Nanoporous Materials

Authored by: Klaus D. Sattler , Zheng-Ming Wang

Handbook of Nanophysics

Print publication date:  September  2010
Online publication date:  September  2010

Print ISBN: 9781420075526
eBook ISBN: 9781420075533
Adobe ISBN:

10.1201/9781420075533-12

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Abstract

There is no a group of material other than nanoporous materials that has attracted remarkable concerns and found tremendous importance widespread in both fundamental research and industrial applications and with a time span from the old times through the present age (Yang 2003). Nanoporous materials abounding both naturally and artificially are indispensable, particularly in the contemporary fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology, which deal with nanomaterials endowed with intriguing size-determined physical and chemical properties. Nanomaterials are those having at least one spatial dimension in the size range of 1–1000 nm and exhibiting peculiar properties as compared with those of the bulk owing to the tunable quantum size effect (Ozin and Arsenault 2005). Sometimes nanoporous materials are considered as a subset of nanomaterials. However, in contrast to the generally meant nanomaterials whose target is size scaling of the bulk materials, the major point aimed at nanoporous materials is the pore, the empty inverse of the bulk materials rather than the bulk materials themselves, which surround or include the pores. Nanoporous materials display their functions by the play of pores such as adsorbing, accommodating, sieving, and separating molecules, which makes them possible to be widely used for applications as adsorbents, catalysts, catalyst supports, and for biological molecular isolation and purification. Therefore, nanoporous materials are different from the general nanomaterials in the sense that the functions of nanoporous materials are also greatly influenced by the properties of nanopores—their sizes, shapes, and amounts—besides the surface and bulk properties of the framework materials. Consequently, unique terminologies and classifications of nanoporous materials are derived. On the other hand, the role of nanoporous materials as the host to accommodate guest molecules brings about a novel nanospace science in which the guest molecules confined inside the nanopore space show extraordinary properties in melting, ordering, light absorption/emitting, reacting (via unique routes), and so forth, differing from those of their bulk counterparts (Kaneko 2000, Hupp and Poeppelmeier 2005, Ozin and Arsenault 2005).

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