puddings

8.17

11.42

Nonalcoholic beverages

6.38

11.75

Soft candy

21.59

30.50

Synthesis: From cyclohexyl alcohol and concentrated formic acid in the presence of sulfuric acid; by distilling the alcohol–acid mixture in the presence of excess acid.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 30 ppm: slightly cooling, green and fruity banana.

Natural occurrence: Reported not found in nature.

Cyclohexyl Isovalerate

Synonyms: Butanoic acid, 3-methyl-, cyclohexyl ester; Cyclohexyl 3-methylbutanoate; Isovaleric acid, cyclohexyl este r

CAS No.:

7774-44-9

FL No.:

09.464

FEMA No.:

2355

NAS No.:

2355

CoE No.:

459

EINECS No.:

231-874-3

JECFA No.:

1096

Description: Cyclohexyl isovalerate has an apple- and banana-like aroma.

Consumption: Annual: 1.17 lb

Individual: 0.00000098 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Used provisionally. Bev.: 15 ppm; Food: 90 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2002).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 4.468 mg

IOFI: Artificial

Empirical Formula/MW:

C11H20O2/184.28

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Acid value (max)

1.0

Appearance

Colorless liquid

Assay (min)

95%

Boiling point

58–62°C

Refractive index

1.439–1.445 (20°C)

Solubility

Insoluble in water; miscible in ethanol at room temperature

Specific gravity

0.945–0.952 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

6.50

12.50

Baked goods

23.74

52.00

Frozen dairy

9.10

19.50

Gelatins, puddings

9.52

18.40

Nonalcoholic beverages

4.70

9.87

Soft candy

14.50

26.30

Synthesis: From cyclohexane and isovaleric acid in the presence of perchloric acid.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Not reported found in nature.

Cyclohexyl Propionate

Synonyms: Cyclohexyl propionate; Propanoic acid, cyclohexyl ester

CAS No.:

6222-35-1

FL No.:

09.140

FEMA No.:

2354

NAS No.:

2354

CoE No.:

421

EINECS No.:

228-303-5

JECFA No.:

1097

Description: Cyclohexyl propionate has an apple- and banana-like aroma.

Consumption: Annual: <1.00 lb

Individual: 0.00004661 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Used provisionally. Bev.: 2 ppm; Food: 5 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2002).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 3.705 mg

IOFI: Artificial

Empirical Formula/MW:

C9H16O2/156.23

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Acid value (max)

1.0

Appearance

Colorless liquid

Assay (min)

97%

Boiling point

193°C

Refractive index

1.439–1.446 (20°C)

Solubility

Insoluble in water; miscible in ethanol at room temperature

Specific gravity

0.969–0.974 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

3.00

6.25

Baked goods

18.95

27.00

Frozen dairy

9.62

15.40

Gelatins, puddings

8.36

13.68

Nonalcoholic beverages

4.77

9.59

Soft candy

16.30

26.20

Synthesis: By direct esterification of the alcohol with the acid in the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid or in the presence of benzene.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 30 ppm; sweet, fruity, banana with green waxy nuance.

Natural occurrence: Reported not found in nature.

Cyclohexylmethyl Pyrazine

Synonyms: Pyrazine, (cyclohexylmethyl)-; 2-Pyrazine, cyclohexyl methyl; 2-Pyrazinyl cyclohexyl methyl; (2-pyrazinylmethyl) cyclohexane; (Cyclohexylmethyl)pyrazine; Pyrazine, (cyclohexylmethyl) -

CAS No.:

28217-92-7

FL No.:

14.069

FEMA No.:

3631

NAS No.:

3631

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

248-905-1

JECFA No.:

783

Consumption: Annual: <1.00 lb

Individual: 0.00000017 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: n/a FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2001).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 0.017 mg

IOFI: Artificial

Empirical Formula/MW:

C11H16N2/176.26

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Appearance

Pale amber liquid

Assay (min)

97%

Boiling point

100°C (4 mmHg)

Refractive index

1.515–1.520 (20°C)

Solubility

Slightly soluble in water; soluble in oils; miscible in ethanol at room temperature

Specific gravity

1.003–1.009 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Baked goods

0.10

1.00

Confection, frosting

0.10

0.50

Gelatins, puddings

0.10

0.50

Imitation dairy

0.05

0.20

Nut products

0.10

0.50

Snack foods

0.10

1.00

Soft candy

0.10

0.50

Synthesis: n/a

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Not reported found in nature.

Cycloionone

Synonyms: 5H-1-Benzopyran, 6,6,7,8,8a-tetrahydro-2,5,5,8a-tetramethyl; 6,6,7,8,8a-Tetrahydro-2,5,5,8a-tetramethyl-5H-1-benzopyran

CAS No.:

5552-30-7

FL No.:

13.165

FEMA No.:

3822

NAS No.:

n/a

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

226-916-2

JECFFA No.:

1239

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: n/a FDA Rx: n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2003).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 1.51858 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C13H20O/192.3

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Acid value (max)

1.0

Appearance

Clear liquid

Assay (min)

96.7%

Boiling point

240°C

Refractive index

1.499–1.505 (20°C)

Solubility

Soluble in ethanol; insoluble in water

Specific gravity

0.950–0.955 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1998)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

0.50

5.00

Baked goods

10.00

30.00

Chewing gum

10.00

50.00

Confection, frosting

0.50

5.00

Frozen dairy

0.50

5.00

Fruit ices

0.20

2.00

Gelatins, puddings

0.20

5.00

Hard candy

1.00

10.00

Instant coffee, tea

0.10

1.00

Jams, jellies

0.50

5.00

Milk products

0.50

5.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

0.10

1.00

Processed fruits

0.50

5.00

Soft candy

0.50

5.00

Sweet sauce

0.50

5.00

Synthesis: n/a

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Reported present in cognac.

Cyclopentanethiol

Synonyms: Cyclopentyl mercaptan; Mercaptocyclopentane

CAS No.:

1679-07-8

FL No.:

12.029

FEMA No.:

3262

NAS No.:

3262

CoE No.:

2321

EINECS No.:

216-841-3

JECFA No.:

516

Consumption: Annual: <1.00 lb

Individual: 0.00001412 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Used provisionally. Food: 0.1 ppm FDA: n/a FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (1999).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 0.032 mg

IOFI: Artificial

Empirical Formula/MW:

C5H10S/102.2

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2000)

Appearance

Colorless liquid

Assay (min)

98%

Boiling point

131°C

Refractive index

1.488 (20°C)

Solubility

Slightly soluble in water; soluble in alcohol and oils

Specific gravity

0.920–0.925 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Baked goods

0.10

0.10

Breakfast cereals

0.10

0.10

Condiments, relishes

0.10

0.10

Meat products

0.10

0.10

Milk products

0.10

0.10

Soups

0.10

0.10

Synthesis: From cyclopentyl bromide and potassium hydrosulfide; by treating cycloalkanone dimethyl dithioacetals with four equivalents of an alkaline metal; from cyclopentyl naphthyl sulfide and an aluminosilicate catalyst.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 2 ppm: alliaceous, onion, garlic, horseradish, meat, egg, burned, vegetable, celery.

Natural occurrence: Reported not found in nature.

Cyclopentanone

Synonyms: Adipic ketone; Dumasin; Ketocyclopentane; Ketopentamethylene

CAS No.:

120-92-3

FL No.:

07.149

FEMA No.:

3910

NAS No.:

n/a

CoE No.:

11050

EINECS No.:

204-435-9

JECFA No.:

1101

Description: Cyclopentanone has an agreeable, peppermint-like odor. It tends to polymerize in the presence of acids.

Consumption: Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2002).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 0.4457 mg

IOFI: n/a

Empirical Formula/MW:

C5H8O/84.12

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Appearance

Liquid

Assay (min)

99%

Boiling point

130–131°C

Refractive index

1.432–1.438 (20°C)

Solubility

Soluble water; miscible in ether; miscible in ethanol at room temperature

Specific gravity

0.950–0.960 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 2000)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Baked goods

2.00

3.00

Breakfast cereals

1.00

2.00

Condiments, relishes

1.00

2.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

1.00

15.00

Soups

1.00

2.00

Sweet sauce

1.00

2.00

Synthesis: Prepared by heating adipic acid (285 to 295°C) in the presence of barium hydroxide, distilling, ether extraction and then fractionation.

Aroma threshold values: Aroma characteristics at 2.0%: musty, slightly toasted bitter almondlike nutty, solventlike with a powdery nuance.

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 20 ppm: musty, toasted nutty with a slight meaty nuance.

Natural occurrence: Reported found in roasted onion, baked potato, tomato, gruyere cheese, butter, heated chicken, boiled beef, heated pork, roasted pecan, yellow passion fruit juice.

N-Cyclopropyl -trans-2-cis-6-Nonadienamide

Synonyms: N-Cyclopropyl-(E 2,Z 6)-nonaclienamide; 2,6-Nonadienamide, N-cyclopropyl-, (2E,6Z)-; Cyclopropyl (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienamide; N-cyclopropyl (E)-2,(Z)-6-nonadienamide

CAS No.:

608514-55-2

FL No.:

16.093

FEMA No.:

4087

NAS No.:

n/a

CoE No.:

n/a

EINECS No.:

n/a

JECFA No.:

1597

Description: Pale yellow, low melting solid; meaty, herb-like aroma.

Consumption: Odor and/or flavor used in meat. Annual: n/a

Individual: n/a

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: n/a FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable (conditional). No safety concern (conditional) at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2005).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 0.2955 mg

IOFI: Artificial

Empirical Formula/MW:

C12H19NO/193.29

Specifications:

Assay (min)

95%

Melting point

33–37°C

Solubility

Sparingly soluble in water; soluble in ethanol

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 2005)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Baked goods

0.50

3.00

Cheese

0.10

2.00

Condiments, relishes

0.50

3.00

Fats, oils

0.50

2.00

Fish products

1.00

4.00

Frozen dairy

0.10

2.00

Gravies

0.50

5.00

Imitation dairy

0.50

3.00

Meat products

1.00

4.00

Milk products

0.10

2.00

Nonalcoholic beverages

0.10

1.00

Other grains

1.00

10.00

Poultry

1.00

4.00

Processed vegetables

0.50

3.00

Reconstituted vegetables

0.50

2.00

Seasonings, flavors

10.00

15.00

Snack foods

1.00

10.00

Soups

0.50

3.00

Synthesis: n/a

Aroma threshold values: Meaty-type odor.

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Not reported found in nature.

p- Cymene

Synonyms: p-Isopropyltoluene; 1-Methyl-4-isopropyl benzene; Benzene, 1-isopropyl-4-methyl-; Benzene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-; Camphogen; Cumene, p-methyl-; Cymene; p- Cymene; 4-Cymen e; Cymol; p-Cymol; Dolcymene; p-Isopropylmethylbenzene; 1-Isopropyl-4-methylbenzene; 4-Isopropyl-1-methylbenzene; p-Isopropyltoluene

CAS No.:

99-87-6

FL No.:

01.002

FEMA No.:

2356

NAS No.:

2356

CoE No.:

620

EINECS No.:

202-796-7

JECFA No.:

1325

Description: p-Cymene has a citrusy aroma reminiscent of lemon.

Consumption: Annual: 7533.33 lb

Individual: 0.006384 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: Used provisionally. Bev.: 5 ppm; Food: 5 ppm FDA: 21 CFR 172.515 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2004).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 4.855 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C10H14O2/134.22

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Acid value (max)

1.0

Appearance

Colorless to pale-yellow mobile liquid

Assay (min)

97%

Boiling point

177°C

Refractive index

1.484–1.491 (20°C)

Solubility

Insoluble in water; soluble in oils and ethanol

Specific gravity

0.853–0.855 (25°C)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Alcoholic beverages

1.50

3.40

Baked goods

21.99

48.22

Chewing gum

80.55

88.27

Condiments, relishes

19.74

39.48

Frozen dairy

16.32

24.83

Gelatins, puddings

17.22

28.04

Gravies

0.30

0.60

Hard candy

105.10

105.10

Meat products

2.86

4.80

Nonalcoholic beverages

4.58

11.61

Soft candy

11.10

16.47

Synthesis: Obtained chiefly from the wash water of sulfite paper.

Aroma threshold values: Aroma characteristics at 1% EtoH: harsh chemical, woody and terpy-like with an oxidized citrus lemon note. It has spicy nuances reminiscent of cumin, oregano and cilantro

Taste threshold values: Taste characteristics at 1 to 10 ppm: terpy and rancid with slightly woody, oxidized citrus notes. It has spice nuances of green pepper and oregano.

Natural occurrence: Widespread in nature; reported in the oils of cypress, Artemisia cina Bg., Ceylon cinnamon, boldo leaf, cascarilla, Cuminum cyminum L. and lemon; in the oils for seeds of coriander and Cicuta virosa; in the ether-extracted oils of Monarda fisulosa and Monarda puncata; in the star anise and nutmeg essential oils. Note that p-cymene reported in essential oil may be formed from the conversion of a cyclic terpene; its presence is indicative of aging in lemon essential oil. Reported found in citrus juices and peel oils, guava, papaya, black currant, pineapple, blueberry, blackberry, carrot, tomato, celery seed, cumin seed, mace, ginger, coriander seed, anise, nutmeg, mace, parsley, cardamom, cinnamon root and bark, pepper, peppermint oil, spearmint oil, cassia leaf and Thymus vulgaris.

L - Cysteine

Synonyms: l-β-Mercaptoalanine; α-Amino-β-thiolpropionic acid; L-Alanine, 3-mercapto-; α-Amino-β-mercaptopropionic acid; 2-Amino-3-mercaptopropionic acid; α-Amino- β-thiolpropionic acid; Chemodyne cysteine; Cystein; Cysteine; Cysteine, L -; L-(+)-Cysteine; Cysteine chemodyne; Half cystine; Half-cysteine; β-Mercaptoalanine; Propanoic acid, 2-amino-3-mercapto-, (R)-; Thioserine

CAS No.:

52-90-4

FL No.:

17.033

FEMA No.:

3263

NAS No.:

3263

CoE No.:

10464

EINECS No.:

200-158-2

JECFA No.:

1419

Description: A sulfur-containing amino acid, metabolically related to methionine. Methionine is the source of sulfur atom in the synthesis of cysteine in the body. Chemically, L-cysteine is L-2-amino-mercaptopropionic acid. Cysteine has a sulfureous aroma. It is a nutrient and is used in dietary supplements.

Consumption: Annual: 35333.33 lb

Individual: 0.02994 mg/kg/day

Regulatory Status:

  • CoE: n/a FDA: 21 CFR 172.320, 184.1271 (0.009 parts of L-cysteine in 100 parts of flour in dough), 582.5271 FDA (other): n/a JECFA: ADI: Acceptable. No safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a flavoring agent (2004).

Trade association guidelines: FEMA PADI: 14.670 mg

IOFI: Nature Identical

Empirical Formula/MW:

C3H7O2NS/121.16

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Specifications: (JECFA, 2008)

Appearance

White crystals

Melting point

240°C

Solubility

Very soluble in water, ethanol and acetic acid; insoluble in ether acetone and benzene

Specific rotation

+6.9 to +8.5 (30°)

Reported uses (ppm): (FEMA, 1994)

Food Category

Usual

Max.

Breakfast cereals

100.00

100.00

Condiments, relishes

100.00

100.00

Meat products

100.00

100.00

Milk products

100.00

100.00

Synthesis: By addition of a thiol compound to an unsaturated amino acid derivative; by hydrolysis of proteins in the presence of carbon dioxide; by treating in HCl hydrolysis of proteins in the presence of carbon dioxide; by treating an HCl hydrolysate of hair with CuO2, followed by decomposition of the resulting copper-cysteine complex with hydrogen sulfide; by the addition of thioacetic acid to α-acetamido acrylic acid; by treatment of a keratine HCl hydrolysate with zinc to reduce the cystine present to cysteine; by electrolytic reduction of cystine.

Aroma threshold values: n/a

Taste threshold values: n/a

Natural occurrence: Reported found in protein hydrolysates, with the exception of gelatin, in which only traces of cysteine are present.

Adapted from SCOGS (Select Committee on GRAS Substances) report on caffeine PB 283 441.

Bisset. (1994). Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. MedPharm Scientific Publishers, Stuttgart.

Adapted from SCOGS (Select Committee on GRAS Substances) report on calcium acetate PB 254 539.

Isaac. (1979). Planta Medica 35, 118.

FDA does not distinguish between Roman chamomile oil (FEMA No. 2275) and English chamomile oil (FEMA No. 2272), choosing to identify both as “English” using the FEMA No. 2272 and the CAS No. 8015–927. The NAS survey recognizes all the FEMA distinctions of chamomile.

Also see Paprika.

Adapted from the SCOGS (Select Committee on GRAS Substances) report on carboxymethyl cellulose, PB 274 667.

Badei. (1992). Egyptian J. Food Sci. 20, 441.

TNO. (2000). Nutrition and Food Research, Zeist, The Netherlands.

Leung. (1996). Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients. (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Leung, A.Y. (1980). In: Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Claus and Hoppen. (1979). Experientia 35, 1674.

Balbaa et al. (1973). Planta Med. 24, 133.

McGuffin et al. Herbs of Commerce (2000). American Herbal Products ASSN., Silver Spring, MD.

Wallach. Ann. Dtsch. Chem. Ges. 356, 204, (1907); 392, 62 (1912).

Adapted from SCOGS (Select Committee on GRAS Substances) report on citric acid, PB 280 954.

Boelens et al. (1994). Perfumer & Flavorist. 19, 29–45.

Characteristically, the ester value of civet is approximately one-half the total acid value.

Adapted from the SCOGS (Select Committee on GRAS Substances) report on cloves, PB 238 792.

Lin et al. (2000). J. Agric. Food Chem. 48, 354.

Bylaite et al. (2000). J. Agric. Food Chem. 48, 2409.

Leung, A.Y. (1980). In: Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Also see Orange Bitter.

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