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Authored by: James A. Duke , Mary Jo Bogenschutz-Godwin , Andrea R. Ottesen

Duke’s Handbook of Medicinal Plants of Latin America

Print publication date:  October  2008
Online publication date:  October  2008

Print ISBN: 9781420043167
eBook ISBN: 9781420043174
Adobe ISBN:

10.1201/9781420043174.ch3

 

Abstract

Illustrations:

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PRIDE-OF-BARBADOS (Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Sw.) ++ FABACEAE

Illustrations:

fig 369 (LWW); pl 346 (KAB)

Synonyms:

Poinciana pulcherrima L. (basionym); fide (USN).

Notes:

Associated with the deity Oxum in the Afro-Brazilian Candomblé religion (VOD quoting Voeks, 1997).

Common Names:

Barbados Pride (Eng.; KAB; USN); Barbón (Sal.; JTR; LWW); Barbona Rofa (Nic.; LWW); Bas Phul (Nepal; NPM); Bird of Paradise Flower (Eng.; LWW); Caballero (Pi.; KAB); Cacasúchit (Mex.; MAX); Cansic (Bel.; BNA; JFM); Canzinkin (Bel.; Maya; AAB; JFM); Carzaza (Sp.; AVP); Carzazo (Dor.; AHL; JTR; LWW); Chacaloxóchitl (Mex.; MAX); Chacamalxóchitl (Mex.; MAX); Chacikin (Mex.; JTR); Chaczinkin (Mex.; JFM; MAX); Chagas de Jesus (Por.; AVP); Chamol (Mex.; AVP); Chana (Malaya; IHB); Chapa (Guat.; AVP); Chinchemalinche (Mex.; MAX); Chink-In (Bel.; Maya; AAB); Ciriguanita (Ma.; JFM); Clavelina (Pr.; Sp.; LWW); Clavellina (Col.; Cr.; Cuba, Pr.; Sal.; Sp.; AVP; JTR; LWW); Clavellina Colorado (Ven.; AVP; LWW); Daungsop (Burma; KAB); Diep Ta (Ic.; KAB); Dok Fan (Ic.; KAB); Doodle Do (Bwi.; Ma.; JFM); Dul Dul (Pr.; Usa.; AVP); Dwarf Poinciana (Eng.; LWW; USN); Espanta Lobos (Guat.; JFM); Fang Ham (Ic.; KAB); Fèy Sousi (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Flambeau Flower (Bel.; AAB; BNA; LWW); Fleur de Paon (Fwi.; AVP); Fleur d’Espanya (Fwi.; AVP); Fleur du Paradis (Fr.; AVP; KAB); Fleurs Jaunes (Haiti; AHL); Flor Barbona (Guat.; Sal.; JTR; LWW); Flor de Ángel (Col.; Peru; AVP; EGG; JTR); Flor de Camarón (Mex.; LWW; MAX); Flor de Chapa (Guat.; JFM; JTR); Flor de Gucamaya (Ma.; JFM); Flor de la Virgen (Bel.; BNA); Flor de Pavo (Col.; JFM; JTR); Flor de San Francisco (Mex.; AVP; MAX); Florito (Col.; JFM; JTR); Flower-Fence (Eng.; Ocn.; AH2; JTR; UPW; USN); Flower-Fence Poinciana (Eng.; LWW); Francillade (Haiti; AVP); Francillade à Fleurs Jaunes (Haiti; AHL); Francillade à Fleurs Rouges (Haiti; AHL); Francillane (Haiti; AVP); Franciyad (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Franciyann (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Frijol (Sp.; EGG; SOU); Fromboyan Frances (Fr.; RAR); Gallito (Guat.; JTR; LWW); Galtora (Guj.; WO2); Guacamaya (Cuba; Guat.; Nic.; Sal.; JTR; LWW; RyM); Guacamaya Pequeña (Nic.; JTR); Guayacan (Bol.; DLZ); Guletura (Hindi; KAB; WO2); Gulutura (Hindi; WO2); Hāng Nok Yūng Tai (Thai; IHB); Hierba del Espanto (Guat.; AVP; JTR); Hoja de Sen (Cr.; AVP; JTR); Hojasen (Ca.; LWW); Hojas Sen (Bol.; DLZ); Huaika Sisal (Sp.; EGG; RAR); Huaita Sisa (Sp.; EGG; RAR); Irritación (Bel.; AAB); Jambu Měrak (Malaya; IHB); Kan Gok Meas (Ic.; KAB); Kansik (Bel.; AVP); Kanzinkin (Ma.; JFM); Kenjigaegidda (Kan.; WO2); Kenjige (Kan.; KAB); Kim Phuong (Ic.; KAB); Kim Phuong Hoa (Ic.; KAB); Komari (Kan.; WO2); Krerekrere (Ma.; JFM); Krishnachura (Ben.; Sanskrit; DEP; NAD); Krishnochuda (Oriya; KAB; WO2); Macata (Fwi.; His.; AHL; AVP); Malinche (Cr.; AVP); Maravilha (Brazil; LWW); Maravilla (Mex.; LWW); Maravilla Moreña (Mex.; JTR); Mayikonrai (Tam.; WO2); Mayilkonna (Mal.; WO2); Mayilkonnai (Tam.; NAD); Mayirkonrai (Tam.; KAB); Mayuram (Tam.; KAB; SKJ); Molinche (Nic.; AVP); Nalal (Tam.; KAB; WO2); Nok Yãng Tai (Thai; IHB); Orgueil de Chine (Fr.; UPW); Padangam (Sanskrit; WO2); Pamiditangedu (Tel.; KAB; WOI); Paradise-Flower (Eng.; Ocn.; AH2; USN); Peacock Flower (Eng.; FAC; WOI); Phuong Hoang Chang (Ic.; KAB); Poincillade (Fwi.; Haiti; AHL; AVP; JTR; UPW); Pride-of-Barbados (Eng.; Scn.; AH2; USN); Radhachura (Tripura; WO2); Ratnagandhi (Kan.; Sanskrit; Tam.; Tel.; Tulu; DEP; KAB; NAD; WO2); Rosas Caballero (Pi.; KAB); Sandhesharo (Guj.; KAB; WO2); Santa Rosa (Ma.; JFM); Settimandaram (Mal.; KAB; WO2); Shankasur (Guj.; WO2); Sidhakhya (Sanskrit; KAB); Sidhanasha (Sanskrit; KAB); Sidheshwara (Sanskrit; KAB); Sinnaturayi (Tel.; KAB); Sirina Daniqua (Mex.; JTR); Sirumayirkonrai (Tam.; KAB); Spanish Carnations (Bar.; Jam.; KAB; LWW); Tabachill (Mex.; JTR); Tabachin (Mex.; Ocn.; Sp.; AH2; LWW); Tabachin Amarillo (Mex.; JTR); Tabaquin (Ma.; JFM); Tabaquino (Mex.; JTR); Tachino (Mex.; JTR); Techimandaram (Mal.; KAB); Thurai (Tel.; NAD); Ti Ponpon (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Toetoeroetoe (Ma.; JFM); Turayi (Tel.; KAB); Tuturutu (Ma.; JFM); Wild Senna (Jam.; AVP).

Activities:

Abortifacient (f; DAV; EGG; JFM; JTR; MAX); Anthelmintic (f; EGG); Anticancer (1; KAB; WO2); Anticancer, breast (1; X14531033); Anticancer, lung (1; X14531033); Anticancer, oral (1; X14531033); AntiHIV (1; X12837746); Antiinflammatory (1; X15893896); Antiseptic (1; WO2); Antitubercular (1; X14531033); Antitussive (f; EGG); Antiviral (1; WO2; X12837746); Astringent (f; IHB); Bactericide (1; AAB; WO2; X12193012; X16730921); Bechic (f; AHL; VOD); Cathartic (f; DAV); Cytotoxic (1; WO2); Emetic (f; DLZ); Emmenagogue (f; JFM; JTR; MAX; VOD); Febrifuge (f; DAV; EGG); Fetotoxic (f; EGG); Fungicide (1; WO2; X12193012); Gram(+)-icide (1; WO2); Hemostat (f; EGG); IL-12-Inhibitor (1; X15893896); Laxative (f; EGG; JFM); NO-Inhibitor (1; X15893896); Piscicide (f; DAV; JTR); Purgative (f; VOD); Sudorific (f; AHL; VOD); TNF-alpha-Inhibitor (1; X15893896); Tonic (f; PIO); Tumor-Promoter (1; AAB); Vulnerary (f; AHL).

Indications:

Amenorrhea (f; VOD); Angina (f; PIO); Asthma (f; SKJ); Bacteria (1; AAB; WO2; X12193012; X16730921); Biliousness (f; VOD); Bleeding (f; EGG); Bronchosis (f; SKJ; VOD); Cancer (f1; KAB; WO2); Cancer, breast (1; X14531033); Cancer, lung (1; X14531033); Cancer, oral (1; X14531033); Canker (f; VOD); Catarrh (f; JTR; WO2); Cholera (f; KAB); Colds (f; JFM); Conjunctivosis (f; MAX; NPM); Constipation (f; EGG; JFM; VOD); Convulsions (f; WO2); Coughs (f; DLZ; EGG; JFM; NPM); Dermatosis (f; JFM; NPM; VOD); Diarrhea (f; AAB; IHB); Enterosis (f; WO2); Erysipelas (f; JFM; JTR; MAX; VOD); Escherichia (1; AAB); Fever (f; AAB; DAV; DLZ; EGG; JTR; VOD); Flu (1; UPW); Fungus (f1; AAB; WO2; WO3; X12193012); Gastrosis (f; AAB; IHB); Gingivosis (f; DLZ); Hepatosis (f; EGG; JTR; UPW; VOD); HIV (1; X12837746); Infection (1; AAB; WO2; X12193012; X16730921); Inflammation (1; X15893896); Kidney Stones (f; JFM; WO2); Malaria (f; JTR; NPM; SKJ); Measles (f; VOD); Melancholy (f; AAB); Metrorrhagia (f; EGG); Mycosis (f1; AAB; WO2; WO3); Nephrosis (f; JFM); Odontosis (f; JFM); Pulmonosis (f; PIO; WO2); Respirosis (f; JTR); Ringworm (f; WO3); Sores (f; JFM; VOD); Sore Throat (f; JFM; MAX; PIO); Staphylococcus (1; AAB); Stomatosis (f; JFM; MAX); Stones (f; JFM); Swelling (f; AAB); Toothache (f; PIO); Tuberculosis (1; X14531033); Vaccinia (1; UPW); VD (f; JFM); Viruses (1; UPW; WO2; X12837746); Worms (f; EGG; WO2); Wounds (f; AHL; VOD).

Dosages:

FNFF = ! Flower decoction mixed with beaten egg for cough (JFM). Hulled green seeds eaten raw or cooked; flowers cooked and eaten; green pods eaten by Senegalese children; seeds yield an edible oil (AAB; FAC; JFM; TAN; UPW; WO2).

  • Africans take the root decoction for malaria; powdered root for infantile convulsions (WO2).
  • Argentinians drink a sweetened cup of emmenagogue decoction (half handful flowers/0.5 liter water) to bring on the period. “Strong doses may cause abortion” (JFM).
  • Barbadans give children crushed flower tea for griping and stomachache (JFM).
  • Belizeans recommend baths in solar tea of 2 handful leaves/gal water for melancholy (“tristesa”) (AAB).
  • Belizeans suggest solar tea for “irritación,” an infantile disease with cold hands and feet, diarrhea, fever, perspiration, and swollen belly (AAB).
  • Curaçaoans take decoction of 7 yellow flowers for sore throat (JFM).
  • Filipinos use the flower tea for asthma, bronchitis, and malaria; the leaves are considered emmenagogue, purgative, and stimulant (KAB).
  • Haitians take floral decoction as antibilious, bechic, febrifuge, and sudorific (VOD).
  • Haitians take or apply ground leaf and flower decoction for amenorrhea, bronchosis, constipation, erysipelas, infections, measles, and wounds (VOD).
  • Indochinese consider the leaf infusion abortifacient, antiperiodic, and cathartic (KAB).
  • Indonesians use leaf decoction or tea for kidney stones (WO2).
  • Indonesians use the leaves of yellow flowering shrubs, with acorns and onions, for distended stomach (IHB).
  • Indochinese use the roots for cholera (KAB).
  • Nepalese take ca. 3 tsp root juice 4×/day for malaria (NPM).
  • Nepalese take floral infusion for conjunctivosis (NPM).
  • Nepalese take leaf decoction for ulcers of the mouth and throat (NPM).
  • Nicaraguans use bark tea for catarrh, constipation, dermatosis, and fever, and as abortifacient (JTR).
  • Peruvians drink floral tea as an antitussive (EGG).
  • Peruvians take the floral and bark tea for fever (EGG).
  • Peruvians use floral/foliar tea as anthelmintic and as a douche for vaginal bleeding (EGG).
  • Senegalese use floral decoction for asthma, bronchosis, fever, pulmonary ailments, viral hepatitis, and “as a strong abortive” (UPW).
  • Surinamese take 1 powdered dry leaf/cup water 3×/day for kidney stones (JFM).
  • Yucatanese take leaf decoction (8 g/160 cc water) as gargle for sores in mouth and throat (JFM).

Downsides:

Roots reportedly toxic (JFM). Animals feeding on the plant may experience severe but not fatal gastroenterosis (DLZ). “The plant is poisonous to stock. The leaves contain hydrocyanic acid” (WO2). Morton quotes Mexicans, saying that 4 g leaf can cause abortion (JFM); pregnant women should avoid the bark which can cause abortion (EGG). As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed 15 titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

Ethanolic dry fruit extract antimicrobial (X16730921). Flavonoids 5,7-dimethoxyflavanone, 5,7-dimethoxy-3′,4′-methylenedioxyflavanone, isobonducellin, 2′-hydroxy-2,3,4′,6′-tetramethoxychalcone, and bonducellin significantly and dose-dependently inhibited inflammatory mediators, nitric oxide (NO), and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-12) (X15893896). Two cassane-furanoditerpenoids from root extract, 6 beta-benzoyl-7 beta-hydroxyvouacapen-5 alpha-ol (1) and 6 beta-cinnamoyl-7beta-hydroxyvouacapen-5 alpha-ol (2), cytotoxic for KB (human oral carcinonoid cancer), BC (human breast cancer), and NCl-H187 (small cell lung cancer) cell lines; compound (2) exhibited strong antitubercular activity (MIC = 6.25 μg/ml) (X14531033). Aqueous extract and its quercetin possess broad-spectrum antiviral activity (HSV-1, HSV-2, ADV-3, ADV-8, ADV-11); for ADV-8: fruit and seed (EC50 = 41.2 mg/l, SI = 83.2), stem and leaf (EC50 = 61.8 mg/l, SI = 52.1) and flower (EC50 = 177.9 mg/l, SI = 15.5), quercetin had strongest anti-ADV-3 activity (EC50 = 24.3 mg/l, SI = 20.4) (X12837746). Cassane-type furanoditerpenoids, from the leaves, active against S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and B. subtilis, and C. albicans and T. mentagrophytes (X12193012).

HEART OF JESUS (Caladium bicolor (Aiton) Vent.) + ARACEAE

 

Illustrations:

p 34 (MPB)

Synonyms:

Arum bicolor Aiton (basionym); Caladium × hortulanum Birdsey; fide (USN).

Common Names:

Ara (Brazil; MPB); Cai Ye Yu (China; POR); Caladio (Brazil; MPB); Caladium (USN); Cananga (Dor.; AVP); Chou Crayove (Creole; GMJ); Coeur Saignant (Haiti; AVP); Common Caladium (Eng; POR); Corazon de Cabrito (Cuba; AVP); Corazon de Jesus (Col.; Cr.; Peru; Sp.; AVP; LOR; MDD); Corazon Sangriento (Bel.; BNA); Dog’s Ear (Eng.; DAV); Elephant’s Ear (Eng.; USN); Fancy-Leaf Caladium (Eng.; POR; USN); Fancy-Leaved Elephant’s-Ear (Eng.; POR); Heart-of-Jesus (Eng.; POR; USN); Hua Ye Yu (China; POR); Jesus Heart (Eng.; DAV); Mangara (Brazil; MPB); Masas (Palikur; GMJ); Mo Lan (Galibi; GMJ); Oreja de Perro (Peru; Sp.; LOR; SOU); Paleitte de Peintre (Fr.; GMJ); Paleta del Pintor (Pr.; AVP); Pataquina (Peru; SOU); Pavoncito (Bol.; DLZ); Sachapaico (Peru; SOU); Sillku (Que.; DLZ); Sou Crayove (Creole; GMJ); Taja (Brazil; Por.; GMJ; MPB); Tasha (Peru; SOU); Taya (Wayãpi; GMJ); Tinhorão (Brazil; Por.; AVP; MPB; USN); Tinhorao Papagaio (Brazil; AVP); Tu Lal La (Galibi; GMJ); Ushu (Peru; SOU); Wu Cai Yu (China; POR).

Activities:

Abortifacient (f; DLZ); Anthelmintic (f; MPB); Antiseptic (f; CRC); Ascaricide (f; CRC); Emetic (f; CRC; MPB); Febrifuge (f; RAR); Insecticide (f; CRC); Larvicide (f; CRC); Purgative (f; CRC; MPB); Vulnerary (f; MPB).

Indications:

Angina (f; CRC); Ascariasis (f; CRC); Catarrh (f; CRC); Fever (f; RAR); Infection f; CRC); Paralysis (f; WO3); Snake Bite (f; DLZ); Sores (f; CRC); Sore Throat (f; CRC); Splinters (f; CRC); Toothache (f; CRC); Worms (f; MPB); Wounds (f; CRC; MPB).

Dosages:

FNFF = ! Cooked leaves and tuber eaten (TAN). Crushed bulb or rhizome applied to facial paralysis (WO3).

  • Brazilians heat leaves, coat with olive oil, and apply to tumors (MPB).

Downsides:

“Contains irritant crystals of calcium oxalate and can cause dermatosis” (CRC). As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed 21 titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

SWEET CORNROOT (Calathea allouia (Aubl.) Lindl.) ++ MARANTACEAE

Illustrations:

fig 42 (DAV)

Synonyms:

Calathea cylindrica K. Schum.; C. grandifolia Lindl.; C. macrosepala K. Schum.; C. violacea Lindl.; Curcuma americana Lam.; Maranta allouia Aubl. (basionym); M. clavata Vell.; M. cylindrica A. Dietr.; M. grandifolia A. Dietr.; M. semperflorens Horan.; Phrynium allouya Roscoe; P. cylindricum Roscoe; P. grandifolium Sweet; P. longifolium K. Koch; P. violaceum Roscoe; Phyllodes allouia Kuntze; P. cylindricum Kuntze; fide (POR; USN).

Common Names:

Agua Bendita (Sp.; Ven.; POR); Alleluia (Sp.; USN); Alleluya (Fr.; POR); Alluia (Car.; RAR); Ariá (Brazil; Por.; POR); Bijagua (Cr.; Sp.; POR; USN); Bijao (Pan.; Sp.; IED; POR); Casupo (Ven.; AVP); Churubi (Cashibo; RAR); Cocurito (Sp.; Ven.; POR); Cúrcuma (Sp.; POR); Curcuma d’Amérique (Fr.; POR); Dale Dale (Peru; Sp.; LOR; MDD; POR); Dalidali (Peru; RAR); Faldita Morado (Pan.; Sp.; IED; POR); Galence a Racines Tubereuses (Guad.; Mart.; AVP); Guapo (Sp.; POR); Guinea Arrowroot (Eng.; POR; USN); Guinea-Korbmaranthe (Ger.; USN); Irwa (Cuna; IED); Kakiska (Cuna; IED); Láirem (Brazil; Por.; POR); Lairén (Col.; Sp.; Ven.; AVP; POR); Leren (Dor.; Eng.; AVP; USN); Lerén (Pr.; Sp.; AVP; POR; USN); Lerenes (Pr.; Sp.; POR); Lleren (Cuba; AVP); Llerén (Sp.; POR); Maranta (Sp.; POR); Marosa (Fr.; POR); Oeroewa (Sur.; AVP); Plantamillo (Sp.; USN); Plantanillo (Sp.; POR); Pomme de Terre Topi (Haiti; AVP); Rizomas de Ariá (Sp.; POR); Sagú (Sp.; POR); Sal (Pan.; IED); Sio (Conibo; Shipibo; RAR); Sweet Corn Root (Eng.; DAV; FAC); Sweet Corn-Tuber (Eng.; USN); Tambu (Sp.; POR); Topi (Haiti; AVP); Topimampur (Peru; RAR); Topinambour (Fr.; Haiti; AVP; POR; USN); Topinambour Blanc (Fr.; USN); Topinambour des Antilles (Fr.; POR); Topitambo (Sp.; FAC; POR); Topitambu (Trin.; AVP); Yerén (Cuba; POR); Yuquilla (Guat.; POR).

Activities:

Antiscrofula (f; RAR); Tonic (f; RAR).

Indications:

Scrofula (f; RAR).

Dosages:

FNFF = ! The tubers and young flower heads are eaten cooked; the leaves are used for wrapping food, as “jungle wax paper,” and judging from the name “sal,” may impart some flavor (FAC; IED; TAN).

ZACATECHICHI (Calea ternifolia Kunth) + ASTERACEAE

Illustrations:

p 347 (MAX)

Synonyms:

Aschenbornia heteropoda Schauer; Calea zacatechichi Schltdl.; fide (AH2; HOC).

Notes:

Hocking (1997) mentions one unusual attribute: “to remove scorpions.”

Common Names:

Amargosa (Ma.; JFM); Bejuco Chismuyo (Ma.; Sal.; JFM; PCS); Bitter Grass (Eng.; CR2; USN); Canilla de Zanate (Ma.; JFM); Dog’s Grass (Eng.; CR2; USN); Falso Simonillo (Ma.; Sal.; JFM; PCS); Herba Athanaxiae Amarae (Ma.; JFM); Herba de la Paloma (Ma.; JFM); Juralillo (Ma.; Sal.; JFM; PCS); Mexican Calea (Eng.; CR2; USN); Oreja de Conejo (Ma.; JFM); Sacachichic (Ma.; JFM); Sacatechichi (Ma.; Nahuatl; JFM; PCS); Simonillo (Ma.; Sal.; JFM; PCS); Thle Pela Kano (Ma.; JFM); Tzicin (Ma.; JFM; PCS); Vara Blanca (Ma.; JFM); Vara Negra (Ma.; JFM); Xicin (Maya; Mex.; JFM; PCS); Xikin (Ma.; JFM); Yaxhatz (Bel.; BNA); Zacachichi (Ma.; Nahuatl; JFM; PCS); Zacachichic (Nahuatl; PCS); Zacate Amargo (Ma.; Sal.; JFM; PCS); Zacatechi (Nahuatl; PCS); Zacatechichi (Eng.; Scn.; AH2); Zacate de Perro (Ma.; JFM).

Activities:

Antiatherogenic (f1; CRC; JFM); Antidiabetic (f1; X1308793); Antiinflammatory (1; X12434549); Aperitive (f; CRC); Astringent (f; CRC; MAX); Bitter (1; HOC; JFM); CNS-Depressant (1; JFM); Emetic (f; CRC; JFM); Febrifuge (f; CRC); Hallucinogenic (f; CRC; HOC); Hypoglycemic (1; X1308793); NF-kappaB-Inhibitor (1; X9013864); Oneirogenic (f; X3821139); Purgative (f1; CRC; JFM; MAX); Stomachic (f; CRC; JFM); Tranquilizer (f; JFM).

Indications:

Anorexia (f; CRC; JFM); Atherosclerosis (f1; CRC; JFM); Biliousness (f; JFM); Cholecystosis (f; CRC); Cholera (f; CRC; JFM; PCS); Colic (f; CRC; JFM; MAX); CNS Depression (f; CRC); Dermatosis (f; JFM); Diabetes (f1; X1308793); Diarrhea (f; CRC); Dyspepsia (f; HOC); Eruptions (f; CRC; JFM); Fever (f; CRC; JFM); Gastrosis (f; PCS); Hyperglycemia (1; X1308793); Inappetence (f; CRC); Inflammation (1; X12434549); Malaria (f; CRC; HOC; MAX; PCS).

Dosages:

FNFF = ?

  • Brazilians use to treat cholera (JFM).
  • Chontal Indians, Oaxaca sip leaf tea, then lie down and smoke dried leaves, to evoke tranquility wherein one hears one’s heart and pulse, the well-being persisting a day or more (JFM).
  • Mexicans use the astringent bitter decoction as antibilious, apperitive, and stomachic (JFM), for cholera and gastrosis; disappointed that its antimalarial fame is undeserved (MAX; PCS).
  • Yucatanese add crushed leaves to bath to relive skin eruptions (JFM).

Downsides:

“Listed as a narcotic hallucinogen (mostly visual)” (CRC). As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed six titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

JUANISLAMA (Calea urticifolia (Mill.) DC.) + ASTERACEAE

Synonyms:

Calea axillaris var. urticifolia Rob. & Greenm.; Caleacte urticifolia R. Br.; Solidago urticifolia Miller; fide (PCS).

Common Names:

Amargosa (Hon.; MPG); Chichilsaca (Hon.; MPG); Chichiquizo (Mex.; PCS); Chirivito (Hon.; MPG); Hierba de la Paloma (Mex.; PCS); Hierba de la Rabia (Mex.; PCS); Hoja Amargo (Mex.; PCS); Hoja de Empacho (Hon.; MPG); Jalacate (Cr.; PCS); Juanislama (Ecu.; Sal.; MPG); Pashcuane (Mex.; PCS); Quinina (Mex.; PCS); Raiz de Empacho (Hon.; MPG); Tacote (Mex.; PCS). (Nscn).

Activities:

Antiseptic (1; MPG); Antitumor (1; X15699578); Apoptotic (1; X15699578); Bactericide (1; MPG); Cytotoxic (1; X15541738; X15699578).

Indications:

Bacteria (1; MPG); Cancer (f1; MPG; X15541738; X15699578); Colic (f; MPG); Diabetes (f; MPG); Diarrhea (f; MPG); Escherichia (1; MPG); Gastrosis (f; MPG); Hyperacidity (f; MPG); Infection (f1; MPG); Sores (f; MPG); Staphylococcus (1; MPG); Stomachache (f; MPG); Tumors (f1; MPG; X15541738; X15699578); Wounds (f; MPG).

Dosages:

FNFF = ?

Extracts:

Germacranolides inhibited adipogenesis (1.25–5 μM) (X16377913). The germacranolide arucanolide induced marked apoptosis in human tumor cell lines HL60 and SW480 cells (X15699578).

BOBINSANA (Calliandra angustifolia Spruce ex Benth.) + MIMOSACEAE

Synonyms:

Calliandra sodiroi Harms; C. stricta Rusby; C. subnervosa Benth.; Feuilleea angustifolia; fide (RA2).

Common Names:

Bobinsana (RA2); Bobinzana (RA2); Balata (RA2); Bobensana (RA2); Bubinianal (RA2); Bubinsana (RA2); Bushiglla (RA2); Capabo (RA2); Chiperocigana (RA2); Kopnipi (Piro; Yine; MD2); Koprupi (RA2); Kori-Sacha (Que.; MD2; RA2); Kuanti (Matsigenka; MD2; RA2); Neweí (Amahuaca; MD2; RA2); Quinilla Blanca (RA2); Semein (Shipibo/Conibo; MD2; RA2); Sháwi (Ese’eja; MD2; RA2); Yacu Yutzu (RA2); Yopoyo (Huachipaeri; MD2; RA2).

Activities:

Antiarthritic (f; RA2); Anticancer (f; RA2); Anticancer, uterine (f; RA2); Antiinflammatory (f1; RA2); Antirheumatic (f; RA2); Contraceptive (f; RA2); COX-1-Inhibitor (1; RA2); Depurative (f; RA2); Stimulant (f; RA2); Tonic (f; RA2).

Indications:

Arthritis (f; MD2; RA2); Bone Ache (f; MD2); Cancer (f; RA2); Cancer, uterine (f; RA2); Colds (f; MD2; RA2); Fatigue (f; RA2); Flu (f; MD2; RA2); Inflammation (f1; RA2); Rheumatism (f; MD2; RA2).

Dosages:

FNFF = ! 2–5 ml bark/root tincture 2×/day (RA2); 1 cup bark/root decoction 2×/day (RA2). Also used as an ingredient in various ayahuasca, though not itself a hallucinogen, it is considered a “plant teacher” that aids shamans in their spiritual connection (RA2).

  • Peruvians consider as antiinflammatory, antirheumatic, contraceptive, depurative, stimulant, and tonic, taking the bark decoction for dyspnea (RA2).
  • Peruvians suggest the root decoction as a depurative and for uterine cancer or uterine disorders (RA2).
  • Peruvians use grated bark in baths to resist cold and chills and to increase resistance to illness (RA2).
  • Peruvians use the bark tincture, prepared with aguardiente, for arthritis, bone pain, colds, edema, and rheumatism (RA2).
  • Peruvians use the plant decoction (leaves, stems, twigs) as a general energizing tonic (RA2).
  • Rio Pastaza Indians consider as stimulant, taking the root decoction for energy and strength (RA2).
  • Shipibo-Conibo Indians use the bark tincture for arthritis, colds, edema, rheumatism, and uterine disorders (RA2).

Downsides:

No known drug interactions (RA2). Considered contraceptive; should be avoided if seeking to become pregnant (RA2).

Extracts:

The resinous gum sometimes sold commercially (RA2). Extract inhibited COX-1 prostaglandin biosynthesis (RA2).

MARIA (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess.) + CLUSIACEAE

 

Illustrations:

fig 161 (L&W)

Synonyms:

Calophyllum antillarum Britton.; C. brasiliense var. antillarum (Britton) Standl.; C. calaba Jacq. non L.; C. jacquini Fawc. & Rendle; C. lucidum Benth.

Notes:

Foresters Little and Wadsworth (1964) suggest a conservative broad taxonomic view, hinting that the many geographic varieties, sometimes treated as species, are widely distributed through the West Indies and from Mexico to Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, and Guianas. Like African and Asian species of the genus, this species is also being explored for anticancer and anti-HIV activities.

Common Names:

Aca (Por.; AVP); Acareuba (Peru; EGG; RAR); Aceite de María (Peru; Trin.; AVP; EGG; RAR); Aceite María (Pr.; L&W); Alfaro (Peru; EGG; RAR); Ararí (Par.; AVP); Arbol María (Mex.; Sp.; USN); Bálsamaría (Bol.; AVP); Bálsamo de María (Cuba; RyM); Bará (Mex.; AVP); Baré (Mex.; AVP); Baría (Dor.; L&W); Barillo (Sal.; L&W); Bastard Mamey (Eng.; Jam.; AVP; VOD); Baume Vert (Guad.; Mart.; AVP); Bella María (Ecu.; Sp.; USN); Bois Marie (Haiti; AHL); Brazil Beauty Leaf (Eng.; L&W); Bwa Marie (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Cachicamo (Ven.; EGG; L&W; RAR); Calaba (Guad.; Pan.; AVP; L&W); Calaba Tree (Eng.; AVP; VOD); Calabe à Fruits Ronds (Haiti; AVP); Calab des Antilles (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Calabra (Cuba; AVP); Came Marie (Haiti; L&W); Caspi Blanco (Peru; EGG; RAR); Cedro (Peru; EGG; RAR); Cedro do Pântano (Brazil; Por.; USN); Chanxoztoo (Amahuaca; Peru; EGG; RAR); Chijole Caoba (Col.; AVP); Cojón (Ven.; AVP; L&W); Dale Marie (Haiti; AVP; L&W); Dalmagre (Haiti; AHL); Dalmari (Creole; Haiti; AHL; VOD); Damage (Haiti; AHL; L&W); Damarie (Haiti; AHL); Dame Marie (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Dammari (Creole; Haiti; VOD); False Mamey (Vi.; L&W); Galandim (Brazil; Por.; USN); Galba (Guad.; Mart.; Trin.; AVP; L&W); Galba des Antilles (Haiti; AVP); Galba Odorant (Guad.; L&W); Guanandi (Brazil; Por.; L&W; MPB; USN); Guanandi-Carvalho (Brazil; Por.; USN); Guanandi Cedro (Brazil; MPB); Guandi (Brazil; MPB); Guandi-Carvalho (Brazil; Por.; USN); Guandi Cedro (Brazil; MPB); Inujihui (Shipibo/Conibo; EGG; RAR); Jacare Úba (Brazil; Peru; EGG; L&W; MPB); Jacareúba (Por.; USN); Jomo Nocco (Culina; EGG; RAR); Koelarie (Sur.; L&W); Koerahara (Sur.; L&W); Lagarto (Sp.; USN); Lagarto Caspi (Peru; EGG; RAR); Lagarto Caspi Blanco (Peru; EGG; L&W); Lagarto Caspi de Altura (Peru; EGG; RAR); Lagarto Caspi de Bajo (Peru; EGG; RAR); Landi (Brazil; Por.; L&W; USN); Landim (Brazil; Por.; MPB; USN); Leche María (Mex.; AVP); Malagueta (Dor.; AHL); Mangue (Brazil; Por.; USN); Mani Kwaha (Sur.; L&W); Mara (Dor.; AHL; L&W); Maria (Eng.; USN); María (Pr.; Sp.; AVP; EGG; L&W); María Colorado (Cr.; AVP); Marío (Sal.; L&W); Ocú (Mex.; AVP); Ocuje (Cuba; RyM); Ocuje Colorado (Cuba; L&W); Olandi (Brazil; L&W; MPB); Olandim (Brazil; Por.; USN); Palo de María (Pr.; L&W); Palo María (Sp.; Ven.; USN); Santa María (Bel.; Cr.; Eng.; Guat.; Pr.; AVP; BNA; EGG; L&W; USN); Shirimpita (Ashaninka; EGG; RAR); Uá-Iandi (Brazil; MPB); Varillo (Sal.; AVP); Varío (Sal.; L&W); Wild Calabash (Br. Guy.; Eng.; AVP; VOD); Wild Mamee (Jam.; L&W). (Nscn; American entries diacritically prepared).

Activities:

ACE-Inhibitor (1; X17513067); Analgesic (f1; X11677868; X15587592); Anticancer (1; X16805958; X17346903; X17524238); AntiHIV (1; X15340243); Antiinflammatory (f; X15587592); Antileishmanic (1; X17483964); Antileukemic (1; X16805958); Antineo-plastic (1; X17524238); Antiproliferant (1; X17524238); Antiseptic (f1; X15540598); Antispasmodic (1; X15946599); Antitumor (f1; MPB; X16805958; X17524238); Apoptotic (1; X15386357; X16805958; X17524238); Astringent (f; AHL); Bactericide (1; X15540598; X15707768); Caspase-Inducer (1; X15386357); Chemopreventive (1; X17524238); Cicatrizant (f; AHL); Cytotoxic (1; X15261767; X17346903; X17524238); Digestive (f; AHL); Fungicide (1; X17524238); Gastroprotective (f1; X16314059); Gram(+)-icide (1; X15540598); Pectoral (f; AHL); Sudorific (f; VOD); Tonic (f; AHL); Vulnerary (f; EGG; RAR).

Indications:

Abscesses (f; VOD); Adenopathy (f; VOD); Bacillus (1; X15261767); Bacteria (1; X15540598; X15707768); Burns (f; VOD); Cancer (f1; MPB; X16805958; X17346903; X17524238); Catarrh (f; AHL); Coughs (f; VOD); Dermatosis (f; SOU; VOD); Diabetes (f; MPB); Flu (f; DAW); Fracture (f; EGG); Fungus (1; X17524238); Gastrosis (f1; X16314059); Hepatosis (f; VOD); Hernia (f; EGG; RAR; VOD); Herpes (f; EGG; RAR; SOU); HIV (1; X15340243); Infection (f1; VOD; X15540598; X15707768; X17524238); Inflammation (f; X15587592); Itch (f; VOD); Leishmania (1; X17483964); Leukemia (1; X15386357; X16805958); Leukorrhea (f; DAW); Pain (f1; X11677868; X15587592); Pulmonosis (f; AHL); Rheumatism (f; EGG; RAR); Spasms (1; X15946599); Staphylococcus (1; X15261767; X15707768); Swelling (f; VOD); Tuberculosis (f; VOD); Tumors (f1; MPB; X16805958; X17524238); Viruses (f1; EGG; RAR; SOU; X15340243); Wounds (f; AHL; EGG; RAR).

Dosages:

FNFF = ! Fruits barely edible (EGG).

  • Brazilians take bark a/o leaf for diabetes, though studies reveal no hypoglycemic activity (MPB).
  • Brazilians use the astringent resin on rheumatism, sores, tendons, and tumors (MPB).
  • Dominicans use the resin for hernias, sores, and wounds (AHL).
  • Haitians apply the latex or sticky terminal bud to abscesses, burns, hernia, and swollen glands (VOD).
  • Haitians make a lotion for dermatitis, itch, and skin infections (VOD).
  • Haitians take the leaf decoction for cough, hepatosis, and tuberculosis (VOD).
  • Haitians use the astringent flowers for pulmonary catarrh (AHL).
  • Peruvians plaster the resin on blows, fractures, and hernias (VOD).
  • Peruvians use the seed oil as antirheumatic and vulnerary (VOD).

Downsides:

As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed two titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

The gum/resin from the bark, “balsamo de jacareúba,” is frequently used in local medicine. Wood contains xanthones (MPB). Coumarins from C. brasiliense induced apoptosis and necrosis in BMK cells, reducing experimental tumors in 83% (X17524238). The coumarin (-)mammea A/BB, from leaf extract, leishmanicidal for promastigote and amastigote forms of L. amazonensis (IC(50) = 3.0 and 0.88 μg/ml; IC(90) = 5.0 and 2.3 μg/ml) (X17483964). Coumarins calophyllolide and mammea B/ BB apoptotic in HL-60 cell lines (X16805958). Methanolic extract antispasmodic on guinea-pig ileum and rat duodenum (X15946599). Plant extract highly active against Staphylococcus aureus (X15707768).

CAPIRONA (Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth.) Hook. f. ex K. Schum.) ++ RUBIACEAE

Illustrations:

fig 48 (DAV)

Synonyms:

Eukylista spruceana Benth. (RA2).

Notes:

This species is indigenous to the Amazon basin in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru. Brazilians call it “mulateiro” or “pau-mulato,” Peruvians call it “capirona” (RA2). Due to its beneficial effects to the skin, it is used as an ingredient in natural cosmetics in Peru and Brazil, and has also been approved for use in cosmetics in the European Union (RA2).

Common Names:

Ashi (Cashibo; Peru; EGG; RAI); Asho (Conibo/Shipibo; Peru; EGG; RAI); Capirona (Peru; DAV; RAI); Capirona de Bajo (Peru; RAI); Capirona Negra (Peru; RAI); Capirona Negra de Altura (Peru; EGG); Corusicao (Ma.; RAI); Escorrega-Macaco (RA2); Firewood Tree (RA2); Guayabochi (Bol.; Guarayo; DLZ); Haxo (Amahuaca; Peru; RAI); Huiso Asho (RA2); Huiso Asho Nahui (Conibo/Shipibo; Peru; EGG; RAI); Mulateiro (Brazil; RAI); Mulateiro-da-Várzea (RA2); Nahua (Ma.; RAI); Naked Tree (RA2); Oquiyurrubis (Bol.; Chiquitano; DLZ); Palo Blanco (Bol.; DLZ); Palo Mulato (Peru; RAI); Pau-Marfim (RA2); Pau Mulato (Brazil; RAI); Pau-Mulato-da-Várzea (RA2); Uhuachaunin (Aguaruno; Peru; EGG; RAI); Urayepiru (Chiriguano). (Nscn).

Activities:

Antiaging (f; RAI); Antidiabetic (f; RA2); Antioxidant (f1; RAI; RA2); Antiseptic (f1; 60P; RAI); Antitrypanosomic (1; RA2; X12943773); Antiwrinkle (f; RA2); Astringent (f; RA2); Bactericide (f1; RAI); Candidicide (f1; RA2); Cicatrizant (f; EGG); Contraceptive (f; DAV; EGG; RAI); Emollient (f; DAV; RA2); Fungicide (f1; RA2); Hemostat (f; EGG); Insecticide (f1; RA2); Insectifuge (1; RAI); Parasiticide (f1; RA2); Repellent (f1; RA2); Stimulant (f; 60P); Vulnerary (f; DAV; EGG; 60P).

Indications:

Abscesses (f; EGG); Acariasis (f; DAV; SAR); Age Spots (f; RA2); Aging (f; RA2); Bacteria (f1; RA2); Bleeding (f; EGG; RA2); Bruises (f; RAI); Bugbites (f1; RA2); Burns (f; RAI); Candida (f1; RA2); Conjunctivosis (f; EGG); Dermatosis (f; SAR); Diabetes (f; RA2; RVM); Fibroma (f; EGG); Freckles (f; RA2; SAR); Fungus (f1; RA2); Infection (f1; 60P; RAI; SAR); Mycosis (f; SAR); Parasites (f; RA2); Scabies (f; RAI); Scars (f; RA2); Snake Bite (f; EGG); Sores (f; EGG); Swelling (f; EGG); Trypanosoma (1; RA2; X12943773); Tumors (f; EGG); Uterosis (f; EGG); Wounds (f; DAV; EGG; RA2; 60P); Wrinkles (f; EGG; RA2); Yeast (f1; RA2).

Dosages:

FNFF = ? ½ −1 cup bark decoction 2–3×/day as bactericide and to stop bleeding (RA2); bark decoction applied topically for fungus (RA2).

  • Amazonians apply bark tea to their bodies after bathing, then sun-dry, to protect from aging, fungus, and parasites (RA2).
  • Amazonians consider the bark antifungal, contraceptive, emollient, vulnerary, and wound healing, applying bark poultice to burns, cuts, and wounds, using powdered bark for fungal skin infections (RA2).
  • Amazonians take bark decoction for diabetes, boiling 1 kg of bark/10 liters water reducing to 4 liters, drinking 5 oz/day/3 weeks (RA2).
  • Bolivian Chacobo mix pulverized bark with water and poultice on wounds as antiseptic and vulnerary (60P).
  • Brazilians consider antioxidant and cosmetic, using for dermatoses, applying bark poultice to skin fungus and parasites, and to wounds (RA2).
  • Brazilians use the bark infusion to treat diabetes, eye infection, and ovarian disorders; applying topically to age spots, scars, and wrinkles (RA2).
  • Ecuadorian Quechua consider bark stimulant (60P).
  • Paraguayans use for diabetes (RA2).
  • Peruvians apply powdered bark to fungal infections (RA2).
  • Peruvians apply the bark decoction or infusion topically for bruises, eye infection, bugbites, dermatosis, pellagra worms, scars, skin pigmentations, swelling, wrinkles, wounds, and to cuts to stop bleeding; as a poultice to fibromas and skin tumors (RA2).
  • Peruvians boil l kg of bark in l0 liters of water reducing to 4 liters, taking l50 ml 3×/day 3 months for diabetes (RVM).
  • Peruvians douche with bark infusion for vaginal infections (RA2).
  • Peruvians suggest for abscesses, aging, bleeding, bruises, bugbites, contraception, dermatosis, diabetes, fibroma, infections, mycoses, ocular infection, scabies, scars, snake bite, swellings, tumor, uteroses, wrinkles, and wounds (DAV; EGG; RAI).
  • Peruvians take bark decoction or infusion internally for diabetes, malaria, ovarian cancer a/o disorders, uterine cancer, as a contraceptive, and as a tonic for cancer and hepatoses (RA2).
  • Peruvians use the bark against “sarna negra,” a parasite that lives under the skin; applying powdered bark to mycoses (RA2; SAR).
  • Peruvians use the resin to treat abscesses and skin tumors (RA2).

Downsides:

None known (RA2). As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed one title alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

Antifungal in vitro against 11 skin fungi and yeasts. The bark contains a great deal of tannins, with astringent a/o drying effects, and high amounts of organic acids and phenols, with bactericide, fungicide, and insecticide activity (RA2). Phenols strongly antioxidant, possibly explaining its use to stop skin aging (RA2). Three seco-iridoids, 6′-O-acetyldiderroside, 7-Methoxydiderroside, diderroside, and secoxyloganin, showed in vitro activity against trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi (IC(50) = 59.0, 90.2, 74.2, and 84.9 μg/ml, respectively) (RA2; X12943773).

HUACAPURANA (Campsiandra comosa Benth.) + CAESALPINIACEAE

Synonyms:

Campsiandra laurifolia Benth.

Common Names:

Acapu de Igapo (Brazil; MPB); Acapurana (Brazil; MPB; RAR); Amanagwe (Makuna; SAR); Caacapoc (Brazil; MPB); Chigo (Ven.; PUB); Comanda Assu (Brazil; SAR); Cumanda (Brazil; MPB); Gapo (Peru; SOU); Huacapurana (Peru; Sp.; LOR); Pampa Huacapurana (Peru; Sp.; LOR).

Activities:

Antimalarial (f; RAR); Antirheumatic (f; RAR); Tonic (f; MPB); Vulnerary (f; DAV; SAR).

Indications:

Arthrosis (f; RAR); Fever (f; MPB); Infection (f; SAR); Malaria (f; SAR); Rheumatism (f; RAR); Sores (f; MPB); Stomatosis (f; SAR); Wounds (f; DAV; SAR).

Dosages:

FNFF = ! “Chiga” flour made from the seeds consumed in the Orinoco basin (X6544060; X6544061). Fruits with salt and vinegar used for cleaning infections (SAR); tincture for cleaning sores and malarial fevers (MPB)

  • Witoto use powdered bark in treating wounds (SAR).

Downsides:

As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed one title alluding to toxicity of this species.

SWORDBEAN (Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC.) + FABACEAE

Synonyms:

Canavalia ensiformis (DC.) Makino; C. ensiformis (L.) DC. var. leucosperma Voigt; C. ensiformis var. truncata Ricker; C. gladiata DC. var. ensiformis DC.; Dolichos ensiformis L. (basionym); fide (POR; USN).

Common Names:

Abai (Mar.; KAB); Abao (Guj.; NAD); Abayee (Mar.; NAD); Abono Negro (Sal.; AVP); Adavitamma (Tel.; KAB); Ankuwara (Aym.; DLZ); Asishimbi (Sanskrit; KAB); Bai Dao Dou (China; POR); Barankachi (Housa; KAB); Burrashim (Dec.; KAB); Burujume (Bol.; DLZ); Canavali (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Canavalia (Pr.; AVP); Chickasaw Lima (Eng.; FAC); Chilipuca Montes (Sal.; AVP); Chui (Ai.; Sa; EGG; RAR); Climbing Red Sword Bean (Eng.; UPW); Cut-Eye Bean (Eng.; Wi.; UPW); Da Dao Dou (China; POR); Danzago (Kano; KAB); Dao Dou (China; Pin.; DAA; POR); Diko (Sudan; AVP); Fâsûlyâ Seyfîyah (Arab.; POR); Fava-Branca (Brazil; Por.; USN); Feijão-Bravo (Brazil; Por.; USN); Feijao Cutelo (Por.; UPW); Feijão-de-Cobra (Brazil; Por.; USN); Feijão-de-Porco (Brazil; Por.; USN); Feijao de Porco (Por.; AVP; PMC); Feijão-de-Quebranto (Brazil; Por.; USN); Feijão Espada (Por.; POR); Feijao Holandes (Por.; AVP); Fève Jacques (Fr.; POR; USN); Frejol Gigante (Sp.; EGG; RAR); Frejolón (Sp.; EGG; RAR); Frijol de Abono (Guat.; AVP); Frijol de Bibijagua (Cuba; Sp.; POR); Frijol de Machete (Cuba); Frijol de Sable (Sp.; POR); Frijol Espada (Sp.; POR; USN); Gaivara (Bom.; KAB); Galaphul (Arab.; NAD); Garabato (Bol.; DLZ); Garde Place (Haiti; AHL); Gavria (Guj.; KAB); Giant Stock Bean (Eng.; POR; USN); Gojiasema (Hindi; KAB); Gol (Arab.; NAD); Gotani-Bean (Eng.; LEG; USN); Goyijiyashivalam (Hindi; NAD); Haba (Dor.; TRA); Haba Blanca (Guat.; Mex.; Sp.; AVP; POR); Haba Criolla (Sp.; Ven.; AVP; POR); Haba de Burro (Pr.; Sp.; AVP; POR; USN); Haba de Caballo (Cuba; Mex.; Sp.; AVP; POR); Haba de Monte (Ven.; AVP); Haricot de Madagascar (Fr.; POR); Haricot Sabre (Fr.; Haiti; AVP; POR; USN); Haricot Sabre à Grain Blanc (Fr.; POR); Horse Bean (Eng.; AVP; USN; VOD); Jack Bean (Eng.; HOC; POR; USN); Jackbohne (Ger.; POR; USN); Jackbønne (Den.; POR); Jamaica Horse Bean (Eng.; HOC); Jangala; (Sakalave; KAB); Judía Sable (Sp.; POR; USN); Kacang Parang (Malay; POR); Kachang Parang Puteh (Malaya; IHB); Kadasambal (Hindi; NAD); Kadavare (Kan.; KAB); Kanavala (Mal.; KAB); Kara Bendo (Dutch; POR); Karochikadu (Tel.; NAD); Kattuttambattan (Tam.; KAB); Kattuvalari (Tam.; NAD); Kolasimo (Oriya; KAB); Kumandu Usu (Par.; AVP); Laliko (Sudan; AVP); Machete (Cuba); Madagaskarbohne (Ger.; POR); Magtambocao (Leyte; KAB); Makam-Shim (Hindi; NAD); Makhamshim (Ben.; KAB); Mala-Shibee (Sanskrit; NAD); Mangalo (Por.; AVP); Mangolô (Brazil; Por.; USN); Mõõkjas Kanavaalia (Estonia; POR); Nescafé (Peru; EGG); Noble (Sudan; AVP); One-Eye Bean (Eng.; Wi.; UPW); Overlook Bean (Jam.; AVP; KAB); Paikalog (Burma; KAB); Pallar del Gentil (Peru; EGG); Patagonian Bean (Eng.; DEP); Pataningdagar (Tag.; KAB); Pathave (Mah.; NAD); Pois Gagane (Fr.; UPW; USN); Pois Maldioc (Haiti; AVP); Pois Sabre (Fr.; AVP; POR); Poroto Sable (Sp.; PMC); Pwa Lanme (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Pwa Maldyok (Haiti; TRA; VOD); Pwa Wouj (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Pwa Zombi (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Sabre Bean (Eng.; HOC); Sanchalli (Que.; DLZ); Schwertbohne (Ger.; POR; USN); Seaside-Bean (Eng.; USN); Sem (Nwp.; Pun.; KAB); Shembi Acare (Kan.; NAD); Shiro Nata Mame (Japan; POR); Sweeta-Sima (Hindi; NAD); Sword-Bean (Eng.; POR; USN); Tachi Nata Mame (Japan; POR; TAN); Talvardi (Porebunder; KAB); Tao Tou (China; AVP; KAB; TAN); Thamattan (Tam.; NAD); Thamna (Tel.; NAD); Tihon (San.; KAB); Tsurunachi Nata Mame (Japan; POR); Tumbe Komji (Kan.; NAD); Valvarai (Tam.; NAD); Walawala (Sin.; KAB); Wonder-Bean (Eng.; POR; USN); Yang Dao Dou (China; POR); Yatigua (Arg.; AVP); Zwaardboon (Dutch; POR).

Activities:

Allelochemic (1; X11382064); Amyolitic (1; WO2); Analgesic (f; UPW); Antiadhesive (1; X16834597); Antiaggregant (1; TRA); Antiallergic (1; TRA); Antibilious (f; NAD); Antiherpetic (1; TRA); Antihistaminic (1; TRA); Antiinflammatory (12; TRA); Antimetabolic (1; WO2); Antioxidant (1; TRA); Antiseptic (1; DLZ); Antiviral (1; TRA); Bactericide (1; DLZ); Bechic (f; UPW); Capillariprotective (1; TRA); Demulcent (f; NAD); Fungicide (1; WO2); Hemolytic (1; WO2); Hypocholesterolemic (1; TRA); Hypotensive (1; TRA); Insecticide (f; UPW); Mitogenic (1; WO2); Stomachic (f; UPW); Tonic (f; KAB).

Indications:

Allergies (f1; TRA); Bacteria (1; DLZ); Biliousness (f; KAB; NAD); Burns (12; TRA); Dysuria (f; UPW); Edema (f; UPW); Female Illness (f; WBB); Fungus (1; TRA; WO2); Headache (f; UPW); Hepatosis (f; NAD); Herpes (1; TRA); High Blood Pressure (1; TRA); High Cholesterol (1; TRA); Hysteria (f; UPW); Infection (1; DLZ; TRA; WO2); Inflammation (12; TRA); Mycosis (1; TRA); Nephrosis (f; DLZ); Neuralgia (f; UPW); Pain (f; DLZ; UPW); Pneumococcus (1; DLZ); Sores (f; UPW); Swelling (f; NAD; UPW); Vertigo (f; UPW); Viruses (1; TRA).

Dosages:

FNFF = ! Green pods eaten before seeds swell, raw, boiled, pickled, or salted. Unripened but swollen seeds, though deemed poisonous by some, can be eaten, boiled or roasted. Seeds fermented into tempeh. Ripe seeds scorched as coffee substitute. Young leaves boiled as potherb. (FAC). Seeds food farmacy (AHL). 5–10 g leaf poulticed onto burns (TRA).

  • Asian Indians suggest powdered root in cow urine for hepatic swelling (NAD).
  • Ayurvedics consider the orexigenic tonic fruits useful in biliousness, burning sensations, and sores (KAB).
  • Caribs suggest covering burns with the leaves (TRA).
  • Haitians apply the leaves to the head for conjunctivosis and headache (VOD).
  • Haitians suggest the bean flour (in poultices) softens and resolves tumors (VOD).

Downsides:

As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed 56 titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

EDIBLE CANNA (Canna indica L.) ++ CANNACEAE

 

Illustrations:

pl 952A (KAB)

Synonyms:

Canna achiras Gillies; C. cinnabarina Bouché; C. coccinea Mill.; C. compacta Roscoe; C. edulis Ker Gawl.; C. esculenta Lodd. ex Loudon; C. humilis Bouché; C. indica L. var. limbata (Roscoe) Petersen; C. limbata Roscoe; C. lutea Mill.; C. lutea Mill. var. aurantiaca (Roscoe) Regel; C. lutea Mill. var. genuina Kraenzl.; C. nepalensis Wall.; C. orientalis Roscoe; C. rubricaulis Link; C. speciosa Roscoe; C. variabilis Willd.; C. warszewiczii A. Dietr.; fide (POR; USN).

Common Names:

Achira (Col.; Peru; Sp.; EFS; POR; USN); Achira Roja (Sp.; EFS); Adeira (Sa.; SOU); African Arrowroot (Eng.; POR; USN); Akalbarki (Dec.; NAD); Albará (Brazil; Por.; POR; USN); Araruta Bastarda (Por.; POR); Araruta de Porco (Por.; POR); Araruta Gigante (Ma.; JFM); Arrowroot (Ma.; JFM); Australian Arrowroot (Eng.; WO2); Bakalele (Hausa; Nig.; POR); Bakare Kare (Hausa; Nig.; POR); Balisier à Chapelets (Car.; Fr.; POR); Balisier Comestible (Fr.; POR; USN); Balisier des Indes (Fr.; POR); Balisier Jaune (Car.; Fr.; POR); Balisier Rouge (Car.; Fr.; JFM; POR); Bananeirinha-da-Índia (Brazil; Por.; POR; USN); Bananeirinha-de-Flor (Brazil; Por.; USN); Bananeiro do Mato (Brazil; JLH); Bananerinha (Brazil; Ma.; AVP; JFM); Bandera de Uriba (Col.; Sp.; POR); Bandera Espanyol (Ma.; JFM); Beri (Brazil; Por.; USN); Bijagua (Ma.; JFM); Bijao (Ma.; JFM); Birú Manso (Brazil; Por.; POR); Budda Tharana (Burma; DEP); Butsarana (Sin.; DEP); Caeté-dos-Jardns (Brazil; Por.; USN); Caethe Vermelho (Brazil; AVP); Café Cimarron (Pan.; Sp.; POR); Caite (Brazil; JLH); Caña Comestible (Sp.; POR; USN); Cañacoro (Ma.; Sp.; EFS; JFM); Cana-da-Índia (Brazil; Por.; USN); Caña de la India (Sp.; POR); Caña de las Indias (Sp.; EFS); Cane Shot (Ma.; JFM); Canna (Bel.; Dutch; Eng.; Fr.; Ger.; EFS; POR); Canna Florifére (Fr.; POR); Canna Lily (Eng; POR); Canne d’Inde (Fr.; JFM; POR); Canne Indienne (Fr.; EFS); Capacho (Col.; Sp.; Ven.; EFS; POR); Chankala (Ma.; JFM); Chisgua (Col.; Ma.; Sp.; AVP; JFM; POR); Chumbima (Col.; Sp.; POR); Chumbimba (Ma.; JFM); Cigarron (Dor.; AHL); Cocoyotzin (Mex.; JLH); Cucuyu (Ma.; JFM); Deva Keli (Mar.; DEP; NAD); Edible Canna (Eng.; POR; TAN; USN); English Shot (Eng.; POR); Flor de Cangrejo (Ma.; JFM); Gaane Sarvadaa (Nepal; POR); Ganjol (Sunda; IHB); Ganjong (Java; Sunda; IHB); Gruya (USN); Guri Gensa Chettu (Tel.; DEP); Hakik (Pun.; DEP; NAD); Hierba del Rosario (Sp.; EFS); Huevo de Gato (Bel.; BNA); Indian Bread Shot (Eng.; EFS); Indian Cane Flowering Reed (Eng.; EFS); Indian-Shot (Eng.; POR; TAN; USN); Indiese Kanna (Afrikaans; USN); Indisch Bloemriet (Dutch; EFS; POR); Indisches Blumenrohr (Ger.; EFS); Kadu Bale (Kan.; WO2); Kaelahu (Kan.; NAD); Kaelaphool (Kon.; NAD); Kakale (Kan.; WO2); Kalahu (Kan.; WO2); Kalvaazhai (Tam.; WO2); Kamaakshee (Sanskrit; EFS; NAD); Kana (Tur.; EFS); Kana Indika (Japan; POR); Kandamani Cheddi (Tam.; NAD); Kandamani-Yazha (Mal.; WO2); Kandamanu (Tam.; NAD); Kanna Indiiskaia (Rus.; POR); Kathshim (Ben.; NAD); Kattuvazha (Mal.; WO2); Katu Bala (Mal.; DEP); Katuvara (Mal.; NAD); Kelahu Hudingana (Kan.; DEP); Kenyong (Malaya; IHB); Kiwara (Nwp.; DEP); Krishna Tamarah (Tel.; DEP; NAD); Kudsumbar (Bom.; NAD); Kullvalei Mani (Tam.; DEP); Kundimana Cheddi (Tam.; DEP); Lal Sarbajaya (Ben.; DEP); Laos Jambe (Sumatra; IHB); Laos Mekah (Sumatra; IHB); Lembong Nyidra (Java; IHB); Maraca (Dor.; Ma.; Pr.; Sp.; AVP; JFM; POR); Maraca Cimarrona (Ma.; Pr.; AVP; JFM); Meeru (Brazil; JLH); Mei Ren Jiao (China; POR); Mettatamara (Tel.; NAD); Munay Achira (Sa.; RAR); Nplooj Nre Lab (Hmong; EB57:365); Nua Vitaax (Amahuaca; RAR); Phut Tharaksa (Thai; POR); Piriquitallo (Ma.; JFM); Piriquitoya (Ma.; JFM); Platanilla de Cuba (Sp.; EFS); Platanillo (Ma.; Sp.; JFM; POR; USN); Platanillo de Cuba (Ma.; Sp.; JFM); Platanillo de Monte(Ma.; Sp.; JFM); Poovaazhai (Tam.; WO2); Poovalai (Tam.; NAD); Purple Arrowroot (Eng.; POR; USN; WO2); Qhau Liab (Hmong; EB57:365); Queensland Arrowroot (Aust.; Eng.; POR; USN); Rijua (Ma.; JFM); Sabbajaya (Hindi; DEP; EFS; WO2); Sagou Marron (Haiti; Ma.; AVP: JFM); Sakasira (Ma.; JFM); Sarbajaya (Ben.; DEP; WO2); Sarvajaya (Sanskrit; DEP); Senitra (Java; IHB); Sierra Leone Arrowroot (Eng.; POR; USN); Silarumba (Sanskrit; DEP); Sio (Sa.; SOU); Soogandaraju gida (Kan.; DEP); Spanish Arrowroot (Eng.; JFM); Sugandharaju (Kan.; NAD); Sumac Achira (Sa.; RAR); Tasbeh (Arab.; IHB); Toloman (Car.; Fr.; Ma.; JFM; POR); Tous-les-Mois (Car.; Fr.; EFS; POR; USN); Tozcuitlapilxochitl (Mex.; JLH); Ubi Gereda (Malaya; IHB); Ubi Pikul (Sumatra; IHB); Ulkilbar-Kimunker (Dec.; DEP); Westindisches Blumenrohr (Ger.; POR; USN); Wild Canna (Eng.; Ma.; JFM); Wild Tapioca (Eng.; Ma.; JFM); X’chi Qui Laba (Bel.; BNA); Yuquilla (Sp.; JFM; POR; USN).

Activities:

Antiabortive (f; JFM); Antidote (f; WOI); Demulcent (f; DEP; EFS; WOI); Depurative (f; IHB); Diaphoretic (f; DEP; WOI); Diuretic (f; DEP; EFS; WOI); Emmenagogue (f; JFM); Emollient (f; JLH); HIV-RT-Inhibitor (1; X15951145); Molluscicide (1; X11050667; X15305305); Narcotic (f; NAD); Stimulant (f; DEP; JFM); Sudorific (f; EFS; DAW); Tonic (f; EB57:365); Vulnerary (f; DEP).

Indications:

Amenorrhea (f; JFM); Bleeding (f; JFM); Cancer (f; JLH); Coughs (f; EB57:365); Cystosis (f; JFM); Dermatosis (f; JFM); Diarrhea (f; IHB); Dropsy (f; DEP; WOI); Dyspepsia (f; EB57:365); Dysuria (f; SOU); Earache (f; NAD); Fever (f; DEP; WOI); Gastrosis (f; EB57:365); Gonorrhea (f; JFM); Headache (f; JFM); Hepatosis (f; JFM); HIV (1; X15951145); Inflammation (f; EB28:4); Nephrosis (f; JFM); Neuralgia (f; JFM); Ophthalmia (f; KAB); Pain (f; JFM); Rheumatism (f; JFM); Sores (f; JFM); Sore Throat (f; DAW); Soroche (f; SOU); Spider Bites (f; JFM); Stomachache (f; EB57:365); Uterosis (f; JFM); VD (f; JFM); Wounds (f; DEP); Yaws (f; IHB).

Dosages:

FNFF = !! Young tubers eaten, cooked, or used as starch source (TAN). Juice of leaves a diuretic coffee substitute (WO2). Juice of rhizome for diarrhea (IHB). Warm seed juice applied to ear for earache (NAD). 1–2 oz decoction (1:20) (NAD). For cattle having ingested poisonous grass and swollen, fragments of root boiled in rice water with pepper (NAD).

Downsides:

As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed three titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

Root extract molluscicidal LC50 = 6.54 mg/l, ethanol root extract LC50 = 55.65 mg/l (X11050667; X15305305). Water extract of the rhizomes inhibited HIV-1 RT (IC50 = 22.56 μg/ml); two proteins from the extract, Cip31 and Cip14, showed significant HIV-1 RT inhibition, IC50 = 17.41 and 19.25 μg/ml, respectively (X15951145).

PERU TEA (Capraria biflora L.) + SCROPHULARIACEAE

Illustrations:

p 311 (MPB); p 176 (AAB)

Synonyms:

Capraria hirsuta HBK; C. lanceolata M. Vahl; C. mexicana Grisebach; C. semiserrata Willd.; C. semiserrata var. berterii (A. DC.) Benth.; fide (BAZ).

Common Names:

Balsamnha (Brazil; MPB); Capraire (Fr.; VOD); Capraire à Deux Fleurs (Fr.; VOD); Capria de Dos Flores (Fr.; VOD); Chá Cravo (Brazil; MPB); Chá da America (Por.; AVP); Chá das Antilhas (Por.; JFM); Chá da Terra (Brazil; MPB); Chá de Boi (Brazil; MPB); Chá de Cravo (Brazil; MPB); Chá de Lima (Por.; JFM); Chá de Marajó (Brazil; MPB); Chá do Mexico (Por.; AUS; JFM); Chá Preto (Por.; AVP); Chá Promonga (Por.; AVP); Chocuil-Xiu (Maya; AVP); Claudiosa (Bel.; Mex.; AVP; BNA; JTR; MAX); Claviosa (Bel.; AAB; BNA); Coat Weed (Eng.; JTR); Cola de Caballo (Pan.; IED); Cola de Gallo (Pan.; AUS); Earache Bush (Eng.; JFM); Escabiosa (Cuba; JFM; JTR); Esclabiosa (Cuba; AVP); Esclaviosa (Sp.; JFM); Escobilla (Sp.; JFM); Escobo (Col.; JFM; JTR); Feregosa (Dor.; AHL; AVP); Fregosa (Dor.; Ven.; AVP; JTR); Goatweed (Eng.; Jam.; AUS; AVP; USN; VOD); Grannybush (Eng.; JFM); Hierba Te (Pan.; AUS; IED; USN); Jamaica Tea (Eng.; AVP; FAC); Kawissey (Palikur; GMJ); Lengua de Gallina (Mex.; AUS); Magüiro (Cuba; JFM; JTR); Majuito (Cuba; JFM; JTR); Malvavisco (Mex.; AUS); Pasmo (Mex.; AUS); Pasmo Wa-Xi-Uil (Bel.; AAB; BNA); Pasmoxiu (Mex.; AVP; MAX); Pericon (Sp.; JFM); Peru Tea (Eng.; JAD; SOU); Santa Maria (Dor.; AHL); Stow-Weed (Eng.; JFM); Stow-Wort (Eng.; JFM); Suisse (Dor.; AHL); Tan Chi (Bel.; AAB; AVP; BNA); Tantje (Ma.; JFM); Tantsji (Aruba; Bonaire; Curacao; AUS; JFM); Tasajo (Chiapas; AUS); Té (Dor.; Pr.; AVP); Té Chino (Peru; RAR); Té Criollo (Col.; AVP); Té de la China (Peru; RAR); Té de las Antilles (Peru; SOU); Té del Pais (Pr.; JTR; USN); Té del Peru (Peru; SOU); Té de Mexico (Peru; SOU); Té de Monte (Sp.; JFM); Té de Salud (Sp.; JFM); Te de Santa Maria (Dor.; Sp.; AVP; FAC); Té Indigen (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Té Nacional (Sp.; JFM); Té Pays (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Té Peyi (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Té Silvestre (Sp.; JFM); Thé d’Amérique (Haiti; Mart.; AVP; JTR); Thé de la Guadelupe (Guy.; AVP); Thé des Anglais (Creole; Guad.; Haiti; VOD); Thé de Santé (Guad.; Haiti; VOD); Thé des Antilles (Creole; Haiti; Mart.; AVP; VOD); Thé de St. Domingue (His.; AHL); Thé du Mexico (Haiti; AVP); Thé du Pays (Guad.; St. Bart.; AVP); Thé Guadelupe (Creole; Wi.; GMJ); Thé Muray (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Thé Murraile (Guad.; AVP); Thé Pays (Creole; Guad.; Guy.; AVP; GMJ); Thé Suisse (Haiti; AVP); Twa Zom Fo (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Verbena (Ma.; AUS; JFM); Viuda (Cuba; JFM; JTR); West Indian Tea (Eng.; FAC); Worry Bush (Eng.; JFM). (Nscn).

Activities:

Analgesic (f1; FT74:686); Anticancer (1; X16042338); Anticancer, breast (1; X16042338); Anticancer, colon (1; X16042338); Anticancer, skin (1; X16042338); Antiemetic (f; JFM); Antioxidant (1; X16042338); Antiseptic (f1; MPB; VOD); Antispasmodic (f; GMJ); Antitumor (1; X16042338); Bechic (f; VOD); Cholagogue (f; GMJ); CNS-Depressant (f; AUS; JFM); Collyrium (f; GMJ); Cytotoxic (f1; AAB; AUS; X16042338); Digestive (f; GMJ; MPB); Diuretic (f; AHL; JFM); Emetic (f; AHL); Emmenagogue (f; AHL); Expectorant (f; VOD); Febrifuge (f; AHL); Fungicide (f1; VOD); Hypoglycemic (f1; AUS; VOD); Hypotensive (f; VOD); Insecticide (1; JNP63:1515); Purgative (f; GMJ; VOD); Sedative (f; GMJ); Stimulant (f; MPB); Sudorific (f; JFM; JTR); Tonic (f; AHL; AUS; JFM; VOD); Vulnerary (f; JTR).

Indications:

Alopecia (f; IED); Arthrosis (f; AAB); Bronchosis (f; JFM); Cancer (1; X16042338); Cancer, breast (1; X16042338); Cancer, colon (1; X16042338); Cancer, skin (1; X16042338); Candida (f; AUS); Childbirth (f; JFM); Colds (f; AUS; JFM); Colic (f; JFM); Congestion (f; AAB); Conjunctivosis (f; AUS; VOD); Coughs (f; AAB; JFM); Cramps (f; AAB; AUS; GMJ); Cystosis (f; AAB; AUS); Dermatosis (f; JFM); Diabetes (f1; AUS; IED; MAX; VOD); Diarrhea (f; AHL; JFM; JTR); Digestion (f; GMJ; JFM; MPB); Dysmenorrhea (f; AAB; AUS; JFM); Dyspepsia (f; AUS; MPB); Dysuria (f; JFM); Earache (f; VOD); Enterosis (f; VOD); Epigastrosis (f; VOD); Fever (f; AHL; JTR); Flatulence (f; JFM); Flu (f; AUS; JFM); Fungus (f1; VOD); Gas (f; AUS; JFM); Gonorrhea (f; MAX); Headache (f; GMJ); Hemorrhoids (f; AHL); High Blood Pressure (f; VOD); Hyperglycemia (f1; AUS; VOD); Infection (f1; MPB; VOD); Insomnia (f; GMJ); Leukorrhea (f; JFM; MAX); Measles (f; JFM); Nausea (f; JFM); Nephrosis (f; AAB; AUS); Ophthalmia (f; JFM; VOD); Pain (f1; AAB; FT74:686; JFM); Pulmonosis (f; VOD); Rheumatism (f; AAB); Spasms (f; GMJ); Stomachache (f; JTR; MPB); Tumors (1; X16042338); Uterosis (f; IED; JTR); VD (f; JFM; MAX); Wounds (f; AHL; JTR).

Dosages:

FNFF = !! Dry leaves and flowers make good tea substitute (FAC). Some Dutch West Indian countrymen chew the leaves like tobacco (JFM).

  • Bahamans take the plant to facilitate childbirth, using the plant juice for earache (JFM).
  • Belizeans boil 2 whole plants in 2 gal water 10 min to bathe body areas affected by “pasmo” (a condition of blood stagnation or congestion) (AAB).
  • Belizeans sip tea (handful leaves in 3 cups water for 10 min) for arthrosis, cough, cystosis, diabetes, nephrosis, and rheumatic pain (AAB).
  • Caribs use the plant for menstrual pain and female complaints (X17362507).
  • Cubans use the astringent tea on wounds (AHL) and as febrifuge (JTR).
  • Cubans use the tea as vaginal douche, possibly alleviating Candida (AUS).
  • Curaçaoans give the decoction to one-week-old babies “changing skin” (JFM).
  • Curaçaoans use the diuretic decoction for cold (JFM).
  • Dominicans apply powdered leaf in pork lard to hemorrhoids (AHL).
  • Dominicans put a branch in boiled children’s milk to prevent diarrhea (AHL).
  • Dominicans use leaf decoction as a collyrium for conjunctivosis (VOD).
  • Dominicans use shoot decoction with castor oil for pain in the epigastrium (VOD).
  • Dominicans use shoot infusion with ginger as a purgative before worming (VOD).
  • Guadelupans and Martiniquans consider the tea digestive, diuretic, febrifuge, and good for bronchosis and colds (JFM).
  • Haitians drop leaf juice (2–4 drops 3×/day) for earache (VOD).
  • Haitians use leaf and flower decoction or tea as expectorant in lung ailments and for high blood pressure (AHL; VOD).
  • Mexicans take decoction (10 g in 300 liter water) for diarrhea, gonorrhea, hepatosis, leucorrhea, and nephrosis (JFM; MAX).
  • Puerto Ricans take weak decoction for colic, dyspepsia, flatulence, and fever (JFM).
  • Trinidadans take decoction for childbirth, dysmenorrhea, fever, flu, measles, and vomiting (JFM).
  • Venezuelans take the astringent decoction for diarrhea and nausea (JFM).
  • Yucatanese apply tea as lotion on ovarian and uterine problems (JTR; MAX).

Downsides:

Large doses can be stupefacient and muscularly paralytic (SOU); may cause vertigo and paralysis in overdose (MAX). As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed three titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

Biflorin strongly inhibited growth of five tumor cell lines, especially breast, colon, and skin cancer, and also exhibited strong antioxidant activity (X16042338)

CAPSICUM (Capsicum spp.) ++ SOLANACEAE

Illustrations:

p 149 (CR2)

Notes:

The hotter ones are often C. frutescens, the sweeter ones C. annuum, but the intermediates are often confused taxonomically, e.g., Morton treats only the hot pepper as Capsicum annuum var. minimum (syn. or “often recorded as” C. frutescens, C. baccatum, or C. frutescens var. baccatum Irish) (JFM). We treat it as C. frutescens in our Handbook of Medicinal Spices (HOS).

Common Names:

Ahi (Ese’eja; Sp.; AVP; MD2); Ahmur (Arab.; NAD); Ají (Peru; Sp.; AVP; LOR; MDD); Ají Agujeta (Cuba; AVP); Ají Bobito (Dor.; AHL); Ají Boniato (Dom.; AVP); Ají Bravo (Sal.; Sp.; AVP); Aji Caballero (Pr.; Sp.; AVP; JFM); Aji Caribe (Dor.; Ven.; AVP; TRA); Aji Chinchana (Sp.; SOU); Aji Chirel (Col.; Ven.; AVP); Aji Chivata (Sp.; JFM); Ajicito Montesino (Dor.; AHL); Ají Comun (Cuba; JTR); Aji de Gallina (Dor.; AHL); Ají del Salon (Dor.; Peru; AHL; JAD); Ají de Plaza (Cuba; JTR); Aji Dulce (Dor.; Sp.; Ven.; AHL; AVP); Aji Guaguao (Cuba; Sp.; AVP; JTR); Aji Largo (Peru; Sp.; AVP); Aji Limon (Sa.; RAR); Ajillo (Pan.; AVP); Ají Mono (Sp.; SOU); Ají Montaña (Sa.; RAR); Ají Montecino (Dom.; AVP); Ají Moron (Dor.; AHL); Ají Morron (Dom.; Sp.; AVP); Ají Pajarito (Col.; Sp.; AVP; JFM; JTR); Ají Picante (Pr.; Sp.; AVP; JFM); Ají Picantel (Cuba; Sp.; AVP); Ají Quinillo (Sp.; SOU); Ají Titi (Dor.; AHL); Angmak (Ulwa; ULW); Anmak (Ulwa; ULW); Ardeiu (Rom.; KAB); Arnaucho (Peru; AVP); Ati (Ca.; Garifuna; IED); Barkono (Afr.; Hausa; AVP; KAB); Beissbeere (Ger.; EFS; TAN); Bell Pepper (Eng.; FAC; VOD); Bilber (Tur.; EB54:155); Bird Chilli (Eng.; HOS); Bird Pepper (Eng.; AVP; JFM; JTR); Birosi (Raj.; NPM); Bisho (Ese’eja; MD2); Bruhi (Sanskrit; EFS; NAD); Caja (Kuna; Pan.; IED); Capsique (Fr.; BOU); Cayenne (Eng.; FAC); Cayenne Pepper (Eng.; AVP; VOD); Chabai (Mal.; KAB; NAD); Chabai Sabrong (Malaya; EFS); Chakeai (Malaya; KAP); Chalie (Mal.; WO2); Charapilla (Sp.; SOU); Chile Bravo (Sp.; JFM); Chile Chiltepen (Mex.; AVP); Chile de Monte (Sp.; JFM); Chile de Velleno (Sal.; Sp.; AVP); Chile de Zope (Sal.; Sp.; AVP; JFM); Chile Juipin (Mex.; AVP); Chile Largo (Sal.; AVP); Chilillo (Sp.; JFM); Chili Pepper (Eng.; FAC; VOD); Chilla (Ber.; BOU); Chilli Pepper (Eng.; HOS); Chilpepe (Sal.; AVP); Chilpete (Cr.; AVP); Chiltepe (Sp.; JFM); Chiltepen (Mex.; AVP); Chinche Uchu (Sa.; SOU); Chirel (Col.; Ven.; AVP; JLH); Chivato (Col.; AVP); Chojnya Huaica (Aym.; SOU); Choxnya Wayk’a (Aym.; DLZ); Chyoots (Amuesha; SOU); Conguito (Col.; AVP); Corail des Jardins (Fr.; AVP; BOU); Corallo (It.; KAB); Du (Sunwar; NPM); Felfel Ahmar (Arab.; BOU); Felfel Haar (Arab.; BOU); Felfel Helw (Arab.; BOU); Felfel Rumi (Arab.; BOU); Felfel Torshi (Arab.; BOU); Felfila (Arab.; BOU); Fibl e Abmar (Arab.; KAP); Filfile Ahmar (Iran; NAD); Filfile Ahmer (Arab.; EFS; KAB; NAD; WOI); Franchiao (China; KAP); Fulfilisurkh (Iran; KAB); Gachmaich (Ben.; KAB); Gach Mirichi (Hindi; NAD; WOI); Galakonda (Tel.; NAD); Garho Mirch (Sin.; NAD); Gasmiris (Sin.; NAD); Gnnayoke (Burma; KAB); Goat Pepper (Eng.; JFM); Golakonda (Tel.; KAB); Guindilla (Sp.; EFS); Hot Pepper (Eng.; HOS; VOD); Hov Txob Nplej (Hmong; EB57:365); Huaica (Aym.; SOU); Hugn (Huachipaeri; MD2); Ifelfel (Ber.; BOU); Ik (Maya; AVP); Iki (Cocama; SOU); Jahfiilla (Ocaina; SOU); Jeeray (Sikkim; SKJ); Jhal (Ben.; Hindi; NAD); Jima (Aguaruna; SOU); Kapur (Kuna; Pan.; IED); Katuvira (Sanskrit; KAB; KAP; NAD); Kelekeke (Sudan; AVP); Khorsani (Gurung; NPM); Khursani (Danuwar; Magar; Majhi; Nepal; NPM; SUW); Khurshaney (Sikkim; SKJ); Khursya (Chepang; NPM); Kidachi Togorashi (Japan; TAN); Kirmizii Biber (Tur.; EFS); Komlu (Piro; Yine; MD2); Krasniy Peretz (Rus.; KAB); Kua Txob (Hmong; EB57:365); La Chiao (China; EFS); Lada Mutia (Malaya; EFS); Lalmarach (Urdu; KAB); Lal Mirch (Hindi; ADP; SKJ); Lalmircha (Hindi; KAB); Lalmirchi (Hindi; KAP); Lalmirichi (Ben.; NAD); Lalmoricho (Oriya; WO2); Lanka (Ben.; Sanskrit; ADP); Lanka Maric (Ben.; KAP); Lanka Marich (Ben.; NAD); Lankamirch (Ben.; SKJ); Lara (Pi.; KAB); Lavungi Mirchi (Mah.; NAD); Locoto (Sa.; SOU); Lombok (Dwi.; KAB); Lombokpeper (Dutch; EFS); Malabari (India; EFS); Malabhata (Nepal; KAP); Malagueta (Sa.; SOU); Malta (Newari; NPM); Marcha (Guj.; Tamang; NAD; NPM); Marchawangun (Kas.; WO2); Marchi (Limbu; NPM); Marchu (Guj.; NAD); Marich (Ben.; Sanskrit; ADP); Maricha (Bihar; SKJ); Marichiphalam (Sanskrit; NAD); Mattisa (Pun.; NAD); Mattisa Wangru (Kum.; NAD); Menashinakayi (Kan.; KAB; NAD; WOI); Mensina Kai (Kan.; WOI); Meris (Sin.; KAP); Milagay (Tam.; ADP; WOI); Mirapa (Tel.; ADP); Mira Pakaya (Tel.; SKJ; WOI); Mirch (Bhojpuri; Guj.; Hindi; KAB; NPM; SKJ); Mircha (Tharu; NPM); Mirchai (Mooshar; NPM); Mirchi (India; Mar.; EFS; WO2); Mirch Surkh (Iran; Yunani; KAP); Mirch Wangum (Kas.; NAD); Mirsang (Kon.; NAD); Mirsinga (Mah.; NAD); Mishqui Uchu (Que.; DLZ; SOU); Molagay (Tam.; NAD); Mulaku (Mal.; ADP; WOI); Mullagay (Tam.; KAB); Municion Uchu (Bol.; DLZ); Muragay (Tam.; SKJ); Nayop (Burma; NAD); Nayusi (Burma; KAP); Nupu Uchu (Sa.; SOU); Ôili Biberi (Tur.; EFS); O`t (Vn.; EB42:413); Paprica (Rom.; KAB); Paprika (Eng.; Hun.; FAC; KAB); Pasitis (Tag.; KAB); Pepe de Guinea (It.; EFS); Peper (Sur.; AVP); Peperone (It.; AVP; EFS); Petit Piment (Fr.; TRA); Pichirina (Sa.; SOU); Pilipili (Fr.; Swahili; KAB; TRA); Piman (Creole; Haiti; TRA; VOD); Piman Bouk (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Piman Zwazo (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Piment (Fr.; Haiti; AVP; BOU); Pimenta (Sp.; AVP); Piment Anuele (Fr.; AVP; KAP); Pimentao (Por.; AVP); Pimentão Comprido (Por.; AVP); Pimentão Cumari (Por.; AVP); Pimentão de Caiene (Por.; EFS); Pimentão de Cheiro (Por.; EFS); Pimentão Maca (Por.; AVP); Piment Bouc (Haiti; AVP); Piment Cabresse (Guad.; AVP); Piment Capsique (Fr.; EFS); Piment Caraibe (Fwi.; JTR); Piment Chien (Haiti; AHL); Piment Cultivee (Fr.; BOU); Piment de Cayenne (Fr.; Gabon; JLH; TRA); Piment des Jardines (Fr.; BOU); Piment des Jardins (Fr.; AVP); Piment Doux (Haiti; AHL); Piment Enrage (Fr.; AVP; JTR); Pimento (Eng.; FAC); Piment Oiseau (Fr.; AVP); Piment Plomb (Guad.; AVP); Piment Zouezeau (Haiti; AHL); Piment Zouezo (Haiti; AHL); Pimiento (Eng.; AVP); Pimiento Aji (Sp.; AVP); Pimiento de la India (Sp.; EFS); Pimineto Malaguete (Sa.; SOU); Pimienton (Sa.; SOU); Piperus (Moldavia; KAB); Pod Pepper (Eng.; AVP); Poivre de Guinee (Fr.; BOU; EFS); Poivre d’Espagne (Fr.; AVP); Poivre d’Indie (Fr.; BOU); Poivre Long (Fr.; Gaud.; AVP); Poivriere de Cayenne (Fr.; AVP); Poivrier long (Fr.; BOU); Poivron (Fr.; AVP; BOU; TAN); Puca Uchu (Que.; DLZ); Pucuna Uchu (Bol.; DLZ); Pucunucho (Peru; DAV); Pway Kayèn (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Q’ellu Uchu (Que.; DLZ); Q’ellu Wayk’a (Aym.; DLZ); Q’omer Uchu (Que.; DLZ); Quiticot (Vis.; KAB); Quiya Cumari (Brazil; KAB); Red Chili (Eng.; HOS); Red Pepper (Eng.; AVP; JTR; VOD); Rocoto (Col.; IED); Saghakar (Lepcha; NPM); Sakaipilo (Madagascar; JLH); Soodimirapakaaya (Tel.; WO2); Spaanse Peper (Dutch; EFS); Spanish Pepper (Eng.; KAP); Spansicher (Ger.; AVP); Spansk Peber (Den.; EFS); Spansk Peppar (Swe.; EFS); Spansk Pepper (Nor.; KAB); Spur Pepper (Eng.; HOS); Tabasco Pepper (Eng.; HOS; VOD); Thilly Pepper (Eng.; AVP); Tiffile (Iran; EFS); Ti-Piment (Guad.; AVP); Togarashi (Japan; KAP; TAN); Touanka (Afr.; AVP); Tsikame (Matsigenka; MD2); Tsi-Tra-Ka (Tibet; NPM); Uchu (Arg.; Que.; AVP; DLZ); Ugn (Amarakaeri; MD2); Upperparanki (Mal.; NAD); Usimulagay (Tam.; WO2); Wasa (Callawaya; DLZ); Wayk’a (Aym.; DLZ); Wila Wayk’a (Aym.; DLZ); Wild Pepper (Eng.; JFM; JTR); Yuchi (Amahuaca; Shipibo/Conibo; MD2).

Activities:

Adrenergic (1; LIB); Analgesic (f12; APA; JAD; ULW; VOD; WAM; 60P); Anesthetic (1; TAD); Antiaggregant (1; PH2; SKY); Antiarthritic (f1; MCK); Anticancer (f1; TAD; X16158935); Anticancer, mouth (1; X16158935); Antidote (f; IED); Antiinflammatory (f1; APA; TAD; WAM; WO2); Antiischemic (f1; TAD); Anti-MDR (1; X16158935; X17091773); Antinitrosaminic (1; JNU); Antioxidant (1; SKY; TAD; WAM); Antiplatelet (1; MCK); Antiprostaglandin (1; X145302140); Antipsoriac (1; FNF); Antiseptic (f1; HDN; PNC; 60P); Antispasmodic (f1; PED); Antitumor (1; X16158935); Antiulcer (f1; APA; BGB; PED); Antiviral (1; WO2); Aphrodisiac (f; BOU); Astringent (f1; PED); Bactericide (1; PED; PH2; TRA); Bradycardiac (1; WO2); Bronchoconstrictor (1; TAD); Bronchodilator (f1; APA); Calcium-Channel-Blocker (1; TAD); Carcinogenic (f1; TAD); Cardiotonic (f; NAD); Carminative (f1; BGB; PED; 60P); Catabolic (f1; HAD; 60P); Chemopreventive (1; X16158935); Choleretic (f1; TRA); Circulatory-Stimulant (f1; KAB; PED); CNS-Stimulant (f; LIB); Corticosteronigenic (1; WO2); Counterirritant (f12; APA; PED); COX-2-Inhibitor (1; X145302140); Curare (f1; HDN); Cytotoxic (1; X16158935); Dart Poison (f; WBB); Decongestant (f1; APA; DAD; RIN; TRA); Detoxicant (f; BOW); Diaphoretic (f1; BGB; PED); Digestive (f1; AHL; APA); Diuretic (f; BOU; JFM); Expectorant (f; HDN); Febrifuge (f1; TAD); Fibrinolytic (f1; LIB; MAB; PH2); Fungicide (1; X16784815); Gastrogogue (f1; APA); Hemolytic (f1; BGB); Hemostat (f; 60P); Hyperemic (2; KOM); Hypocholesterolemic (1; APA; LE2); Hypoglycemic (1; DAD); Hypotriglyceridemic (1; APA); Insecticide (1; UPW; WBB); Irritant (1; APA); Lacrymatory (1; MCK); Lipase-Promoter (1; JE50:167); Lipolytic (f; TAD); 5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor (1; MCK); Maltase-Promoter (1; JE50:167); Neurotonic (f; AHL); Neurotoxic (1; KOM); Orexigenic (f1; APA; BOU; PR14:401); Propecic (f1; PR14:401); Radioprotective (1; WO2; X10775394); Rubefacient (f12; APA; BOU; NPM; PED; TRA); Sialogogue (f1; APA; WBB); Stimulant (f1; AHL; BGB; BOU; IED; NPM; PED); Stomachic (f; BOU; IED; NAD; NPM; WBB); Sucrase-Promoter (1; JE50:167); Synergist (1; PED); Thermogenic (f1; FNF; HAD; LIB); Tonic (f1; APA; PNC; WAM); Ulcerogenic (f1; WO2); Urease-Inhibitor (1; X16158935); Uterocontractant (f1; TRA); Vasoconstrictor (f; TRA); Vermifuge (f; UPW); Vulnerary (f1; WO2).

Indications:

Adenoma (1; X11604990); Ague (f; IED); Alcoholism (f1; HH2; NAD; PHR; PH2; WO2); Alopecia (f; PR14:401); Amebiasis (f; HDN); Angina (f; LIB; MAB); Anorexia (f1; APA; PHR; WBB; WO2); Anorexia Nervosa (f; PH2); Anxiety (f; VOD); Arrhythmia (f; FNF); Arteriosclerosis (1; PHR; PH2); Arthrosis (pain) (f12; APA; PHR; PH2; TRA); Asthma (f1; JFM; JNU); Atony (f; ADP); Bacillus (1; LIB; X10548758); Backache (f1; APA; WBB); Bacteria (1; X10548758; X17002415); Bleeding (f; DAD); Boils (f; IED; JFM; UPW); Bronchosis (f1; APA); Bubonic Plague (f; UPW); Burns (f; LIB); Burning Mouth Syndrome (1; PR14:401); Bursitis (f1; SKY); Cancer (f1; JLH; X16158935); Cancer, breast (f; JLH); Cancer colon (1; X11604990); Cancer, mouth (f1; JLH; X16158935); Cancer, nose (f; JLH); Cancer, skin (f; JLH); Carcinoma (1; X16158935); Cardiopathy (f1; PHR; PH2; UPW); Caries (f; HDN); Cataracts (1; DAD); Chest Colds (f; JFM; UPW); Chickenpox (f1; APA); Chilblains (f1; BGB; PNC; WO2); Childbirth (f1; 60P); Chills (f; APA); Cholera (f; ADP; IED; JAF49:3101; PH2); Chromhidrosis (1; LIB); Ciguatera (f; AHL); Clostridium (1; MCK); Cluster Headache (1; APA); Colds (f1; APA; JFM; RIN); Colic (f1; APA; JFM; PNC); Coma (f; HDN); Congestion (f; DAD; JFM); Conjunctivosis (f; HDN); Consumption (f; UPW); Convulsions (f; HDN); Costosis (f; HDN); Coughs (f; JFM; PH2); Cramps (f12; KOM; PH2); Cystosis (f; LIB; PR14:401); Dandruff (f; WO2); Delirium (f; KAB; LIB; NAD); Dermatosis (f; ULW); Detrusor Hyperreflexia (1; PR14:401); Diabetes (1; APA); Diabetic Neuropathy (1; SKY); Diarrhea (f; PHR; PH2); Dipsomania (f1; HH2; NAD; PHR; PH2; WO2); Diphtheria (f; LIB; NAD); Dropsy (f; IED); Dyspepsia (f1; APA; BGB; IED; NPM; PH2; VOD; WO2); Dyspnea (f; DAV; WO2); Dysuria (f; HDN); Earache (f; ADP; IED); Edema (f; PH2); Enterosis (f; PH2); Epithelioma (f; JLH); Escherichia (1; X10548758); Exanthem (f; UPW); Fever (f1; IED; PHR; PH2; TAD; VOD); Flu (f; DAV); Frostbite (f; BGB; PHR; PH2; SPI); Fungus (1; X10548758); Gangrene (f; LIB); Gas (f1; APA; DAV; NAD); Gastrosis (f1; JFM; PH2; TRA; WO2); German Measles (f; HDN); Giddiness (f; IED); Gonorrhea (f; WO2); Gout (f; IED; KAB; NAD; PH2); Hay Fever (1; RIN); Headache (f1; APA; WAM); Head Colds (f1; RIN); Helicobacter (1; X16158935; X17002415); Hemorrhoids (f; ADP; BOU; IED; JFM; WBB); Hepatosis (f; WBB; WO2); Herpes Zoster (1; DAV; SKY; VOD); High Blood Pressure (f; VOD); High Cholesterol (1; APA; LE2; TRA); High Triglycerides (1; APA); Hoarseness (f; ADP; KAB; PHR); Hydrocele (f; HDN); Impotence (f; BOU; LIB; PHR); Incontinence (1; MCK); Induration (f; JLH); Infection (f1; HDN; IED; PH2; ULW); Inflammation (f1; TRA; WO2); Inorgasmia (f; PHR); Ischemia (1; FNF); Itch (f12; ABS; MCK); Jaundice (f; HDN; WO2); Kernel (f; JLH); Labor (f1; 60P); Laryngitis (f; PNC); Lumbago (f1; APA; NAD; PHR; PH2; PNC); Madness (f; HDN); Malaria (f; IED; KAB; NAD; PHR; PH2); Mastosis (f; JLH); MDR (1; X16158935; X17091773); Migraine (f1; FNF; NMH; VOD); Myalgia (f12; APA; KOM; PNC); Mycosis (1; X10548758); Myosis (f12; PHR; PH2); Nausea (f; VOD); Nephrosis (f; LIB); Nervousness (f; VOD); Neuralgia (f1; APA; SKY; VOD; WO2); Neuropathy (1; TAD); Notalgia Paresthetica (1; PR14:401); Obesity (f1; FNF; HAD); Ophthalmia (f; VOD); Osteoarthrosis (f1; LIB; TAD); Otosis (f; PH2); Pain (f12; APA; BGB; JAD; PH2; ULW; VOD; WAM; WBB); Paralysis (f; WO2); Pharyngosis (f1; DAD; PH2; WOI); Plague (f; WBB); Pneumonia (f; LIB); Poor Circulation (1; WAM); Proctosis (f; LIB); Prurigo (f12; ABS); Psoriasis (f1; APA; FNF; SKY); Pulmonosis (f; IED; ULW; 60P); Rabies (f; HDN); Respirosis (f; IED; ULW); Rheumatism (f12; APA; PHR; PH2; TRA); Rhinosis (f; HDN; JLH; PR14:401); Ringworm (f; MD2); Salmonella (1; WO2); Scabies (f; MD2); Scarlet Fever (f; ADP; PH2); Sciatica (f1; PH2); Seasickness (f; HH2; PH2); Shingles (f1; APA; VOD); Snake Bite (f; IED; 60P); Sores (f; LIB); Sore Throat (f1; ADP; JFM; KAB; PHR; PH2); Sprains (f1; ADP; APA); Stomachache (f; JAF49:3101; JFM); Stomatosis (f; LIB); Strain (f1; APA); Streptococcus (1; LIB; MCK); Stroke (1; PHR; PH2); Surfeit (f; JFM); Swelling (f; DAD; WBB); Tachycardia (1; FNF); Tennis Elbow (1; JAD); Tension (f12; PH2); Thumb-Sucking (1; APA; BGB); Thyropathy (f; PED); Tonsilosis (f; ADP; HDN; LIB); Toothache (f1; DAV; 60P); Tuberculosis (f; UPW); Tumors (f1; NAD; X16158935); Typhoid (f; IED); Typhus (f; KAB; JAF49:3101); Ulcers (f1; BGB; LIB; MCK; X16158935; X17002415); UTIs (f; PH2); Varicose Veins (1; JAD; WBB; WO2); VD (f; WO2); Vertigo (f; VOD); Viruses (1; WO2); Whitlow (f; VOD); Worms (f; UPW); Wounds (f1; JFM; VOD; WO2); Xerostomia (1; FNF); Yaws (f; UPW); Yeast (1; X10548758; X16784815); Yellow Fever (f; JAF49:3101; KAB; PH2).

Dosages:

FNFF = !!! Fruits widely eaten, raw, cooked, dried, or preserved; leaves steamed as potherb or added to stews and soups, e.g., Andean “locro”; Koreans use dry pepper leaves, thin threads, or red pepper and a hot-pepper flavored soybean paste “kochugang”; Thais add the green leaves to green their green curry paste “gkaeng kiow wahn” (EB54:155; FAC; TAN). Seeds tamped in cavities for toothache. ¼–½ tsp spice/cup water after meals (APA); ¼–½ dropper tincture (APA); 0.3–1.0 ml fruit tincture (CAN; PNC; SKY); 0.05–0.15 strong fruit tincture (PNC); 30–120 mg fruit 3×/day (CAN); ½ cup fresh fruit (PED); 100–300 mg dry fruit (PED); 0.5–1 tsp dry fruit/cup water (SF); 200 mg dry fruit:1 ml alcohol/1 ml water (PED); 30–120 mg powdered cayenne (PNC); 0.6–2.0 mg capsicum oleoresin (CAN; PNC); 2–3 (450 mg) capsules 3×/day (NH); 1 StX 450 mg capsule 3×/day (NH). Topical maximum strength 2.5% (CAN). Topical StX should contain, methinks, 0.0225–0.075% capsaicin, but I see reports of 0.25–0.75% capsaicin (SF); some people work with stronger ointments than mine (0.025–0.075% capsaicin); Steve Foster gives levels 10 times higher, and CAN 100 times higher (for capsaicinoids) (SF). I consider these higher levels rather too strong, if not dangerous. Sheila Humphrey, RN, suggests inhaling a few grains of cayenne for migraine (NMH).

  • Asian Indians take fruit decoction with opium and fried asafetida for cholera (ADP).
  • Asian Indians suggest capsicum tea with cinnamon and sugar for calming delirium tremens and the cravings of dipsomanics (NAD).
  • Asian Indians suggest plaster of amber, black pepper, capsicum, and garlic for lumbago (NAD).
  • Bahamians and Curaçaoans apply crushed leaves with or without castor oil to boils (JFM).
  • Caribs use fruit juice (not hot pepper I hope) as eye drops in ophthalmia (VOD).
  • Costa Rican BriBri take root decoction for colic and gastrosis after overeating (JFM).
  • Cubans and Guadelupans eat fruit as antihemorrhoidal diuretic (JFM).
  • Dominican Caribs pound leaves in shark oil to poultice onto sores and wounds (VOD).
  • Dominicans give a chili pepper leaf infusion with basil and Tabebuia for pediatric anxiety (BOD).
  • Dominicans take bell pepper leaf decoction for high blood pressure (VOD).
  • Gabonese apply the plant to cancers of the nose (JLH).
  • Guianans take the fruit with cinchona for malaria (KAB).
  • Haitians apply greased leaves to forehead for migraine and vertigo (VOD).
  • Haitians dress leaves onto whitlows and wounds as cicatrizant and vulnerary (VOD).
  • Haitians rub fruit tincture onto rheumatism (VOD).
  • Haitians use ripe fruit infusion for dyspepsia, fever, nausea, and nervousness (VOD).
  • Madagascans eat fruits for DT’s (KAB); apply powdered fruits (C. minimum) to epitheliomas (JLH).
  • Trinidadans take leaf decoction for asthma, chest colds, and cough (JFM).
  • West Indians use capsicum to relieve the sinking “at the epigastrium felt by drunkards” (NAD).

Downsides:

Class 2d. Contraindicated on broken skin or near eyes (AHP, 1997). Commission E reports contraindications of damaged skin, hypersensitivity, and adverse effects of irritant properties; rarely allergic reactions (KOM). Not to be used for more than 2 days, with 14-day lapse before reapplying (this is not often followed in this country) (AEHD), the Herbal PDR suggests the same (Fleming et al., 1998). Newall, Anderson, and Phillipson (1996) report capsaicinoids to be irritant, “The toxicity of the capsaicinoids has reportedly not been ascribed to any one specific action but may be due to their causing respiratory failure, bradycardia, and hypotension.” Excessive consumption may cause gastroenterosis, hepatic, renal damage (CAN) or ulcers (SKY). Capsicum may interfere with blood pressure medicines and MAOIs (CAN). Antigens have been associated with anaphylaxis and rhinoconjunctivitis (PH2). Not for children under 2 years (WAM). Chronic administration of capsicum extract (0.5 μg capsaicin/ kg body weight; that would be 50 μg for this 100-kilo rat, Jim Duke) to hamsters has been reported toxic (CAN); the oral LD50 in rats is 190 mg/kg (CAN). The oral LD50 97–294 in mice is such that led Tucker and Debaggio (2000) to calculate for me, a 220 lb (100 kg) rat, I’d need to ingest some 135 to 415 ounces of hot pepper (TAD). No way. Paprika a/o capsicum may speed other medications. Reading that, I went and tried a mixture of grapefruit juice with black pepper and tabasco; three well-known potentiators of medications. Interesting, spicy but good. Sure beats taking my less spicy herb, or synthetics for those more unfortunate than I. Digestive properties of capsaicin may be attributed to an enhancement of digestive enzyme activities or to indirect effects on vascular endothelia, smooth muscle, and mast cells, resulting in increase of vascular permeability and of mucosal blood flow. Hot spices can promote antigen transfer through epithelia and thereby augment sensitization or allergic reactions. Unfortunately it may also speed up hepatic metabolism of many drugs effectively rendering them weaker. Many of my correspondents find the capsaicin cure worse than their aching ailment. Fleming et al. (1998) have some heavy duty toxicity info: toxic dosages possibly leading to life-threatening hypothermia by affecting the thermoreceptors. Prolonged consumption of high doses can cause chronic gastrosis, kidney and liver damage, and neurotoxicity (PHR). Prolonged exposure may deaden the sensitivity to any pain (PED). “Prolonged exposure to mucosa will make the mucosa insensitive to industrial pollution” (PED). I don’t know whether that’s supposed to be a plus or a minus (JAD). As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed three titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

Hot peppers exhibit vasculotropic and vasoconstrictor activity. Capsaicin has decongestant and rubefacient activities (TRA). Capsicum fruit extract is 4 times as toxic ipr to mice as pure capsaicin. Apparently the capsaicin derivatives or other components have a synergistic effect (HDN). As a corollary, I confess or chide that such synergies would also prevail, on average, in medicinal activities as well. Capsicum extracts of both species and other spp inhibit various pathogens, including Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Clostridium sporogenes, C. tetani, and Streptococcus pyrogenes, while individual caspasinoids were not (MCK). (=) Capsidiol was more efficacious (MIC = 200 μg/ml) than metronidazole (MIC = 250 μg/ml) at arresting growth of Helicobacter in vitro (X17002415). Some hexane and acetone extracts cytotoxic towards three human oral tumor cell lines rather than against three normal human oral cells, suggesting tumor-specific cytotoxicity, and also displayed MDR reversal activity and urease inhibition, possibly due to higher carotene and polyphenol content (X16158935).

ANDIROBA (Carapa guianensis Aubl.) + MELIACEAE

Illustrations:

pl 200D (DAG)

Common Names:

Almendron (Ma.; JFM); Anderoba (Peru; Sp.; EGG); Andiroba (Brazil; Peru; Sp.; EGG; JTR; SOU; USN); Andiroba-Saruba (Brazil; Ma.; Por.; RAI; USN); Andirova (Por.; AVP); Bastard Mahogany (Bel.; Eng.; BNA; IED); Bois Rouge (Fwi.; AVP); Cabirma de Guinea (His.; AHL); Cachipou (Fwi.; AVP); Cachipounoix de Crab (Fr. Guiana; JTR); Caoba (Cr.; AVP); Caraba (Dwi.; JTR); Carapa (Brazil; Guad.; Mart.; Peru; Por.; Sp.; AVP; EGG; USN); Carapa Blanc (Fwi.; JTR); Carapa Rouge (Fr. Guiana; Fwi.; JTR); Carapa Tree (Eng.; JTR); Carapinha (Ma.; JFM); Carapo (Trin.; Ven.; AVP; JTR); Cedro (Sp.; USN); Cedro Bateo (Pan.; Sp.; AVP; IED); Cedro Macho (Cr.; Peru; Sp.; AVP; EGG); Crabwood (Eng.; IED; USN); Crapaud (Ma.; JFM); Crappo (Dwi.; JTR); Figuero (Ecu.; AVP); Figueroa (Ecu.; AVP; DAG); Huino (Col.; Sp.; IED); Iandiroba (Brazil; Por.; USN); Iandirova (Brazil; Ma.; Por.; RAI; USN); Jandiroba (Ma.; JFM); Karaba (Dwi.; JTR); Krappa (Dwi.; JTR); Masábolo (Col.; Sp.; AVP; IED); Nandiroba (Brazil; Por.; USN); Noix de Crab (Fwi.; AVP); Penaiba (Ma.; JFM); Randiroba (Por.; AVP); Requia (Peru; Sp.; EGG); Saba (Nic.; Ulwa; IED; ULW); Sapo (Ma.; JFM); Serapa Jaune (Fwi.; JTR); Tangaré (Ecu.; Pan.; Sp.; AVP; DAG; IED); Tololo (Ma.; JFM); Warawere (Bel.; BNA); White Crabwood (Eng.; JTR).

Activities:

Analgesic (f1; RAI; X16134059); Anthelmintic (f; EGG); Antiallergic (1; X16134059; X16399616); Antiarthritic (f; DAV; RAI); Antibradykinin (1; X16134059); Antiedemic (1; X16134059); Antihistaminic (1; X16134059); Antiinflammatory (f1; DAV; RAI; X17122962); Antimalarial (1; RAI); Antiprostaglandin (1; X16134059); Antitumor (1; RAI); Astringent (f; EGG; IED); Bactericide (1; RAI); Cicatrizant (f; JTR); Emollient (f; DAV); Febrifuge (f; DAV; EGG; SAR); Hypocholesterolemic (1; RAI); Hypotensive (1; RAI); IL-1beta-Inhibitor (1; X17122962); Insecticide (1; EGG; RAI); Insectifuge (1; DAV; X15517027); Ixodifuge (f; DAV; RAI); Larvicide (1; X15669392; X16253435; X17304939); Miticide (1; RAI); Mosquitocide (1; X15669392); NF-kappaB-Inhibitor (1;X16399616; X17122962); Pediculicide (f; MPB); Poison (f; IED; RAR); Purgative (f; IED; JTR); Repellent (1; 15517027; X15669392); TNF-alpha-Inhibitor (1; X17122962); Tonic (f; DAV); Vermifuge (f; DAV; JTR; MPB; SAR); Vulnerary (f; EGG).

Indications:

Acne (f; RAI); Allergies (f1; DAV; RAI; X16134059; X16399616); Arthritis (f; DAV; RAI); Bacteria (1; RAI); Boils (f1; RAI); Bruises (f; RAI); Cancer (1; RAI); Cellulite (f; RAI); Cervicosis (1; RAI); Constipation (f; JTR); Coughs (f; DAV; RAI); Dermatosis (f; DAV; JTR); Diabetes (f; RAI); Diarrhea (f; IED; JFM); Dysplasia (1; RAI); Earache (f; RAI); Edema (1; X16134059); Exanthem (f; MPB); Fever (f; DAV; EGG; JTR; SAR); Flu (f; RAI); Fungus (f; MPB); Gastrosis (f; MPB); Hepatosis (f; IED; JTR); Herpes (f; DAV; EGG; RAR); High Blood Pressure (1; RAI); High Cholesterol (1; RAI); Infection (f1; MPB; RAI); Inflammation (f1; DAV; RAI; X17122962); Itch (f; JTR); Leprosy (f; RAI); Lice (f; RAI); Malaria (f1; JTR; MPB; RAI); Myalgia (f1; RAI); Mycosis (f; MPB); Neuroblastoma (1; RAI); Osteosarcoma (1; RAI); Pain (f1; RAI; X16134059); Parasites (f1; DAV; RAI); Pediculosis (f; MPB); Psoriasis (f; RAI); Rashes (f; RAI); Rheumatism (f; IED; JFM; JTR); Ringworm (1; MPB); Sarcoma (1; RAI); Sores (f; DAV); Sore Throat (f; RAI); Splenosis (f; IED; JTR); Stomachache (f; MPB); Syphilis (f; JFM); Tetanus (f; IED; JTR); Ticks (f; DAV); Tumors (1; RAI); VD (f; JFM); Worms (f; DAV; EGG; JTR; MPB; SAR); Wounds (f; EGG; JTR; RAI).

Dosages:

FNFF = X. Not a food plant. 2 drops oil in ear for earache (RAI); 2 ml oil in small glass of warm water 2–3×/day taken internally or gargled (RAI).

  • Argentinians suggest 1–2 handful leaves boiled in 1 liter water for itch (JFM).
  • Brazilians massage pit of stomach with seed oil for stomachache, using bark for diarrhea, fever, malaria, and worms, topically for exanthema, ringworm, and syphilis sores (MPB), also using for acne, arthritis, cancer, constipation, cough, dermatoses, hepatoses, herpes, inflammation, myalgia, sore throat, and splenosis (RAI).
  • Colombians use for arthritis (IED).
  • Creoles, Palikur, and Wayãpi use for removing ticks and for Schongastia guianensis, which gets in the skin (GMJ).
  • Guyanans use for dermatoses, diarrhea, inflammation, myalgia, rheumatism, ticks, and wounds (JFM).
  • Munduruku use the seed oil in mummifying trophy human heads (JTR).
  • Native Americans use the oil two ways for malaria, topically or burning smoke as a preventive mosquitofuge (inferior to DEET (X15517027)), and for intermittent fever (JTR); also used in extracting ticks from scalp, applied to joints for arthritic pain, and mixing oil with water and human milk as an eardrop for earache (RAI).
  • Nicaraguans use for diarrhea and skin problems (IED; RAI).
  • Panamanians use for arthritis (RAI).
  • Peruvians suggest washing herpes with bark decoction, bark tea as anthelmintic, astringent, febrifuge, tonic, vermifuge, and vulnerary (EGG), for dermatosis like skin sores (RAI).
  • Salvadorans take bark decoction for fever (JFM).
  • Trinidadans apply seed oil to dermatoses and sore feet, rubbing on body for colds (JFM), taking also for fever, flu, and myalgia (RAI).
  • Venezuelans take for dermatoses, itch, leprosy, malaria, and parasites (RAI).

Downsides:

Few downsides reported; however, no contraindications or drug interactions (RAI). With all its pesticidal properties, the plant and its oil should be used with caution (JAD). As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed one title alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

Epoxyazadiradione shows in vitro activity against neuroblastoma and osteosarcoma. Gedunin said to be as potent an antimalarial as quinine (RAI). Extract larvicidal for Aedes aegypti (LC50 = 57 μg/l) and Aedes albopictus (X15669392; X16253435). Oil (100–400 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited pleural exudation, paw and ear edema; tetranortriterpenoids (12.5–100 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited edema induced by histamine, PAF and bradykinin; at 100 mg/kg it inhibited prostaglandin E(2) generation after antigenic challenge and hyperalgesia (X16134059).

IPECAC (Carapichea ipecacuanha (Brot.) L. Andersson) + RUBIACEAE

Illustrations:

p 91 (DLZ)

Synonyms:

Callicocca ipecacuanha Brot. (basionym); Cephaelis acuminata H. Karst.; Cephaelis ipecacuanha (Brot.) Tussac; Psychotria ipecacuanha (Brot.) Stokes; Uragoga ipecacuanha; fide (USN).

Notes:

Native Americans used the plant for dysentery before Columbus, but a Portuguese priest got it into European medical practice in 1649 (JFM).

Common Names:

Altim Kökü (Tur.; EFS); Ansachlya (Aym.; Bol.; DLZ); Braakwortel (Dutch; EFS); Brasilianische Brechwurzel (Ger.; USN); Brazilian Ipecac (Eng.; Ocn.; AH2); Brechwurzel (Ger.; EFS); Broekrod (Den.; EFS); Ipeca (Brazil; MPB); Ipecac (Eng.; Scn.; AH2; CR2; JLH; USN); Ipecacuanha (Brazil; Eng.; Fr.; Ocn.; Por.; Sp.; CR2; EFS; JLH; MPB; USN); Ipeca Verdadeira (Brazil; RAR); Opeka (Tur.; EFS); Perpétua (Brazil; RAR); Picho Sisa (Peru; RAR); Poaia (Brazil; MPB); Poaia Preto (Brazil; JFM); Poaja (Col.; IED; JFM); Poalla (Bol.; DLZ); Raicilla (Sp.; IED; USN); Raizcilla (Nic.; IED); Rio Ipecac (Eng.; Ocn.; AH2); Rosa de Mato (Brazil; RAR); Ruhrwurzel (Ger.; EFS); Sufia (Peru; RAR); Usiya Puiño (Huitoto; Peru; RAR); Yaco Sisa Blanca (Peru; RAR).

Activities:

Amebicide (f1; APA; HH2; PHR; X17671728); Analgesic (f; APA); Antacid (f; WO2); Antemetic (1; PH2); Antiinflammatory (1; APA); Antileukemic (1; X17671728); Antinauseant (f; APA); Antispasmodic (1; EFS; PHR; PH2); Antitumor (f; JLH); Apoptotic (1; X17671728); Cholagogue (f; EFS); Cytotoxic (1; HH2; X17671728); Diaphoretic (f; APA; EFS; MPB; WO2); Digestive (f; APA); Emetic (f12; HH2; PHR; PH2; WO2; X17671728); Expectorant (f1; APA; EFS; HH2; PHR; PH2; WO2); Hemostat (f1; DLZ; EFS); Insecticide (f; WO2); Orexigenic (1; APA; WO2); Rubefacient (1; WO2); Sialagogue (1; WO2); Sternutatory (1; WO2); Tachycardic (f; WO2); Toxic (f; EFS).

Indications:

Abscesses (f; WO2); Adenopathy (f; JLH); Alcoholism (f; WO2); Amebiasis (f1; MPB; PHR; PH2; X17671728); Anorexia (1; WO2); Asthma (f; PH2; RAR); Bilharziasis (f1; DAV; WO2); Biliousness (f; WO2); Bleeding (f1; DLZ; EFS; PH2); Bronchosis (f1; APA; PHR; PH2; RAR; WO2); Cancer (f1; JLH; X17671728); Cancer, breast (f1; DAV; JLH); Cancer, gland (f1; DAV; JLH); Cancer, ovary (f1; DAV; JLH); Cancer, uterus (f1; DAV; JLH); Constipation (f; WO2); Coughs (f1; PHR; X17671728); Cramps (1; EFS; PHR; PH2); Croup (2; PHR; PH2); Dermatosis (f; IED); Diarrhea (f1; APA; IED; RAR); Dysentery (f1; PHR; PH2); Enterosis (f; DLZ; PH2); Epithelioma (f; JLH); Fever (f; IED; WO2); Flu (f; APA); Gastrosis (f; DLZ; PH2); Gonorrhea (f; WO2); Guinea Worm (f1; WO2); Hemorrhoids (f; WO2); Hepatosis (f; WO2); Indigestion (f; APA; WO2); Inflammation (f1; APA; PH2); Leukemia (1; X17671728); Leukoderma (1; WO2); Morning Sickness (f; APA); Mucososis (f; PH2); Nausea (f; APA); Pain (f; APA); Pertussis (f1; APA; WO2); Pneumonia (f; DLZ); Poisoning (f12; APA); Pulmonosis (f; JFM); Pyorrhea (f; WO2); Rashes (f; IED); Respirosis (f; IED); Sarcoma (f; JLH); Sores (f; WO2); Sore Throat (f; WO2); Spasms (1; EFS; PHR; PH2); Tumors (f1; JLH); Vomiting (f; X17671728); Worms (1; DAV; WO2).

Dosages:

FNFF = X. Emetic dose = 15 ml (AHP); 0.4–1.4 ml ipecac syrup (AHP); 25–100 mg powdered ipecac (PNC); 0.25–1 ml root tincture (APA); 0.25–1 ml liquid root extract (APA; PNC).

  • Bolivians around Beni give small doses of root decoction to herbivorous animals for gastrointestinal disturbances and to horses with pneumonia (DLZ).
  • Bolivians around Santa Cruz use as antidysenteric, emetic, and expectorant (DLZ).
  • Bolivians take the root decoction, orally or in washes, to stop bleeding (DLZ).
  • Brazilians consider the root antidysenteric, diaphoretic, emetic, and expectorant (MPB).
  • Colombians chew root as amebicide and insect repellent (IED).
  • Nicaraguans take root decoction orally for dermatoses, diarrhea, fever, rash, respiratory problems, sores, and as an emetic (IED).

Downsides:

Class 2b, 2d. Contraindicated in cardiac cases; not for long term use; may cause nausea and vomiting (AHP). “No health hazards or side effects are known in conjunction with the proper administration of designated therapeutic dosages as an expectorant” (PH2). Allergenic and myopathogenic after prolonged dosing (PHR). Toxic doses may lead to convulsions, corrosion of GI mucous membranes, hypotension, respiratory dysfunction, shock, tachycardia, maybe even coma (PHR). Cephaeline more irritant and almost twice as toxic as emetine (WO2). As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed one title alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

Ironically while used primarily as a nauseant, to induce the vomiting of poisons, in low doses the herb serves as an antinauseant, even folklorically in morning sickness (APA). The alkaloid emetine induced apoptosis and caspase activity comparable to cytotoxic effect of cisplatin, and additionally enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis (X17671728).

Cephaeline: amebicide, cytotoxic, emetic, expectorant, protisticide; LD50 = 10 ipr rat (FNF).

BALLOON VINE (Cardiospermum halicacabum L.) + SAPINDACEAE

Illustrations:

p 135 (NPM); pl 259 (KAB)

Common Names:

Agniballi (Kan.; KAB); Amoteremi (Congo; AVP); Badha (Pak.; JLH); Ballarina (Peru; RAR; SOU); Balloon Vine (Eng.; Fla.; S. Afr.; Scn.; AH2; AUS; KAB; UPW; USN); Ban Chichinda (Chepang; NPM); Bangcolon (Tag.; KAB); Banu Uchchhe (Sanskrit; NAD); Barcolon (Pi.; KAB); Bâtard Persil (Dor.; AUS); Bejuco de Orinar (Ma.; JFM); Bejuco Globo (Ma.; JFM); Blaasklimop (Afrikaans; USN); Black Liquorice (Eng.; KAB); Black Winter Cherry (Eng.; UPW); Blister Creeper (Eng.; KAB; WOI); Bombija (Ma.; JFM); Bombilla (Pr.; AUS); Bombilla Menor (Pr.; AUS); Bone Care (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Bonnet Carré (Haiti; AHL); Buddakakara (Tel.; KAB); Cana (Vis.; KAB); Cardiosperme (Fr.; KAB); Cay Bong Bong (Vn.; KAB); Colochero (Ma.; JFM); Coracão da India (Brazil; AVP); Corinde Glabre (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Esungan (Fanti; KAB); Farolito (Col.; Cuba; Pr.; AVP); Farolito de la Virgen (Ven.; AUS); Garafunin Fadama (Hausa; KAB); Garden Wine (Caicos; Tur.; AUS); Guisante Maravila (Pr.; AUS); Gumba (Congo; AVP); Habbulkalkal (Arab.; KAB); Halicacabon Estrange (Fr.; AUS); Halicacabo Salvatico (It.; AUS); Heart Pea (Eng.; Ocn.; AH2; USN); Heart Seed (Eng.; AVP; UPW); Hierba de Chivato (Mex.; AUS); Huayunac (Ma.; JFM); Huevo de Gato (Mex.; AUS); Indravallii (India; AUS); Jyotishmati (Sanskrit; NAD); Kagdolio (Porebunder; KAB); Kanphuti (Mar.; KAB); Karavi (Sanskrit; AUS; NAD); Karnaspota (Sanskrit; NAD); Karolio (Guj.; KAB); Kesh Lahara (Nepal; NPM); Kokalende (Ubangi; JLH); Kola Myetsi (Burma; JLH); Kottavan (Tam.; KAB); Lataphatkari (Ben.; KAB); Lataphatki (Sanskrit; NAD); Lesser Balloonvine (Eng.; USN); Lofofo (Congo; AVP); Love-in-a-Puff (Eng.; NPM); Malamai (Burma; KAB); Mani Mani (Congo; AVP); Masontsokina (Madagascar; KAB); Mor Ko Ton (New Cal.; KAB); Mubogo Bogo (Congo; AVP); Mudakattam (Sri.; KAB); Muditos (Mex.; AUS); Munditos (Ma.; JFM); Okpoku Lairnosi (Krobo; KAB); Painairavel (Sin.; KAB); Palsy Curer (Eng.; KAB); Paltugpaltucan (Pam.; KAB); Peria Bulan (Malaya; KAB); Persil Bâtard (Guad.; His.; Mart.; AUS; AVP); Persil Diable (Guy.; AVP); Pesi Bata (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Phon Thuyen Kat (Ic.; KAB); Pigeons Knee (Eng.; KAB); Poc Poc Liane (Réunion; KAB); Pois à Coeur (Haiti; AVP); Pois de Merveille (Haiti; AVP); Pois Merveille (Guad.; Mart.; AVP); Pwa de Mèrvèy (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Pwa Mevey (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Revienta Caballos (Cuba; AUS); Roomsche Crieken van Overzee (Dutch; AUS); Sprainbush Wine (Dwi.; AUS); Toffe Toffe (His.; AHL); Totoku (Twi; KAB); Ulinna (Mal.; KAB); Urundeburu (Tulu; KAB); Uzipho (Zulu; ZUL); Uziphu (Zulu; KAB); Welsch Schlutten (Ger.; AUS); Wild Supplejack (Jam.; AUS); Winter Cherry (Eng.; Ocn.; AH2; JLH; UPW; USN); Yerba Mora Desta Suerte Estangera (Sp.; AUS); Zab Bich (Trin.; AUS).

Activities:

Abortifacient (f; WO2); Anabolic (1; WO3); Analgesic (1; DAW; HDN); Anthelmintic (f; ZUL); Antifeedant (1; HDN; WO2); Antihistaminic (1; WO2); Antiinflammatory (f1; HDN; VOD; X3613609); Antioxidant (1; X16469462); Antiparasitic (1; X16151739); Antiperoxidant (1; X16469462); Antiphage (1; HDN); Antiradicular (1; X16469462); Antiseptic (1; UPW); Antisickling (1; WO3); Antispasmodic (f1; HDN; WO2); Antiulcer (1; X16469462); Aperient (f; KAB); Aperitive (f; UPW); Aphrodisiac (f; AUS); Bactericide (1; HDN); Bitter (f; UPW); Cardiodepressant (1; ZUL); Cardiotonic (1; ZUL); Cholagogue (f; ZUL); Cicatrizant (f; UPW); CNS-Depressant (1; HDN); Curare (1; HDN); Cyanogenic (1; HDN); Demulcent (f; NPM; UPW); Diaphoretic (f; HDN; IED; RAR; UPW; VOD); Diuretic (f1; HDN; RAR; UPW; VOD; WO2; ZUL); Emetic (f; UPW; ZUL); Emmenagogue (f1; DAW; KAB); Epileptogenic (f; UPW; ZUL); Febrifuge (f1; DAW; HDN; IED; X10641181); Filaricide (1; X10953224); Gastroprotective (1; X16469462); Glutathionigenic (1; X16469462); Hemostat (f; HDN); Hypotensive (1; HDN; WO2); Insectifuge (1; HDN); Irritant (f; UPW); Larvicide (1; WO3); Laxative (f; HDN; ZUL); Myocardiodepressant (1; HDN); Orexigenic (f; UPW); Ovicide (1; WO3); Paralytic (1; HDN); Parasympathomimetic (1; HDN); Pediculicide (1; WO3); Rubefacient (f; NAD; UPW); Sedative (1; AUS); Stomachic (f; HDN; NAD); Tonic (f; HDN; IED; UPW); Uterotonic (f; WO2); Vasodepressant (1; AUS); Vermifuge (f; ZUL).

Indications:

Abscesses (f; AHL; DAW); Allergies (1; WO2); Alopecia (f; WO2); Amenorrhea (f1; HDN; KAB; UPW); Anemia (1; WO3); Angina (1; WO3); Arthritis (1; WO3); Asthma (f; NPM); Bacteria (1; HDN; ZUL); Bleeding (f; HDN); Blennorrhagia (f; KAB); Boils (f; AHL; DAW); Bronchosis (f; NAD); Bubo (f; DAW); Cancer (f; JLH); Catarrh (f; ZUL); Colds (f; HDN; UPW); Colic (f; WO2); Conjunctivosis (f1; DAW; KAB; ZUL); Constipation (f; HDN; ZUL); Coughs (f; HDN; WO2); Cramps (f1; HDN; WO2); Cystosis (f; HDN; VOD); Dandruff (f; WO2); Debility (f; UPW); Dermatosis (f; UPW; ZUL); Diarrhea (f; HDN; NPM; UPW; ZUL); Didymitis (f; WO2); Dropsy (f; HDN; NPM; UPW); Dysentery (f; NPM; UPW; ZUL); Dysmenorrhea (f; ZUL); Earache (f; DAW; KAB); Edema (f; JFM); Epistaxis (f; HDN); Erysipelas (f; KAB); Fever (f1; DAW; HDN; IED; X10641181); Filaria (1; X10953224); Fits (f; HDN); Fracture (f; WO2); Gastrosis (f1; HDN; X16469462); Gonorrhea (f; HDN; NPM; ZUL); Headache (f; HDN; UPW; WO2); Hemorrhoids (f; HDN; NPM); Hepatosis (f; ZUL); High Blood Pressure (1; HDN; WO2; ZUL); Hydrocele (f; WO2); Impotence (f; AUS); Inappetence (f; UPW); Infection (1; HDN; UPW; ZUL); Inflammation (f1; HDN; VOD; X3613609); Insomnia (1; AUS); Itch (f; UPW); Lumbago (f; KAB; UPW); Myosis (f; NPM); Nausea (f; HDN); Nephrosis (f; AUS; ZUL); Neurosis (f; HDN; UPW; WO2); Obesity (f; WO2); Ophthalmia (f1; KAB; ZUL); Orchosis (f; UPW; WO2); Otosis (f; HDN); Pain (f1; DAW; HDN; VOD); Palsy (f; KAB); Parasites (1; X16151739); Pediculosis (1; WO3); Phthisis (f; NAD); Pulmonosis (f; KAB; UPW); Rheumatism (f; HDN; UPW; VOD); Sickle-Cell (1; WO3); Snake Bite (f; KAB); Sores (f; HDN; UPW; ZUL); Spasms (f1; HDN; WO2); Sprains (f; NPM); Stings (f; KAB); Swelling (f; HDN; JLH; NPM; UPW); Syphilis (f; HDN; UPW); Tumors (f; DAW; JLH); Ulcers (1; X16469462); VD (f; HDN; NPM; UPW); Worms (f; KAB; ZUL); Wounds (f; UPW).

Dosages:

FNFF = ! Young foliage and shoots reportedly edible (IED; JFM; NPM; WOI).

  • Argentinians use parched seed, ground like coffee and boiled, for arthritis and rheumatism (AUS).
  • Asian Indians paste the leaves on tumors (JLH).
  • Dominican Caribs use leaf tea as beverage and bath for inflammation (VOD).
  • Guineans, Nigerians, Senegalese, and Ubangi use the leaves for tumors (JLH).
  • Madagascans, believing the roots aperient, diaphoretic, diuretic, and emetic, take for amenorrhea, bleeding piles, erysipelas, gonorrhea, intestinal worms, and rheumatism (KAB).
  • Native Hispaniolans used the root decoction and poultice for rheumatic pain (VOD).
  • Nepalese use the plant juice for asthma, dropsy, fever, gonorrhea, hemorrhoids, muscular swellings, neurosis pain, and sprains (NPM).

Downsides:

Saponins in the plant may irritate sensitive people (JFM). As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed six titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

Ethanol extract inhibited induced gastric ulcers (200–600 mg/kg), increased gastric glutathione, decreased alkaline phosphatase activity, showed in vitro hydroxyl radical scavenging, and inhibited lipid peroxidation (X16469462). Aqueous extract mildly macrofilaricidal for Brugia pahangi (X10953224). Ethanol and n-hexane extracts of powdered whole plant (400 mg/kg) strongly antipyretic (X10641181). Ethanol extract of aerial parts antiinflammatory (500 mg/kg) in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema (X3613609).

PAPAYA (Carica papaya L.) +++ CARICACEAE

 

Illustrations:

p 551 (CR2); p 375 (L&W); pl 440 (KAB)

Synonyms:

Carica hermaphrodita Blanco; C. mamaja Vellero; C. peltata Hook. & Arn.; C. posoposa L.; C. vulgaris DC.; Papaya carica Gaertn.; P. papaya Karsten; P. sativa Tussac; P. vulgaris A. DC.; fide (POR; USN).

Common Names:

Aanabahe Hindi (Arab.; Iran; DEP; KAB); Ababaya (Cuba; AVP); Abapaye (Car.; VOD); Adiba (Adang; Awuna; Ewe; KAB); Aduba (Awuna; KAB); Akpakpa (Ga; KAB); Alélé (Car.; VOD); Amba Hindi (Arab.; Iran; DEP; EFS; KAP); Ambritdaru (Mun.; KAB); Amritdaru (Mun.; KAB); Andakharbuja (Hindi; KAB); Apoare (Amarakaeri; Huachipaeri; MD2); Arandkharbuza (Pun.; Yunani; DEP; KAP); Arandkharkati (Sanskrit; ADP; KAP); Arand Kharpuza (Pun.; MPI); Arbol de Melón (Nic.; AVP); Arbre à Melon (Fr.; AVP); Arbre de Melon (Fr.; EFS); Arnema (Mooshar; NPM); Babaco (Ecu.; AVP); Babaz (Arab.; AVP); Banu Uchchhe (Sanskrit; NAD); Bappangayi (Tulu; KAB); Bappayi (Tel.; ADP; DEP; MPI; NAD); Bekpe (Dahomey; AVP); Betek (Malaya; POR; TAN); Betek Petik (Tembi; IHB); Betik (Malaya; POR); Bobbasi (Tel.; ADP; NAD); Boppayi (Ap.; Tel.; DEP; SKJ; WOI); Bororfere (Ashanti; KAB); Borosow (Fanti; KAB); Brofre (Twi; NAD); Brorfeneni (Ashanti; KAB); Brosownini (Ashanti; KAB); Brosownyin (Fanti; KAB); Budibaga (Fulah; KAB); Capaidso (Culina; EGG; RAR); Capayas (Tag.; Vis.; KAB); Chamburo (Brazil; Ecu.; AVP; ROE); Chibda (Guj.; Pun.; DEP; KAB); Chibhado (Sin.; KAB); Chirbhita (Sanskrit; KAB); Chomchhadersi (Rai; NPM); Dindapabita (Mun.; KAB); Doeum Lahong (Khmer; POR); Dudu (Vn.; POR); Erandachirbhita (Sanskrit; KAB); Eranda Kakdi (Guj.; DEP); Erandakarkatee (Sanskrit; MPI); Erandakharbujah (Urdu; DEP); Esíe (Ese’eja; MD2); Faifai (Arab.; GHA); Fan Kua (China; EFS); Fan Mu Gua (China; Pin.; DAA; POR); Ffafy (Arab.; GHA); Fifaiy (Arab.; GHA); Figuier des Iles (Fr.; KAB); Figuier des Negres (Fr.; KAB); Fruta Bomba (Cuba; Ma.; JFM; RyM); Gandul (Java; IHB); Gedang (Malay; Sunda; IHB; POR); Gonda (Sudan; AVP); Goppe (Kan.; KAB); Gor (Krobo; KAB); Gwanda (Hausa; KAB); Gwanda Masar (Hausa; KAB); He-I (Cashibo; EGG); Higuerón (Arg.; AVP); Houng (Laos; POR); Ihong (Khmer; POR); Jhadchibhadi (Guj.; KAB); Jomejaradaru (Mun.; KAB); Kai Du Du (Cochin; DEP; KAB); Kapaya (Tag.; POR); Kappalam (Mal.; KAB; MPI; NAD); Kappanga (Mal.; WO2); Karmmou (Mal.; KAB); Karmussu (Mal.; ADP); Katela Gantung (Java; IHB); Kates (Java; Malay; IHB; POR); Kath (Guj.; DEP; KAB); Katha (Sin.; KAB); Katha Chibudo (Sin.; NAD); Katha Chiphado (Sin.; DEP); Kavunaagasi (Tur.; EFS); Kaydudu (China; KAP); Kepaya (Jakun; IHB); Ketalah (Malay; POR); Kharbuza (Pun.; DEP); Kuntaia (Jakun; IHB); Kupaayo (Cashibo; EGG); Lapaya (Tag.; POR); Lawkaw (Thai; IHB); Lechosa (Dor.; Ven.; AVP; JFM; L&W); Lerdo (Cr.; AVP); Lohong Si Phle (Cam.; KAB); Loko (Thai; POR); Machauiuk (Ma.; JFM); Madana Anapakaya (Tel.; DEP); Madananaba (Tel.; NAD); Madhurnakamu (Tam.; NAD); Ma Kuai Thet (Thai; POR); Malakaw (Thai; IHB); Malako (Thai; POR); Malakor (Thai; POR); Mamao (Brazil; L&W; RAR); Mamão (Brazil; Por.; USN); Mamaoeiro (Brazil; RAR); Mamoeiro (Brazil; L&W); Mamón (Arg.; Ma.; Sp.; AVP; JFM; POR; USN); Mamona (Arg.; AVP); Mandié (Sudan; AVP); Manguié (Sudan; AVP); Mapanya (Ma.; JFM); Mapaza (Malagasy; KAB); Meloenboom (Dutch; POR); Melon des Tropiques (Fr.; KAB); Melonenbaum (Ger.; KAP; NAD; POR; USN); Melonowiec Wlasciwy (Pol.; POR); Melontræ (Den.; POR); Melon Tree (Kan.; KAB); Melón Zapote (Mex.; Sp.; KAB; JFM; POR); Mewa (Danuwar; Gurung; Magar; Majhi; Nepal; Newari; Sunwar; Tamang; Tharu; NPM); Mokka (Japan; TAN); Mou Koua (China; KAB); Mu Kua (China; EFS); Naima (Amahuaca; RAR); Naimi (Amahuaca; EGG); Naimpi (Amahuaca; MD2); Nalikadala (Sanskrit; KAB); Nampucha (Cashibo; EGG; RAR); Napucha (Pano; EGG; RAR); Noompucha (Cashibo; EGG); Olocoton (Nic.; IHB); Omrytobhonda (Oriya; KAB); Pabita Daru (Mun.; KAB); Palo de Barril (Cr.; AVP); Pampucho (Cashibo; EGG); Pangi (Kan.; KAB); Papai (Bom.; Guj.; DEP; MPI); Papaia (Brazil; Por.; Rus.; POR; USN); Papáia (It.; AVP; EFS; POR); Papaija (Hindi; DEP); Papáio (It.; AVP); Papaiya (Japan; POR); Papaja (Malaya; Sur.; AVP; EFS; JFM); Papajabaum (Ger.; USN); Papajapflanze (Ger.; USN); Papao (Dwi.; Ma.; JFM); Papaw (Ma.; Sin.; DEP; JFM); Papay (Dwi.; Ma.; Vi.; JFM; L&W); Papaya (Cutch; Den.; Eng.; Ger.; Japan; Korea; Malay; Mar.; Peru; Sp.; Tag.; Ven.; CR2; KAP; L&W; LOR; MDD; NPM; POR; USN; WOI); Pa Pa Ya (Korea; POR); Papayabaum (Ger.; EFS; POR); Papayaboom (Dutch; EFS); Papaya Calentano (Col.; AVP); Papaye (Fr.; POR); Papayer (Fr.; Guad.; Haiti; Mart.; AVP; EFS; JFM; POR; USN); Papayer Commun (Fr.; NAD); Papayero (Sp.; Ven.; EFS; POR; USN); Papayi (Guj.; Hindi; ADP; WOI); Papayo (Arg.; Sp.; L&W; POR); Papayo Calentano (Col.; L&W); Papeeta (Hindi; WOI); Papeya (Ben.; DEP; KAP; SKJ; WOI); Papia (Guj.; DEP); Papiitaa (Hindi; Urdu; POR); Papita (Bhojpuri; Hindi; Mar.; ADP; NPM); Papol (Sin.; DEP); Pappaiya (Ben.; DEP); Pappali (Tam.; DEP; KAP; POR); Pappangayi (Kan.; NAD); Pappaya (Malaya; DEP); Pappayam (Ker.; Mal.; NAD; SKJ); Pappayi (Tam.; ADP; DEP; SKJ); Pappya (Mal.; ADP); Papué (Amuesha; Yanesha; EGG; RAR); Paputa (Sin.; DEP; KAB); Parangi (Kan.; MPI); Parangimara (Kan.; WOI; WO2); Parangiyamanakku (Tam.; KAB); Paranji (Tam.; NAD); Parvati Padi (Sanskrit; NAD); Pasali (Tam.; NAD); Pawpaw (Aust.; Uk.; Vi.; Wi.; JFM; L&W; NPM; USN; VOD); Paza (Malagasy; KAB); Pepiya (Ben.; Hindi; DEP); Pepol (Sin.; KAB; KAP); Peragi (Kan.; NAD); Peranji (Kan.; DEP); Perinji (Kan.; DEP); Phengse (Limbu; NPM); Piha (Bol.; Chacoba; DLZ); Pimbo Si (Burma; DEP); Piranji (Kan.; NAD); Pohunbetek (Malaya; KAB); Popai (Dec.; Mar.; DEP; MPI); Popaiyah (Hindi; India; EFS; KAP); Popayer Commun (Fr.; KAP); Popoo (Japan; POR); Popoya (Oriya; KAB); PoppayePhal (Kon.; MPI; NAD); Prisha (Sanskrit; ADP); Pucha (Shipibo/Conibo; EGG; RAR); Put (Bel.; Maya; BNA; KAB); Pyé Papay (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Sa Kui Se (Thai; POR); Santong (Lepcha; NPM); Sapayas (Bol.; Chiquitano; DLZ); See Sija (Ese’eja; MD2); Simbo Si (Burma; DEP; KAB); Tapaculo (Cr.; Pan.; AVP; IED); Teng Ton (Thai; IHB); Thimbaw (Burma; DEP; KAB; POR); Thimbawthi (Burma; DEP); Thinbaw (Burma; DEP; POR); Timbo Si (Burma; DEP); Trai Du Du (Annam; KAB); Tree Melon (Eng.; JFM); Ulmak (Ulwa; ULW); Ulumak (Ulwa; ULW); Voapaza (Betsimisaraka; KAB); Wan Shou Kuo (China; EFS); Wild Papaya (Bel.; BNA); Yevudiba (Awuna; KAB).

Activities:

Abortifacient (f1; 60P; DEP; PH2; VAG; VOD; WBB); Allergenic (1; PHR; PNC); Alterative (f; ADP; DEP; MPI); Amebicide (1; TRA; WO2); Analgesic (1; PH2; TRA); Anthelmintic (f1; 60P; DEP; GHA; KOM; PH2; SKJ; TRA; WBB; X16161026); Antiaggregant (1; KAP); Anticoagulant (1; WO2); Anticonvulsant (1; 60P; TRA; WO3); Antidiabetic (f; WO3; X17040567); Antidiphtheric (1; TRA); Antiedemic (1; KOM; PH2); Antifertility (1; 60P); Antihypertensive (1; TRA); Antiimplantation (1; TRA); Antiinflammatory (1; APA; TRA); Antioxidant (1; APA; X15455084; X16691628); Antiseptic (f1; 60P; APA; EGG; PH2; TRA; WBB); Antispasmodic (1; TRA; VOD); Antitetanic (1; TRA); Antitumor (1; 60P; TRA; WO2); Antiulcer (1; APA; PH2); Ascaricide (1; AAB; KAP; WBB); Bactericide (1; AAB; APA; TRA; X15040064); Bronchodilator (1; TRA); Candidicide (1; AAB; APA; TRA); Cardiac (f; WBB); Cardiodepressant (1; AAB; IHB; KAP); Cardiotonic (1; HHB); Carminative (f; GHA; KAB; KAP; WBB); Cholagogue (f; DEP); Chronotropic (1; TRA); Cicatrizant (1; TRA); Contraceptive (1; TRA; WO3; X15808797); Depurative (f; VOD); Digestive (f1; APA; GHA; PNC; WAM); Diuretic (f1; DEP; KOM; MPI; TRA; WBB; X11297849); Ecbolic (f; KAP); Embryotoxic (1; PH2); Emmenagogue (f; DEP; IHB; JFM; KAP; PH2; WBB); Enterodepressant (1; MPI); Expectorant (f; KAB); Febrifuge (f; HHB; JFM; WBB); Fibrinolytic (1; PH2); Fungicide (1; AAB; APA; HHB; TRA); Gram(+)-icide (1; X15040064); Gram(–)-icide (1; X15040064); Hepatoprotective (f; EGG); Histaminic (1; X14971723); Hypotensive (f1; PR14:235; VOD; X17040567); IL-6-Inducer (1; X16367938); Immunostimulant (f1; APA; X16367938); Lactagogue (f; DEP; EGG; MD2; NMH; VOD); Laxative (f; DEP; HHB; JFM; WBB); Molluscacide (1; WO2); Myorelaxant (1; 60P; PR14:235; WO3); Nematocide (1; WO2); Orexigenic (f; KAB); Oxytocic (f; MPI; VOD); Pectoral (f; JFM; WO2); Proteolytic (1; 60P; APA; TRA; WBB); Purgative (f; AAB); Rubefacient (f; DEP); Sedative (1; KOM; WO3); Sterilant (1; WO3); Stomachic (f; DEP); Taeniacide (f; WBB); Teratogenic (1; PH2); Tranquilizer (1; TRA); Uterorelaxant (1; PR14:235; TRA); Uterocontractant (f1; VOD; WO3); Vasoconstrictor (1; VOD); Vasorelaxant (1; X15138017); Vermifuge (1; APA; KOM; VAG; X16161026); Vulnerary (1; AAB; PNC; X16367938).

Indications:

Abscesses (f; KOM); Acariasis (f; RAR); Acne (1; WO2); Adenopathy (f; JLH; KOM); Adnexitis (f; KOM); Aging (f; KOM); Amebiasis (1; KAP; WOI; WO2); Anemia (f; VOD); Angina (f; ROE); Anorexia (f; KAB; KOM); Anthrax (f; WBB); Arteriosclerosis (f; KOM); Asthma (f; HHB; IHB; JFM; NPM; VOD; WBB); Autoimmunity (1; WO3); Bacillus (1; AAB); Beri-Beri (1; WO2); Biliousness (1; KAB); Bites (f; NPM); Boils (f; WBB); Bronchosis (f; JFM; KOM; MD2; PH2; VOD); Burns (f; IHB; KOM; WBB); Callus (f; JFM); Cancer (f; JLH); Cancer, uterus (f; CRC; JLH); Candida (1; AAB; WO2); Carbuncles (1; WO2); Cardiopathy (f; KOM; RAR); Caries (f; MD2); Cellulite (1; FT71:S73); Chest Colds (f; VOD); Cholecocystosis (f; KOM); Cholera (f; DEP); Circulatory Disorder (f; KOM); Colds (f; JFM; VOD); Colic (f1; EGG; WO2); Conjunctivosis (f; PNC); Constipation (f; AAB; DEP; EGG; KOM); Corns (f; AAB; DEP; JLH); Coughs (f; JFM; MD2; PH2); Cramps (1; TRA); Croup (f; NAD); Cystosis (f; WBB); Dehydration (f; VAG); Depression (f; KOM); Dermatosis (f; JFM; KAP; NPM; ULW; WBB; WO2); Diabetes (f; WO3; X17040567); Diarrhea (f; GHA; JFM); Diphtheria (f; DEP); Diskitis (1; JAD); Duodenosis (f; PH2); Dyscrasia (f; KOM); Dysentery (f; KAP; WBB); Dyslactea (f; EGG; KAP; MD2); Dysmenorrhea (f; WO3); Dyspepsia (1; DEP; KOM; PH2; PNC; WAM); Dysuria (1; JFM; ROE; X11297849); Earache (f; WBB); Eczema (f; DEP); Edema (1; KOM; PH2); Elephantiasis (f; DEP); Enterosis (f; EGG; JFM; PHR; PH2; RAR; VOD; WBB); Epilepsy (1; WO3); Epithelioma (f; JLH); Fistula (f; KOM); Flu (f; KOM; MD2); Fontanelle (f; ZIM); Freckles (f; ADP; APA; JFM; NPM; SKJ); Fungus (f1; AAB; HHB; WO2); Furuncles (f; TRA); Gas (f; KOM); Gastrosis (f; KAB; PHR; PH2; VOD); Glossosis (f; ADP); Gonorrhea (1; TRA; VAG; WBB); Heartburn (1; FNF; TGP); Hematoma (f; KOM; WO2); Hemoptysis (f; ADP); Hemorrhoids (f; DEP; KAP; KOM; PH2; WBB; WOI); Hepatosis (f; AAB; DEP; JFM; KAP; KOM; MD2); High Blood Pressure (f1; AAB; JFM; TRA; VOD; WBB; X17040567); HIV (1; WO3); Hodgkin’s Disease (f; KOM); Hysteria (f; VOD); Infection (1; AAB; KOM; PHR); Infertility (1; APA); Inflammation (f1; APA; JFM; KOM; PHR; PH2; TRA; WO2); Insanity (f; KAB); Insomnia (1; WO3); Jaundice (f1; WBB; WO2; X17040567); Kidney Stones (f; ADP); Leukemia (1; KOM; WO2); Lymphoma (1; KOM; WO2); Malaria (f; JFM; ROE); Mange (f; EGG); Metastasis (f; KOM); Metrorrhagia (f; KAB); Miscarriage (f; PR14:235); Mycobacterium (1; WO2); Mycosis (1; ROE; TRA); Myosis (f; IHB); Nausea (1; WAM); Nephrosis (f; ADP; EGG; HHB; WBB); Neuralgia (f; DEP); Neurasthenia (f; KOM); Neurosis (f; KOM); Obesity (1; FT71:S73; KAB); Odontosis (1; WO2); Ophthalmia (f; ROE); Pain (1; CRC; DEP; NAD; PH2; TRA); Pancreatosis (f; PHR; PH2); Parasites (f1; 60P; PHR; PH2; ULW; WAM); Pharyngosis (f; KOM; NAD); Phlebitis (f; KOM); Proctosis (f; KOM); Protisticide (1; X14735356); Psoriasis (f; ADP; APA; DEP); Respirosis (f; KOM; ULW; WBB); Rheumatism (f; KOM; NPM; VOD; WBB); Ringworm (f1; APA; DEP; JFM; KAP); Roemeld Syndrome (f; KOM); Roundworm (f; DEP; KAP); Sciatica (f; MD2); Sclerosis (f; JLH); Shigella (1; AAB); Snake Bite (f; MD2); Sore Throat (f; JFM; KOM); Splenomegaly (f; DEP; JFM; WBB); Splenosis (f; DEP; JFM; KAP); Sprains (f; VOD); Staphylococcus (1; AAB; ROE); Stings (f; DEP); Stomatosis (f; KOM); Stones (f; KAB; PH2); Syphilis (f; HHB; WBB); Tachycardia (f; EGG; RAR); Tapeworm (f; DEP); Thirst (f1; CRC; WOI); Thrombosis (f; KOM); Toothache (f; ROE); Tuberculosis (1; TRA; WO2); Tumors (f; JLH; KOM); Ulcers (f; PHR; PH2); Urethrosis (f1; KOM; ROE; TRA; VOD); UTIs (f; PH2); Vaginosis (f; APA); Varicosis (f; KOM); VD (f; AAB; JFM; WBB); Warts (f; AAB; JFM; ROE; WBB); Water Retention (f; JFM); Worms (1; DEP; PH2; PNC; VAG; X16161026); Wounds (f1; KOM; WBB; X15455084; X16367938); Yaws (f; WBB; WO2); Yeast (1; AAB; APA; TRA; WO2). (Commission E, listing more than a dozen folkloric indications, p. 361, does not even recommend papain, because of insufficient proof of efficacy) (KOM).

Dosages:

FNFF = !!! Ripe fruits eaten raw; green fruits cooked like a vegetable or pickled; peppery seeds used in salad dressing; leaves and flowers steamed and eaten; young stems and pith of older stems cooked and eaten; leaves wrapped around tough meats will tenderize the meat; Jamaicans wrap tough pork in green fruit husks (FAC; IED). 1–2 tsp dry leaf/cup water (APA); 1–2 gr powdered dry leaf (KAP); 2–4 gr dry latex (KAP); 0.5–1 g seed powder (KAP); 1–3 tsp fruit juice (APA); 1–2 tbsp fresh fruit (PED); 1.5–3 g dry fruit (PED); 2.5–5 ml elixir of papaya (PNC); 2.5–5 ml glycerin of papain (PNC); 10–50 mg papain (APA); “Papain may be effective in high doses (daily dose = 1,500 mg)” (KOM).

  • Asian Indians apply the latex to uterus as ecbolic (DEP).
  • Asian Indians take dry salted fruits in splenomegaly (DEP).
  • Asian Indians suggest 1 tbsp each papaya milk and honey mixed well with 3–4 tbsp boiling water, taken for worms when cool, following in 2 hr with castor oil with lime juice or vinegar (DEP).
  • Asians apply leaves topically to elephantiasis, neuralgia, and other pains (DEP; IHB).
  • Barbadans scoop out a green fruit, mix the green meat with candle grease and coconut oil, replace and baked in ashes, drinking the contents for a cold (JFM) (No thanks).
  • Bermudans and Caicos Islanders take young unpeeled fruit for blood pressure (JFM).
  • Cubans give sweetened seedless green fruit decoction in milk to children with diarrhea and enterosis (JFM).
  • Curaçaoans take green fruit decoction to lower blood pressure, others decocting 1 leaf (JFM).
  • Haitians chew the antiscorbutic seeds for hysteria (VOD).
  • Haitians say that one dose of any part of the plant is enough to remove intestinal worms (VOD).
  • Latinos and Asian Indians use the latex for bleeding piles, bronchosis, cough, diphtheria, dyspepsia, hemoptysis, hepatomegaly, and urinary ulcers (DEP; JFM).
  • Madre de Dios Peruvians plaster heated leaves on painful waist (sciatica) (MD2).
  • Middle Americans consider flower decoction emmenagogue, febrifuge, and pectoral (JFM).
  • Peruvians suggest papaya for acariasis, asthma, bronchosis, caries, constipation (½ fruit), cough, enteritis, flu, hepatosis, and tachycardia (DAV; EGG; MD2; RAR).
  • Peruvians suggest the liquid from the seeds as hepatoprotective (EGG).
  • Surinamese boil 1 leaf down from 0.5 liters to 0.25 liters water, taking for malaria (JFM).
  • Various ethnics apply latex topically for cancer, corns, dermatosis, elephantiasis, epithelioma, indurations, psoriasis, ringworm, sclerosis, and warts (DEP; JFM; JLH).

Downsides:

Class 1 (AHP). None known (WAM). “No health hazards or side effects are known in conjunction with the proper administration of designated therapeutic dosages” (PH2). But they give no designated dosage (JAD). Admitting no risks for the leaf, Commission E disallows for lack of proof of efficacy (KOM). Commission E was rather negative in its discussion of papain for worms: “Due to the insufficiently proven efficacy of its use in the treatment of worm infestation and the risks associated, as well as the availability of treatment alternatives, the use of raw papain/papain cannot be recommended” (KOM). May interact with warfarin (PH2). There are reports of perforated esophagus following overingestion of fruits (APA). Papain can cause severe stomach inflammation if taken internally, dermatosis externally; allergic reactions including asthma possible (PH2). Not to be used during pregnancy (PH2). As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed 42 titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

See accounts for papain in Father Nature’s Farmacy on-line database: http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke/ and Blumenthal et al. (1998). Papaya juice not lethal up to 1,500 mg/ kg, thus considered nontoxic; antioxidant activity (80%) at 17.6 mg/ml, comparable to alpha-tocopherol (X16691628). Papaya seeds can induce reversible sterility without affecting libido or causing other reactions (several studies in rats) (WO3; X15808797). Papaya seed extract anthelmintic, mainly due to the compound benzyl isothiocyanate (X16161026). Seeds antibacterial, inhibiting Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms (X15040064). Alcoholic leaf extract at ca. 10 mg/kg ipr rat a dose-dependent myorelaxant sedative, effective against petit mal and gran mal episodes (WO3). Root extracts (orl rat 10 mg/kg) diuretic, ca. 75% of hydrochlorothiazide (X11297849). Carpaine cardiotonic (HHB). Cyanide-papain (like pepsin) renders some virus pustules noninfectious; papain inactivates lethal doses of ricin, strychnine, and tetanus (HHB). LD50 crude fruit extract = 325 mg/kg ipr mus (PR14:235).

PANAMA-HAT-PALM (Carludovica palmata Ruiz & Pav.) ++ CYCLANTHACEAE

 

Notes:

The leaves are used to make hats, baskets, brooms, fly swatters, etc. (IED).

Common Names:

Alagua (Col.; AVP); Api Ttara (Peru; RAR; SOU); Appi Ttara (Peru; RAR; SOU); Atadero (Pan.; AVP); Ba Na Ma Cao (China; POR); Bombonaje (Peru; Sp.; LOR; MDD; POR; USN); Bombonassa (Brazil; AVP); Bume (Cashibo; RAR); Carludovica (Sp.; POR); Carludovique Palmée (Fr.; POR; USN); Chidra (Cr.; Sp.; AVP; USN); Doyodoy (Candoshi; SOU); Guachivan (Pan.; AVP); Hat Palm (Eng.; IED); Hiraca (Sal.; AVP); Iraca (Col.; AVP; SAR); Jipi (Ecu.; AVP); Jipijapa (Brazil; Cuba; Ecu.; Sp.; AVP; POR; RAR; USN); Junco (Guat.; Hon.; AVP); Kuskin (Cuna; IED); Lucaica (Ecu.; AVP); Lucatero (Col.; IED); Lucua (Col.; AVP; IED); Murrapo (Col.; AVP); Naguala (Pan.; IED); Nibi (Sa.; RAR); Oropo (Choco; IED); Palma de Sombrero (Sp.; POR; USN); Palma Jipijapa (Sp.; USN); Palmier de Panama (Fr.; POR); Palmilla (Guat.; AVP); Panama-Hat-Palm (Eng.; POR; USN); Panamapalme (Den.; Ger.; POR; USN); Panamapalmu (Fin.; POR); Panama Screwpine (Eng.; POR); Panamasou (Japan; POR); Panga (Kubeo; SAR); Pinya Brava (Sa.; RAR); Pita (Cr.; AVP); Portorico (Pan.; AVP; IED); Querori (Culina; RAR); Sabalet (Cuna; IED); Sombonaza (Col.; IED); Soso (Cuna; IED); Toquilla (Peru; Sp.; AVP; RAR; USN); Tuna (Cr.; AVP); Vomu (Amahuaca; RAR); Yaco Sisa (Sa.; RAR); Yacu Caspi (Sa.; RAR); Yaro Curo (Makuna; SAR).

Indications:

Bruises (f; DAV); Sores (f; DAV); Stings (f; DAV).

Dosages:

Young leaves or growing points called “nacumas” are eaten, with a flavor suggesting asparagus, as a salad. Inner portions of the lower leafstalks and the berries are also quite edible. Rhizomes are used as a salad and potherb. In 1538, Juan de Vadillo and his conquistadores lived for days on nothing but “iraca” for food (IED; FAC).

BATS’ SOUARI (Caryocar glabrum (Aubl.) Pers.) ++ CARYOCARACEAE

 

Illustrations:

fig 59 (DAV)

Synonyms:

Saouari glabra Aubl. (basionym); fide (USN).

Notes:

The inner bark is apparently caustic, like that of the “nina caspi,” leaving scars (SAR).

Common Names:

Almendra (Peru; RAR); Almendra de Bajo (Sp.; USN); Almendro Colorado (Peru; Sp.; LOR; MDD); Barbasco (Col.; SAR); Barbasco de Monte (Col.; SAR); Barbasco Propio (Col.; SAR); Bat’s Souari (Eng.; USN); Bois Savonneux (Fr.; USN); Cabeleira (Brazil; MPB); Castaña Espinosa (Col.; SAR); Echuruka (Miranya; SAR); Ê hó (Barasana; SAR); Ejuray (Witoto; SAR); Kamahaw (Puinave; SAR); Kamanaree (Tukano; SAR); Kon (Kubeo; SAR); Omaquirarus (Chiquitano; DLZ); Pasotiqui (Ashaninka; RAR); Pequi (Bol.; DLZ); Pequiarana (Brazil; MPB; RAR; SOU); Pequiarana da Terra Firme (Brazil; MPB); Pequiarana Vermelha (Brazil; MPB); Pequi da Areia (Brazil; MPB); Pursh (Maku; RAR); Takó (Andoke; SAR); Tua Uo (Siona; SAR); Uranà (Chiriguano; DLZ). (Nscn; diacritically prepared).

Activities:

Piscicide (f; DAV); Vesicant (f; DAV).

Indications:

Dysentery (f; MPB); Dysmenorrhea (f; SAR).

Dosages:

FNFF = !! Nuts said to be delicious and nutritious. Ash from burned bark used for dysentery (MPB).

Downsides:

Pulp of green fruit intoxicates fish, hence used in fishing (DAV; RAR). As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed three titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

CASEARIA (Casearia sylvestris Sw.) ++ FLACOURTIACEAE

Illustrations:

fig 172 (L&W)

Synonyms:

Anavinga samyda Gaertn.; Casearia parviflora Willd.; C. punctata Willd.; Samyda parviflora Sw.; fide (MPG; PCS).

Common Names:

Aguedita Macho (Cuba; JTR); Anime (Ma.; JFM); Apiá Acanocu (Brazil; MPG); Avatí Timbatí (Arg.; L&W); Barredera (Sal.; AVP); Bugrinho (Ma.; JFM); Burro Ka’a (Par.; MPG); Café Bravo (Brazil; MPB; MPG); Café de Fraile (Brazil; MPG); Café del Diablo (Brazil; MPG); Café del Matorral (Brazil; MPB; MPG); Cafeeiro do Mato (Brazil; JFM); Cafeillo Cambagui (Ma.; JFM); Cafeillo Cimarrón (Ma.; JFM) Café Silvestre (Brazil; RAI); Cafetillo (Dor.; AHL); Cambagui (Arg.; AVP); Casearia (Eng.; Scn.; AH2); Cimarrón (Pr.; JTR); Comina de Culebra (Nic.; JTR); Congonhas de Bugre (Brazil; RAI); Coralillo (Guat.; AVP); Corta Lengua (Pan.; Sp.; TBC); Crackopen (Eng.; Ocn.; Saba; AH2); Cucaracho (Ma.; JFM); Dondequiera (Col.; L&W); Donquiera (Col.; AVP); Erva de Bugre (Brazil; MPG); Erva de Pontada (Brazil; RAI); Erva de Teiú (Brazil; MPB); Fructa de Sahyra (Ma.; JFM); Guacatonga (Brazil; RAI); Guaçatunga (Brazil; AVP; MPB); Guassatonga (Brazil; JTR); Guayabilla (Mex.; JFM; JTR; PCS); Guayabillo Blanco (Ma.; JFM); Guayalito (Ven.; AVP); Guazatumba (Arg.; AVP); Guesito (Ma.; JFM); Herva de Bugre (Brazil; JTR); Hierba de Lagarto (Brazil; MPG); Huesito (Ma.; JFM); Jia Colorado (Cuba; L&W); Juabón (Cuba; JTR); Juba Rompehueso (Cuba; L&W); Laurel Espada (Pr.; AVP); Limoncillo (Ven.; AVP); Língua de Teiú (Brazil; MPB); LLorón (Cuba; JTR); Macapiritu (Ma.; JFM); Machacomu (Ma.; JFM); Mahajo (Col.; AVP); Naranjillo (Ma.; JFM); Pabito (Ven.; AVP); Palo Blanco (Pr.; L&W); Palo Carré (Dor.; AHL); Palo Cotorra (Cuba; JTR); Palo de Cotona (Mex.; AVP); Palo de Cotorro (Ma.; JFM); Palo de la Cruz (Ma.; JFM); Palo Rajador (Arg.; L&W); Palo Rejador (Arg.; AVP); Papelite (Haiti; AVP); Pau de Lagarto (Brazil; MPB); Pelo de Acure (Ma.; RAI); Petumba (Ma.; JFM); Piraquina (Sp.; RAI); Plumo (Ma.; JFM); Punteral (Ven.; L&W); Ratóon (Sp.; RAI); Rompehueso (Cuba; JTR); Sacmuda (Guat.; AVP; L&W); Sacumba (Ma.; JFM); Saritan (Ma.; JFM); Sarna de Perro (Cuba; Pr.; JTR); Sarnilla (Cuba; JTR); Sishi-Coey (Huitoto; Peru; SOU); Sombra de Armada (Sp.; USN); Sombra de Armado (Hon.; AVP); Sombra de Conejo (Hon.; Sp.; AVP; USN); Tacasito (Ven.; L&W); Tasajo (Cuba; JTR); Té de Fraile (Brazil; MPG); Tortolito (Ven.; L&W); Ucho Caspi (Sp.; RAI); Vacatunga (Brazil; MPG); Vassatonga (Brazil; JFM); Wild Coffee (Trin.; AVP); Wild Sage (Bel.; AVP; USN).

Activities:

Abortifacient (1; MPG); Analgesic (f1; MPB; MPG; RAI; X17399925); Antacid (f; RAI); Antifeedant (1; RAI); Antihemorrhagic (1; X11126749; X11126749; X11600149; X12577517); Antiinflammatory (f1; MPB; RAI; X15994044); Antimyotoxic (1; X11126749; X12577517); Antiophidic (f1; MPB); Antirheumatic (f; MPB); Antisarcomic (1; RAI); Antiseptic (f1; RAI); Antispasmodic (f; MPG); Antitumor (1; RAI; X2092935); Antiulcer (f1; MPB; RAI; X2255209; X15994044); Antivenom (1; X11126749; X11600149; X12577517; X17540522); Antiviral (f1; RAI); Aphrodisiac (f; MPG); Bactericide (1; MPG); Cicatrizant (f1; MPG; JTR); Depurative (f; MPB; RAI); Diaphoretic (f; MPG); Diuretic (f; JTR); Febrifuge (f; MPB); Fungicide (1; RAI); Gastroprotective (= cimetidine) (f1; MPB; RAI); Hemostat (f; RAI); Phospholipase-A2-Inhibitor (1; X11126749; X11600149; X12577517; X17540522); Tonic (f; MPB); Vulnerary (f; MPB).

Indications:

Arthritis (f; MPB); Bacillus (1; MPG); Bacteria (1; MPG); Bleeding (f1; RAI; X11126749; X11126749; X11600149; X12577517); Burns (f; RAI); Cancer (f1; MPB; RAI; X2092935); Cancer, colon (f1; RAI); Cancer, lung (f1; RAI); Cancer, ovary (f1; RAI); Dermatosis (f; JTR); Diarrhea (f; MPB); Eczema (f; MPG; RAI); Fever (f; MPB); Flu (f; RAI); Fungus (1; RAI); Gastrosis (f1; MPB); Hematoma (f; MPG); Hemorrhage (1; X11126749; X11600149; X12577517); Herpes (f; MPB; MPG; RAI); HIV (1; RAI); Impotence (f; MPG; RAI); Indigestion (f; RAI); Infection (f1; MPG; RAI); Inflammation (f1; MPB; MPG; RAI; X15994044); Leprosy (f; RAI); Mycosis (1; RAI); Pain (f1; MPB; MPG; RAI; X17399925); Paralysis (f; MPG); Rheumatism (f; MPB); Sarcoma (1; RAI); Scrofula (f; JTR); Snake Bite (f1; MPB; RAI; X11126749; X11600149; X12577517; X17540522); Sores (f; JTR); Spasms (f; MPG); Syphilis (f; JTR; RAI); Tumors (f1; MPB; RAI; X2092935); Ulcers (f1; MPB; MPG; RAI; X2255209; X15994044); VD (f; JTR; RAI); Viruses (f1; RAI); Wounds (f1; MPB; MPG; JTR; RAI).

Dosages:

FNFF = ! ½ cup leaf tea 2–3×/day (RAI); 1–2 g capsule/tablet 2×/day (RAI).

  • Bolivians use for bleeding, cancer, dermatosis, inflammation, pain, snake bite, tumor, and wounds (RAI).
  • Brazilians use for blood, diarrhea, chest ache, eczema, fever, flu, herpes, impotence, inflammation, leprosy, rheumatism, snake bite, syphilis, worms, and wounds (MPG; RAI).
  • Colombians use for dermatosis, snake bite, sore, and wounds (MPG; RAI).
  • Cubans apply leaves to chest for chest colds, especially when there are chills (JFM; JTR).
  • Paraguayans use for eczema, itch, paralysis, rheumatism, spasm, and syphilis (MPG).

Downsides:

As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed three titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

LD50(EO) = 1,792 g/kg??? (MPG). Aqueous extract inhibits phospholipase A(2) toxins of Bothrops and Crotalus venom, and neutralized the hemorrhagic and myotoxic action (X11126749; X11600149; X12577517; X17540522). Hydroalcoholic plant extract antinociceptive in mice tests (300 mg/kg). Leaf EO inhibited 90% of stress-induced gastric ulcer, while cimetidine inhibited 70% (X15994044); ethanolic leaf extract inhibited gastric secretion (57.5 mg/kg rat) more effectively than misoprostol (500 μg/kg), but less effective in reducing hydrochloric acid secretion; LD50 greater than 1,840 mg/kg, 32 times higher than the antiulcerogenic ED50 = 57.5 mg/kg (X2255209). Antitumor clerodane diterpenes, casearins A-F, isolated from the leaves (X2092935).

INDIAN LABURNUM (Cassia fistula L.) + CAESALPINIACEAE

Illustrations:

fig 72 (L&W); pl 350 (KAB)

Notes:

Little and Wadsworth (1964) note that the medicinal properties were known even to the ancient Egyptians. Dr. Max Beauvoir, who reportedly has a Haitian remedy for HIV, says the fruit is used but must be used the day it is prepared (VOD).

Common Names:

Abúrucha Gániesi (Garifuna; Nic.; IED); Ahalla (Sin.; NAD); Ahilla (Sin.; DEP); Alas (Tam.; SKJ); Alash (Pun.; SKJ); Ali (Pun.; WO2); Amaha (Sanskrit [1 of 42]; KAB); Amaltas (Dec.; Hindi; Nepal; Urdu; Yunani; ADP; DEP; KAB; KAP; NPM; TAN; WO2); Amaltash (Nepal; SUW); Amargo Caspi (Peru; RAR); Amultas (India; AVP); Amulthas (Hindi; KAP; NAD); Amulthus (Hindi; MPI); Ancherhan (Tag.; KAB); A Po Le (China; KAB); Appai (Tam.; SKJ); Ar (Tam.; KAB); Aragina Aragine (Kan.; SKJ); Aragvadha (Ayu.; Ocn.; Sanskrit; ADP; AH2; KAB; OFF); Aragvadhamu (Ap.; SKJ); Aragwadha (Sanskrit [1 of 12]; MPI); Arakvadum (Sanskrit; NAD); Argbhada (Sanskrit; KAP); Argho (Danuwar; NPM); Arogyashimbi (Sanskrit; SKJ); Arrakuvadam (Tam.; WO2); Ashok (Tharu; NPM); Babuni Daun Pesar (Malaya; EFS); Bahava (Ker.; Mah.; Mar.; ADP; DEP; MPI; SKJ; WOI); Bahoo (Malaya; AVP); Balay (Vis.; KAB); Balla (Guj.; SKJ); Banag (Kurku; DEP); Banarsota (Danuwar; NPM); Bandarlathi (Ben.; ADP); Bandarlati (Ben.; DEP; WO2); Bandarlauri (Hindi; WO2); Bandolot (Cachar; DEP; KAB); Bangru (Kirku; KAB); Bâton Casse (Fr.; Haiti; AVP; USN); Bâton Kas (Creole; Haiti; AHL; VOD); Bavo (Kon.; KAB); Bereksa (Malaya; IHB); Bobondèlan (Sunda; IHB); Bo Cap Muoc (Ic.; KAB); Bondalati (Ben.; SKJ); Bondèl (Sunda; IHB); Bonurlata (Palamow; KAB); Bonurlati (Palamow; DEP); Boya (Mar.; WO2); Briksha (Chepang; NPM); Bubundèlan (Sunda; IHB); Bumbungdèlan (Sunda; IHB); Bundarlati (Ben.; MPI); Buvasigna (Malaya; AVP); Byadivata (Sanskrit; SKJ); Cacho de Ouro (Por.; GMJ); Cañafístol (Dor.; AHL); Cañafístola (Cuba; Dor.; Sp.; AHL; AVP; RyM); Cañafístula (Peru; Sp.; EGG; USN); Cañafístula de Purgante (Dor.; AHL); Cañafístula de São Tomé (Dor.; Por.; AVP); Cañafístula Mansa (Dor.; AHL); Canafistula Verdadeira (Por.; GMJ); Canéfice (Fr.; Guad.; Mart.; AVP); Canéficer (Fr.; St. Bart.; AVP; USN); Canéficier (Fr.; Guad.; Mart.; AVP); Canificier (Fr.; KAB); Canna Fistula (Por.; KAB); Cass (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Casse (St. Bart.; AVP); Casse Canéfice (Fr.; EFS); Casse des Antilles (Fr.; GMJ); Casse des Boutiques (Fr.; AVP); Casse Espagnole (His.; AHL); Casse Fistuleuse (Fr.; USN); Casse Habitant (Fr.; Guad.; Mart.; AVP; L&W); Casse Officinal (Fr.; AVP); Casse z’Habitant (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Cassia (It.; KAB); Cassia in Canna (It.; AVP); Cassia Pulp (Eng.; VOD); Cassia Stick Tree (Jam.; AVP; L&W); Cassie Purgative (Fr.; KAP); Cassieroer (Den.; Swe.; AVP); Chácara (Dor.; AHL); Chaiya Prûk (Thai; IHB); Chang Ko Tse Chu (China; AVP); Ch’ang Kuo Tsü Shu (China; EFS); Chhamkani (Nasirabad; KAB); Chieh Ming Tzu (China; KAP); Chimkani (Mar.; Mp.; Sin.; DEP; KAB; SKJ); Cuauhnacaztli (Mex.; KAB); Dodhri (Mp.; SKJ); Dong-Ga (Tibet; NPM); Donka (Tibet; KAP); Dranguli (Java; AVP); Drumstick (Eng.; NPM); Dulang (Malaya; IHB); Dunras (Kharwar; DEP; KAB); Ebisugusa (Japan; KAP); Ehela (Sin.; Gamala; Guj.; ADP; WOI); Garmal (Guj.; DEP); Garmala (Guj.; SKJ); Garmalo (Guj.; Porebunder; KAB; WOI); Girimala (Hindi; WOI); Girmala (Dec.; Guj.; KAB); Glemhendo (Tamang; NPM); Gnookye (Burma; KAP); Gnoo Kyee (Burma; DEP); Gnooshway (Burma; KAB); Golden Shower (Eng.; Ocn.; AH2; CR2; GHA; NPM; SKJ); Golden Shower Senna (Eng.; L&W); Gouden Regen (Ma.; JFM); Guayaba Cimarrona (Dor.; AHL); Haridaru (Mun.; KAB; WO2); Hemapushpa (Sanskrit; SKJ); Hiyar Sambar (Yemen; GHA); Honalu (Assam; WO2); Huai Hua Ch’ing (China; EFS); Indian Laburnum (Eng.; Scn.; Trin.; ADP; AH2; NPM); Irjviruttam (Tam.; NAD); Itola (Nwp.; KAB); Jaggarwaw (India; KAB); Jaggra (Gond.; KAB); Jamba (Mah.; SKJ); Kakkaemara (Kan.; MPI; NAD); Kakkayi (Kon.; MPI; NAD); Kakke (Kan.; Kar.; DEP; SKJ; WOI); Kãn (Thai; IHB); Kanéfis (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Kanikonna (Mal.; WO2); Karangal (Jammu; Pun.; DEP; WO2); Kari (Kol.; DEP); Kas Dous (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Kasé (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Kassia (Rus.; AVP); Kassiapenlen (Dutch; AVP); Kassia Powidlna (Pol.; AVP); Kas Zabitan (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Kathauldhind (Arab.; DEP; KAB); Kavani (Sri.; KAB); Kěyok (Java; IHB); Kharroub Hende (Arab.; AVP); Khayar Shambar (Arab.; NAD); Khela (Sin.; KAP); Kheyarshanbar (Arab.; Iran; KAP); Khiyarechiga (Iran; KAB); Kiar (Pun.; KAB); Kiar Shambar (Arab.; AVP); Kiar Shembé (Tur.; AVP); Kilvali (Hindi; SKJ); Kirala (Dehra Dun; Hindi; KAB; SKJ); Kirwahra (Jhansi; WO2); Kitola (Kum.; KAB; WO2); Kitwali (Mp.; SKJ); Klohor (Java; IHB); Klohur (Java; IHB); Konde (Tulu; KAB); Kondrakayi (Ap.; Tel.; MPI; NAD; SKJ); Konna (Ker.; Mal.; NAD; SKJ); Konnak Kaya (Malaya; DEP); Konnei (Tam.; ADP; SKJ; WOI); Konraih-Kay (Tam.; DEP); Kritamalam (Ker.; SKJ); Lluichu Vainilla (Peru; RAR); Makpazang (Lushai; WO2); Mandarlata (Nepal; KAB); Marianunut (Kuna; Pan.; IED); Nripadruma (Sanskrit; EFS; NAD); Nuruic (San.; DEP; KAB); Oude Mannetjes Dropboom (Dutch; EFS); Péyok (Java; IHB); Pijp Cassia (Dutch; EFS); Piyok (Java; IHB); Po Luo Men Zao Jia (Pin.; DAA); Pudding Pipe Tree (Eng.; AVP; NPM; SKJ); Pudding Stick (Eng.; KAP); Pundali (Khond; KAB) Purgierkassie (Ger.; AVP); Purging Cassia (Eng.; Ocn.; AH2; NPM); Purging Senna (Eng.; Ocn.; AH2); Raella (Baigas; DEP; KAB); Rajah Kayu (Malaya; IHB); Raja Prûk (Thai; IHB); Rajataru (Kan.; Sanskrit; ADP; WO2); Rajateru (Sanskrit; SKJ); Rajbirij (Nepal; DEP); Rajbrichya (Nepal; KAP) Rajbrik (Raute; NPM); Rajbriksha (Magar; Majhi; Nepal; Raj.; KAB; NPM; SUW); Raj Briksha (Nepal; DEP); Raj Brikshk (Kum.; DEP); Ramdanda (Lambadi; KAB); Reach Chhpus (Ap.; Tel.; ADP; SKJ; WOI); Rela (Reddi; KAB); Relagujjiu (Tel.; NAD); Rela Kayalu (Tel.; DEP); Rella (Saora; KAB); Rellachettu (Tel.; WO2); Rera (Gond.; DEP); Retama (Peru; RAR); Retama Común (Peru; RAR); Retamilla (Peru; RAR); Retamillo (Peru; RAR); Röhrenkassie (Ger.; USN); Rohrkassie (Ger.; KAP); Rörekassia (Den.; EFS); Samayâka (India; JLH); Sandali (Ben.; SKJ); Sandari (Oriya; DEP; SKJ); Sapakamu (Tel.; KAB); Sarakonrai (Tam.; KAP); Saturangulam (Mal.; KAB); Şember Hiyari Ağaci (Tur.; EFS); Sené ti Fèy (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Sharakonnai (Tam.; MPI; SKJ); Shonalu (Tripura; WO2); Shower of Gold (Eng.; AVP); Sim (Nwp.; DEP); Simara (Garhwal; WO2); Sinar (Hindi; SKJ); Sinara (Garhwal; KAB); Sonalu (Ben.; Garo; DEP; KAB); Sonari (Oriya; SKJ); Sonarli (Mp.; SKJ); Sonaru (Assam; SKJ); Sonawir (Mal.; Malaya; DEP; KAB); Sonhali (India; EFS); Sonndali (Ben.; KAP); Soondali (Ben.; NAD); Soturongulo (Oriya; KAB; WO2); Souali (Ben.; AVP); Sunaru (Assam; DEP); Sundali (Ben.; WOI); Suvarnaka (Sanskrit; ADP; DEP; SKJ; WOI); Svanannavriksha (Sanskrit; WO2); Syrinx (Greek; KAB); Tanggoli (Sunda; IHB); Tangguli (Java; IHB); Těnggulli (Java; Malaya; IHB); Tranggoli (Sunda; IHB); Trěnggulli (Java; Malaya; EFS; IHB); Trukontai (Tam.; SKJ); Tung Guli (Java; AVP); Warga (Oudh; DEP; KAB); Wurstroehrenbaum (Ger.; KAB).

Activities:

Abortifacient (f; ADP; JFM); Alexiteric (f; WO2); Allergenic (1; VOD); Amebicide (1; JAC7:405); Analgesic (1; JAF50:5042; MPI; WO2); Anthelmintic (f; WO2); Antidiabetic (f; X16242721); Antiinflammatory (f1; WO2); Antioxidant (1; JAF50:5042; X12188605; X15652272; X15991578); Antiperiodic (f; SKJ; WOI); Antiradicular (1; JAF50:5042); Antisecretory (f; WO3); Antiseptic (1; PH2; X16678369); Antitumor (f1; ADP; X16242721); Antitussive (1; JAF50:5042); Antiviral (1; ADP; PH2; WO2); Aperient (f; EFS); Astringent (f; EGG; SKJ; WO2); Bactericide (1; JAF50:5042; MPG; X12608640; X16678369); Demulcent (f; ADP); Dentifrice (f; WO2); Deobstruent (f; DEP); Emetic (f; KAB; WO2); Febrifuge (f; DEP; SKJ; SUW); Fungicide (1; WO2); Hemagglutinant (1; MPG); Hepatoprotective (f1; X15991578; X16242721); Hypocholesterolemic (1; JAC7:405); Hypoglycemic (1; ADP; JAC7:405; MPG; WO2); Immunostimulant (1; MPG); Interferonigenic (1; MPG); Laxative (f1; GHA; HHB; MPG; NPM; PH2; VOD); Orexigenic (f; KAB; NPM); Polygalacturinase-Inhibitor (1; MPG); Protopectinase Inhibitor (1; MPG); Purgative (f1; ADP; EGG; JAF50:5042; NPM); Refrigerant (f; WO2); Stomachic (f; WO2); Tonic (f; NPM; SKJ; WO2); Uterotonic (1; WO3); Vermifuge (f; VOD); Vulnerary (f; X16242721).

Indications:

Abscesses (f; WO2); Acne (f; ADP); Adenopathy (f; JLH; SKJ); Amebiasis (1; JAC7:405; WO2); Amenorrhea (f; ADP); Anorexia (f; KAB; PH2); Anthrax (f; WO2); Arthritis (f; SKJ; WO3); Asthma (f; NPM; WO2); Bacillus (1; MPG); Bacteria (f1; JAF50:5042; SKJ; X12608640; X16678369); Biliousness (f; NAD; SKJ); Bites (f; ADP; NAD); Bleeding (f; WO2); Blindness (f; ADP); Blood (f; WO3); Boils (f; WO3); Burns (f; ADP); Cancer (f1; ADP; JLH; MPG); Cancer, abdomen (f; JLH); Cancer, colon (f; JLH); Cancer, face (f; SKJ); Cancer, gland (f; JLH); Cancer, liver (f; JLH); Cancer, throat (f; JLH); Cancer, uterus (f; JLH); Cardiopathy (f; ADP; NAD; WO3); Cerebrosis (f; DEP; WO2); Chilblains (f; ADP); Cholecocystosis (f; JFM); Colic (f; NAD); Conjunctivosis (f; WO2); Constipation (f1; ADP; AHL; DEP; GHA; HHB; PH2); Convulsions (f; ADP); Coughs (1; JAF50:5042; WO2); Delirium (f; ADP); Dermatosis (f; ADP; NPM; PH2; VOD; WO2); Diabetes (f1; ADP; JAC7:405; NPM; WO2); Diarrhea (f; NPM); Diphtheria (1; WO2); Dysentery (f; NPM; WO2; WO3); Dyspepsia (f; GHA); Dysuria (f; ADP; WO2); Eczema (f; NPM); Enterosis (f; WO2); Epilepsy (f; ADP; SKJ); Escherichia (1; MPG; WO3); Fever (f; ADP; PH2; SUW); Flu (f; AHL); Fracture (f; WO2); Fungus (1; WO2); Gas (f; NAD; PH2; VOD); Gastrosis (f; GHA; WO2); Giddiness (f; NPM); Gonorrhea (f; WO2); Gout (f; DEP; VOD; WO2); Gravel (f; ADP); Hematemesis (f; JAF50:5042); Hematuria (f; ADP); Hemorrhoids (f; GHA); Hepatosis (f1; ADP; JLH; X16242721); Herpes (f; WO2); High Cholesterol (1; JAC7:405); High Triglycerides (1; JAC7:405); HIV (f; VOD); Hyperglycemia (1; JAC7:405; WO2); Impostume (f; JLH); Induration (f; JLH); Infection (f1; ADP; PH2; X16242721; X16678369); Inflammation (f1; JLH; VOD; WO2); Itch (f; PH2; WO2); Jaundice (f; ADP; PH2); Leprosy (f; WO2); Leukoderma (1; JAF50:5042); Malaria (f; SKJ); Migraine (f; WO3); Mycosis (f1; ADP; JAF50:5042); Nausea (f; SUW); Ophthalmia (f; ADP; WO2); Pain (f1; WO3; JAF50:5042; MPI; WO2); Paralysis (f; DEP; NAD; SKJ); Parasites (f; VOD); Pharyngosis (f; WO2); Pregnancy (f; VOD); Prickly Heat (f; JFM); Prurigo (f; WO2); Psoriasis (f; ADP); Pulmonosis (f; ADP; IED); Pustule (f; DEP); Pyoderma (f; ADP); Respirosis (f; IED); Rheumatism (f; DEP; SKJ; VOD; WO2); Ringworm (f; ADP; DEP); Salmonella (1; WO2); Sarcoma (1; MPG); Scabies (f; ADP); Snake Bite (f; NPM; SKJ; SUW); Sores (f; WO2); Sore Throat (f; NPM; WO2); Staphylococcus (1; MPG); Stings (f; JFM); Stomachache (f; WO2); Swelling (f; JLH; WO3); Syphilis (f; ADP; NPM); Tonsillitis (f; WO3); Toothache (f; NPM); Tuberculosis (f; SKJ; VOD); Tumors (f1; JLH; MPG); Typhus (1; WO2); Ulcers (f; GHA); Vaccinia (1; MPG); VD (f; ADP; NPM; WO2); Viruses (1; MPG; PH2); Wet Dream (spermatorrhea, nocturnal emissions) (f; WO2); Worms (f; VOD; WO2); Wounds (f; X16242721).

Dosages:

FNFF = !! Flowers, leaves, and fruit pulp eaten, the latter possibly purgative (FAC). Seed eaten (TAN). 4–8 g fruit pulp (HHB; PH2).

  • Asian Indians use the plant in clarified butter for glandular tumors (JFM).
  • Curaçaoans take the leaf decoction for gallbladder problems (JFM).
  • Dominicans suggest a floral syrup for constipation and flu (AHL).
  • Haitians take salted leaf or fruit decoction for worms (VOD).
  • Jharkandi natives take ca. 5 g endosperm with honey 2–3 mornings for diabetes (ADP).
  • Nepalese take 4 tsp fruit pulp 3×/day for hematuria, diarrhea, and dysentery (NPM).
  • Nepalese take 6 tsp teaspoons pulp paste 4×/day for giddiness (NPM).
  • Oriyan women insert leaf paste into genitals once daily for a week for amenorrhea (ADP).
  • Punjabi use root as febrifuge and tonic (DEP).
  • Rhodesians use the plant for anthrax, blackwater fever, blood poisoning, dysentery, and malaria (KAB).
  • Yunani consider leaves antiinflammatory, flowers purgative, the fruits abortifacient, demulcent, febrifuge, and purgative, using for chest, eye, liver, rheumatic, and throat complaints (KAB).

Downsides:

Not covered (AHP). Interaction of anthranoid laxatives reported (AEHD). Usual template caveats with anthranoids. Anthranoid-containing laxatives can be habit-forming; some contain compounds suspected of being cytotoxic, genotoxic, mutagenic, and even tumorigenic; epidemiological studies in Germany reveal that abusers of anthranoid laxatives have three times higher rate of colon carcinoma. The Germans seem to have muted the cancer scare. “Recent studies, however, have revealed no connection between the administration of anthracene drugs and the frequency of carcinomas of the colon.” (PH2). As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed 19 titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

Oil from the pod was active against Klebsiella at 500 ppm (FT67(2):173). Pods have highest total phenolic, proanthocyanidin, and flavonoid contents and antioxidant potentials (TEAC = 992 +/– 0.4 μM/g dry weight; FRAP = 811 +/− 23 μM/g dry weight) (X12188605).

PINK SHOWER (Cassia grandis L. f.) ++ CAESALPINIACEAE

Illustrations:

fig 64 (IED); p 371 (TTS); p 277 (LWW)

Synonyms:

Bactyrilobium grande (L. f.) Horn.; B. molle (Vahl) Schrad.; Cassia brasiliana Lam.; C. mollis Vahl; C. pachycarpa Lam.; Cathartocarpus brasilianus (Lam.) Jacq.; Cathartocarpus grandis (L. f.) Pers.; fide (MPG; USN).

Notes:

Thai traditional medicines treat gastrointestinal ailments with C. grandis which may partly explain the lower incidence of gastric cancer in Thailand (X14758718).

Common Names:

Appleblossom Cassia (Eng.; USN); Arbol de Fuego (Sp.; USN); Bacul (Ma.; TTS); Bâton Casse (Haiti; AHL; AVP); Beef Feed (Bel.; Eng.; BNA); Bocot (Ma.; JFM); Boocoot (Ma.; JFM); Bookut (Bel.; BNA); Bucut (Guat.; Maya; MPG); Buk-èt (Bel.; BNA); Cañadonga (Col.; AVP); Cañafistola (Brazil; Ven.; AVP); Cañafístula (Mex.; Pan.; AVP); Cañafístula Burrero (Ma.; Ven.; JFM; LWW); Cañafístula Cimarrona (Dor.; Pr.; AHL); Cañafístula de Castilla (Ma.; TTS); Cañafístula Grande (Ma.; JFM); Cañafístula Gruesa (Col.; Ma.; JFM; TTS); Cañafístula Macho (Ma.; Ven.; JFM; LWW); Cañaflote (Ven.; AVP); Cañandonga (Cuba; Ma.; JFM; RyM); Cañandonga de Masa (Ma.; JFM); Carago (Sal.; AVP); Caragua (Sal.; AVP); Caragüe (Guat.; Sal.; AVP; MPG); Carámano (Nic.; AVP); Carambano (Nic.; AVP); Carao (Bel.; Guat.; Hon.; Pan.; AVP; BNA; MPG); Casia (Sp.; AVP); Casse (Haiti; AHL; AVP); Casse de Brésil (Fr.; USN); Casse Espagnol (Haiti; AHL; AVP); Cássia (It.; AVP); Chácara (Dor.; AHL); Chácaro (Dor.; AHL); Coral Shower (Eng.; USN); Coral Showertree (Eng.; VOD); Geneuna (Por.; AVP); Gigantón (Ma.; JFM); Great Cassia (Ma.; JFM); Grobfrüchtige Kassie (Ger.; USN); Guayaba Cimarrona (Dor.; AHL); Horse Cassia (Eng.; Jam.; AVP; VOD); Jeneuna (Por.; AVP); Kas (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Kas Mawon (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Liquorice Tree (Eng.; TTS); Macut (Ma.; TTS); Maremare (Ma.; JFM); Marimari (Brazil; Peru; AVP; EGG; RAR); Marimary Preto (Ma.; JFM); Marimary Rana (Brazil; Ma.; JFM; LWW); Marimary Sano (Brazil; Ma.; JFM; LWW); Mucut (Guat.; JFM; MPG); Pink Shower (Eng.; FAC; JFM; USN); Pink Showertree (Eng.; VOD); Quauhuayo (Ma.; Mex.; JFM; LWW); Sandal (Ma.; JFM); Sándalo (Ma.; JFM; TTS; USN); Santal (Guat.; MPG); Saragundin (Cr.; IED); Sené Gran’ Fèy (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Stinking Toe (Bel.; AVP; BNA; FAC). (Nscn; American entries diacritically prepared).

Activities:

Abortifacient (f; MPG; VOD); Anticancer (f1; MPG; X14758718); Antiseptic (f; MPG); Antitumor (f; MPG); Astringent (f; EGG; MPG); Depurative (f; MPG); Diuretic (f; MPG); Expectorant (f; MPG); Febrifuge (f; MPG); Fungicide (1; MPG; X2056755; X8145577); Lactagogue (f; MPG); Laxative (f; MPB; TTS); Pectoral (f; MPG); Purgative (f; AHL; MPG); Sedative (f; MPG); Stimulant (f; MPG); Tonic (f; MPG).

Indications:

Anemia (f; MPG); Arthrosis (f; VOD); Bleeding (f; MPG); Cancer (f1; MPG; X14758718); Colds (f; MPG); Constipation (f1; IED; MPB; TTS); Coughs (f; MPG); Dermatophyte (1; MPG; X2056755; X8145577); Dermatosis (f1; AHL; IED; MPB; MPG; VOD); Dysmenorrhea (f; VOD); Dyspepsia (f; VOD); Enterosis (f; IED; VOD); Epistaxis (f; MPG); Fever (f; MPG); Fungus (f1; MPG; X2056755; X8145577); Gastrosis (f; VOD); Hepatosis (f; MPG); Herpes (f; MPG); Hysteria (f; VOD); Infection (f1; MPG; VOD); Insomnia (f; MPG); Itch (f; VOD); Mange (f; MPG); Mucososis (f; MPG); Mycosis (f; MPG); Nervousness (f; VOD); Parasites (f; IED); Pulmonosis (f; IED); Respirosis (f; IED); Rheumatism (f; VOD); Sores (f; IED); Tinea (f; MPG); Urethrosis (f; MPG); Viruses (f; MPG); Vitiligo (f; MPG); Worms (f; IED); Wounds (f; MPG).

Dosages:

FNFF = ! Pulp around seeds edible (IED; FAC; MPG).

  • Costa Ricans use the fruit pulp, cooked in milk, for anemia (JFM).
  • Cubans consider the fruit pulp abortifacient and useful in chest complaints (JFM).
  • Cubans steep roots 3 days in alcohol as antiseptic for dermatosis and wounds (RyM).
  • Dominicans suggest mashed leaves with bacon fat for veterinary skin ailments (AHL).
  • Guatemalans fashion an unguent from the leaves for dermatosis, herpes, sores, tinea, and vitiligo (MPG).
  • Guatemalans take bark/fruit/leaf decoction for anemia, cold, cough, hepatosis, hysteria, nosebleed, and urinary infections (MPG).
  • Haitians apply macerated root tincture for skin infections (VOD).
  • Haitians massage skin ailments, like itch, with crushed leaves (VOD).
  • Haitians drink a beverage made from leaf, flower, fruit pulp, a/o seeds as an abortifacient and for hysteria and nervousness (VOD).
  • Haitians take root and bark infusion for rheumatism (VOD).
  • Haitians take salted leaf decoction for digestive tract ailments (VOD).
  • Nicaraguans use fruit and leaf decoction, or juice syrup, orally or topically for constipation, respiratory-pulmonary disorders, worms and intestinal parasites, skin rashes, and sores (IED).

Downsides:

Too much of the edible fruit pulp is said to be abortifacient and certainly laxative. As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed four titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

Methanolic leaf extract inhibited growth of HP strains MIC = 50.0 μg/ml.

HAITI CATALPA (Catalpa longissima Jacq. Dum. Cours.) ++ BIGNONIACEAE

Illustrations:

fig 50 (MPG); p 891 (LWW): p 67 (TRA)

Synonyms:

Bignonia longissima Jacq.; B. pseudoquercus Tuss.; Macrocatalpa longissima (Jacq.) Britton; fide (MPG; USN).

Notes:

Regrettably, McGuffin et al. (2000) have not assigned this species a standardized common name. Reluctantly I almost used the first offered by USN, “French oak,” a double misnomer because it is neither French nor oak. “Haitian oak” might be better, or why not “Haitian catalpa”? After asking that question I found “Haiti catalpa” in Little et al. (1974) as an alternative common name in Puerto Rico. So I replaced “French oak” with “Haiti catalpa.” The books say it is native to Jamaica and Hispaniola. For now I’ll go with USN.

Many species of Catalpa are home to the famous “catalpa” worm, or “catawba” worm, great bait for fishermen they say. Leaves (of 5 species of Catalpa, but not necessarily this one) contain both catalpol and catalposide; larvae, pupae, and frass of the Catalpa sphinx, Ceratomia catalpae, contain only catalpol; adults contain no detectable iridoid glycosides. Amounts are highest in larvae and decline in pupal stage. When infested with feeding Ceratomia, the leaves produce more extrafloral nectaries which attract insects that attack or remove the eggs or larvae of the moth. (AUS; X14682517).

Common Names:

Bois Chêne (Haiti; AHL; AVP); Bois Chien (Haiti; AHL); Bois Radegonde (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Bwadchen (Creole; Haiti; TRA; VOD); Bwa d’Shenn (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Bwa Radegon (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Capá (His.; AHL; MPG); Chêne (Haiti; AHL; AVP); Chène d’Amèrique (Creole; Haiti; Mart.; LWW; VOD); Chêne des Antilles (Mart.; AVP); Chêne Haitien (Haiti; AHL); Chène Noir (Mart.; LWW); Chène Noir Pays (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Chenier (His.; AHL); Chènn (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Eiche (Ger.; AVP); Encina (Sp.; AVP); Encina de España (Cuba; Sp.; AVP; RyM); French Oak (Eng.; AVP; USN); Haiti Catalpa (Eng.; LWW); Jamaica Oak (Eng.; Jam.; AVP; VOD); Mastwood (Eng.; Jam.; AVP; USN); Oak (Eng.; AVP); Péndolo (His.; AHL; MPG); Poix Doux Marron (Fwi.; Mart.; JFM; LWW); Pyè Bwa d’Shen (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Quercia (It.; AVP); Radégonde (Guad.; Mart.; AVP; LWW); Roble (Dor.; Pr.; Sp.; AHL; AVP; MPG); Roble de Olor (Dor.; Sp.; AVP; JFM); Roble Dominicana (Pr.; LWW); Roble Prieto (Ven.; AVP); Spanish Oak (Eng.; VOD); Yokewood (Eng.; USN).

Activities:

Analgesic (f1; MPG; TRA); Antiinflammatory (1; TRA); Antiulcer (1; TRA); Astringent (f; JFM); Febrifuge (f1; TRA; VOD); Gastroprotective (1; TRA); Hemostat (f; VOD); Lipolytic (1; TRA); Uterorelaxant (1; TRA).

Indications:

Amenorrhea (f; MPG); Angina (f; JFM); Arthrosis (1; TRA); Asthma (f; VOD); Bleeding (f; AUS; DAW; VOD); Blennorrhagia (f; AUS; DAW); BPH (1; TRA); Diarrhea (f; VOD); Dysentery (f; AUS; DAW; VOD); Fever (f1; AUS; DAW; TRA; VOD); Gastrosis (f1; MPG; TRA); Hemorrhoids (f; JFM; VOD); Hoarseness (f; VOD); Inflammation (1; TRA); Leucorrhea (f; VOD); Metrorrhagia (f; VOD); Obesity (1; TRA); Pain (f1; MPG; TRA); Rheumatism (1; TRA); Sores (f; VOD); Sore Throat (f; AUS; DAW; VOD); Stomachache (f1; MPG); Tonsilosis (f; VOD); Ulcers (1; TRA); Uterosis (f1; MPG; VOD); VD (f; VOD).

Dosages:

FNFF = ? Chinese species eaten (FAC).

  • Dominicans take the bark decoction with other herbs for amenorrhea and gastralgia (MPG).
  • Haitians apply crushed flower juice to hemorrhoids (VOD).
  • Haitians take enemas or douche with bark or leaf decoction for diarrhea, dysentery, or VD (VOD).
  • Haitians take leaf decoction for VD, with salt for asthma and fever (VOD).
  • Haitians take leaf infusion with honey to relieve angina (JFM).
  • Haitians take or gargle bark decoction or tea for dysentery, fever, hoarseness, leucorrhea, metrorrhagia, sore throat, tonsilosis, and uterine hemorrhage (VOD).
  • Haitians wash hemorrhoids and sores with bark a/o leaf infusions (VOD).
  • Hispaniolans suggest the astringent bark for blennorrhagia, dysentery, fever, and hemorrhage (AHL).

Downsides:

Though used folklorically for amenorrhea, TRAMIL cautions against its use in amenorrhea due to pregnancy; the effects on pregnant women and the fetus are not known (TRA). They also advise against use by children, or after childbirth, and recommend no more than 14 days use by anyone (TRA). Their LD50 data, however, indicate very low, if any, toxicity (MPG; TRA). As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed one title alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

Regrettably, the hydroalcoholic bark extract exhibited no antiplasmodial activity at doses of 1 g/kg subcutaneously in Swiss rats. LD50 = 13–21.5 g/kg ipr rat (MPG; TRA); LD50 = >25 g/kg orl rat (TRA).

TAYUYA (Cayaponia tayuya (Vell.) Cogn.) + CUCURBITACEAE

Synonyms:

Bryonia tayuya Vell. (basionym); Cayaponia piauhiensis; C. ficifolia; C. tayuya (Vell.) Cogn.; Trianosperma ficifolia; T. piauhiensis; T. tayuya (Vell.) Mart.; fide (RA2; USN).

Notes:

First declared an official drug in the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia in 1929. Bolivians sometimes use the common name “tayuya” for Melothria hookeri (DLZ).

Common Names:

Abobrinha do Mato (Brazil; MPB; PIO; RAI); Anapinta (Brazil; MPB; PIO); Azougue de Brasil (Brazil; MPB); Cabeça de Negro (Brazil; MPB; RAI); Guardião (Brazil; MPB; RAI); Raiz de Bugre (Brazil; MPB; PIO); Taioia (Brazil; RAI); Taiuiá (Brazil; MPB; RAI); Taiuiá de Fruta Envenenada (Brazil; PIO); Tayuya (Eng.; Scn.; Sp.; AH2; RAI; USN); Tomba (Brazil; MPB; PIO; RAI).

Activities:

Adaptogen (1; RAI); Alterative (f; RA2); Analgesic (f1; RAI); Antiarthritic (1; X16443215); Anticancer (1; RAI); AntiEBV (1; X7742799); Antiedemic (f; RAI); Antiinflammatory (f1; MPB; RAI; X15124085; X16443215; X17562851); Antioxidant (1; RAI; X2158783); Antiproliferant (1; X17562851); Antiradicular (1; RAI; X2158783); Antisyphilitic (f; MPB); Antitumor (f1; JLH; RAI; X7742799); Antitumor-Promoter (1; X7742799); Bitter (f; MPB); Cathartic (f; MPB); Choleretic (f1; RAI); Depurative (f; MPB; PIO; RAI); Detoxicant (f; RAI); Digestive (f1; RAI); Diuretic (f1; RAI); Emetic (f; MPB); Laxative (f1; RAI); Nervine (1; RAI); NFAT-Inhibitor (1; X17562851); Purgative (f; PIO); Stomachic (f; RA2); TNF-alpha-Inhibitor (1; X16443215); Tonic (f; RAI).

Indications:

Acne (f; RAI); Amenorrhea (f; MPB); Anemia (f; RAI); Arthrosis (f1; RAI; X16443215); Backache (f; RAI); Boils (f; MPB); Cancer (f1; JLH; RAI; X7742799); Cancer, skin (1; RAI); Cholera (f; RAI); Conjunctivosis (f; RAI); Constipation (f1; PIO; RAI); Debility (f; RAI); Depression (f; RAI); Dermatosis (f; MPB; PIO; RAI); Diarrhea (f; RAI); Dropsy (f; RA2); Dysmenorrhea (f; RAI); Dyspepsia (f; PIO; RAI); EBV (1; X7742799); Eczema (f; MPB; PIO); Edema (f1; RAI; X15124085); Enterosis (f; PIO); Epilepsy (f; MPB; RAI); Erysipelas (f; PIO); Fatigue (f; RAI); Furuncles (f; PIO); Gastrosis (f; MPB; PIO; RAI); Gout (f; RAI); Headache (f; RAI); Hepatosis (f; RA2); Herpes (f; RAI); IBS (f; RAI); Indigestion (f1; RAI); Inflammation (f1; MPB; RAI; X15124085; X16443215; X17562851); Leprosy (f; RAI); Neuralgia (f; RAI); Oliguria (f; RAI); Ophthalmia (f; RAI); Pain (f1; RAI); Rabies (f; MPB); Rheumatism (f; MPB; RAI); Sciatica (f; RAI); Scrofula (f; RAI); Snake Bite (f; RAI); Sores (f; RAI); Splenosis (f; RAI); Stress (f1; RAI); Swelling (f1; RAI; X15124085); Syphilis (f; MPB; PIO; RAI); Tumors (f1; JLH; RAI; X7742799); VD (f; MPB; PIO; RAI); Ulcers (f; RA2); Wounds (f; RA2).

Dosages:

FNFF = ? 1 cup root tea 2–3×/day; 1–2 g root powder 2–3×/day (RAI).

  • Amazonians take for depression, edema, eyes, fatigue, and swelling (RAI).
  • Brazilians take for amenorrhea, arthrosis, backache, boils, cholera, constipation, dermatosis, detoxification, diarrhea, dropsy, dysmenorrhea, dyspepsia, eczema, edema, enterosis, epilepsy, erysipelas, fatigue, furuncles, gout, headache, inflammation, leprosy, neuralgia, oliguria, pain, rabies, rheumatism, sciatica, scrofula, snake bite, syphilis, and tumors (PIO; RAI).
  • Colombians use for sore eyes (RAI).
  • Peruvians use for dermatoses, rheumatism, and snake bite (RAI).

Downsides:

Slightly toxic at 500 mg/kg ipr, but not toxic orally at 2,000 mg/kg (RAI). As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed one title alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

Cayaponosides B, B3, D, D3b, and C2 significantly inhibited effects on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) activation induced by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (X7742799). The triterpene dihydrocucurbitacin B, isolated from the root, inhibited delayedtype hypersensitivity reactions by suppressing T lymphocyte proliferation (IC50 = 1.48 μM) (X17562851), and reduced bone/tissue damage and swelling in induced arthritis in Lewis rats (X16443215).

TRUMPET TREE (Cecropia peltata L.) ++ CECROPIACEAE

 

Illustrations:

pl 206D (DAG); pl 20, p 67 (L&W)

Synonyms:

Ambaiba peltata O. Ktze.; Cecropia arachnoides Pitt.; C. asperrima Pitt.; C. humboldtiana Kl.; C. obtusa Cook & Collins.; Coilotapalkus peltata Hitchcock; fide (HH3).

Notes:

Cecropia peltata is rather the catchall name for many different species of this interesting, tropical, American genus of some hundred species. Some authors still use C. peltata as the major, or catchall, Central American/West Indian species (AHL; BNA); others, e.g., Beauvoir et al. (2001), note that what they are calling C. peltata is not what Linnaeus named C. peltata. Some Beauvoir et al. citations below (as VOD) apply to C. schreberiana Miq. which has a brown, rather than white, pith and lacks arachnoid pubescence at the apex of the perianth of pistillate flowers, as occurs in C. peltata. Frankly I don’t think that many of the natives reporting the folklore, nor all the ethnobotanists, always distinguish the many species. The common names tend to be generic. Without voucher specimens, we may not always be sure which species were pharmacologically studied. In Mexico, Martinez (1969) says that all his data refer to C. peltata but seems to assume that “todas las Cecropias tienen propiedades analagos” (MAX). I’m inclined to think generically myself, but reluctant to push that belief on others. Both C. peltata and C. obtusifolia co-occur in parts of Central America, Mexico, northern South America C. obtusa, closely related, or identical, farther south). USN does not list obtusifolia for the West Indies. The two can be keyed as follows (TBC):

Staminate spadices < 10 per peduncle, pistillate 2–4; leaves deeply (>¾) divided into 8–13 lobes ......................................................C. obtusifolia

Staminate spadices > 11 per peduncle, pistillate 4–6; leaves shallowly (ca. ½) divided into 7–11 round tipped lobes ......................................... C. peltata

Taylor (2005) aggregates C. obtusifolia, C. palmata, and C. peltata, in her book (RAI). Judd et al. (2002) argues well for maintaining Cecropiaceae as a separate family, rendering the Moraceae monophyletic. Cecropia is closer to Urticaceae, sharing the restriction of laticifers to the bark, pseudomonomerous gynoecia, basal ovules, and straight embryos.

I think I would try this species for diabetes, based on its folklore and its close relation to Cecropia obtusifolia, subject of a recent clinical study. For a 21-day double-blind trial, 22 patients (not responding well to conventional therapy) received leaf tea. Fasting blood glucose was lowered by 15.25%, cholesterol by 14.62%, and triglycerides by 42.0%. Leaves contain about 3,000 ppm chlorogenic acid (X15636168). Though I might try it myself, I might not suggest it to others because of a caution from Morton: Barbadans recommend the leaf infusion as a “sure cure” for diabetes. People with sugar in the urine may “recover” after the tea (perhaps as measured by bush dip-sticks, or ants attracted to the urine), if maintaining a strictly green diet. But true diabetics, with high sugar levels in the blood, “may go into a diabetic coma” Caveat emptor (JFM).

From the PubMed database, one concludes that C. obtusifolia has been better studied, scoring 1 as antidiabetic (2), antihypertensive, bacteristat, cardiotonic, diuretic. hypocholesterolemic (2), hypoglycemic (2), hyperlipidemic, hypotensive, and hypotriglyceridemic (2).

Hollow trees, in Central America almost always inhabited by ants, but rarely so in the West Indies. Leaves a favorite food of the sloth, and, branches, hanging over rivers, a favorite retreat of the iguana. Fruits a favored food of howler monkeys. There is often a caterpillar on young trees which the Choco decapitate. This yields a red “magic-marker,” the resultant stain, said to be a little caustic, lasting longer than Genipa stain (!). Greater spear-nosed bats (Phyllostomus hastatus) call more often and fly in larger groups when feeding on a concentrated resource, balsa, Ochroma lagopus, flowers, in winter than on the more dispersed resource Cecropia peltata fruit in spring (X9480702).

Common Names:

Ak’l (Bel.; BNA); Ambai (Fr.; AVP); Ambaïba (Car.; VOD); Ambaiba des Caraibes (Fr.; HH3); Ambatí (Arg.; AVP); Ambaú (Arg.; AVP); Arvore da Preguica (Por.; AVP; JFM); Bauna (Ma.; JFM); Boessi Papaja (Sur.; AVP); Bois Canon (Fr.; Fr. Guiana; Grenada; Guad.; Mart.; Trin.; AHL; AVP; RAI); Bois Trompette (Fr. Guiana; Guad.; Haiti; Mart.; AHL; AVP; RAI); Bokon (Shipibo/Conibo; MD2); Bosh Papaya (Sur.; AVP); Bospapaja (Sur.; L&W); Cetico (Peru; AVP); Chancarro (Mex.; AVP); Cho Otz (Bel.; AAB; BNA); Coilotopalo (Ma.; HH3); Congo Pump (Br. Guy.; AVP); Coulequim des Caraibes (Fr.; HH3); Coulequin (Fr.; AVP); Embauba (Sa.; RAI); Eporro (Choco; Col.; Pan.; IED); Float Wood (Eng.; AVP); Grayumbe (Dor.; AHL); Grayumbo (Dor.; AHL); Grayumo Hembra (Pr.; L&W); Guarima (Ma.; JFM); Guarimbo (Ma.; JFM); Guarumbo (Mex.; Ocn.; Sp.; AH2; AVP); Guarumo (Bel.; Col.; Cr.; Ecu.; Guat.; Sp.; AAB; AVP; DAG; L&W; USN); Guarura (Ven.; AVP); Igarata (Br. Guy.; Guat.; AVP); Imbaiba (Ma.; JFM); Imbauba (Brazil; Peru; AVP; HH3; RAI); Indian Snakewood (Eng.; FAC); Ix-Coch (Ma.; HH3); Kanonenbaum (Ger.; HH3); Kaóje (Ese’eja; MD2); Llagruma (Sp.; AVP); Llagrumo Hembra (Pr.; Sp.; AVP); Nilauala (Cuna; Pan.; IED); Orumo (Col.; AVP); Palo de Loja (Arg.; AVP); Po Hór (Bel.; BNA); Pop-a-Gun (Bar.; AVP; USN); Pumpwood (Eng.; L&W); Saruma (Ma.; HH3; JFM); Shankón (Amahuaca; MD2); Snake Wood (Eng.; AVP; USN); Tacuna (Peru; AVP); Taóje (Ese’eja; MD2); Tongko (Amarakaeri; Huachipaeri; MD2); Tongo (Matsigenka; MD2); Tree Weeds (Eng.; AVP); Trompeta (Mex.; AVP); Trompetenbaum (Ger.; USN); Trompette (Haiti; AHL); Trompette Séche (Haiti; VOD); Trompettier (Haiti; AHL); Trumpet (Ocn.; Sp.; AH2); Trumpet Tree (Jam.; Pr.; AVP; JLH; USN); Trumpet Wood (Eng.; Vi.; AVP); Tuaromo (Bel.; BNA); Umaubeira (Par.; AVP); Umbauba (Brazil; Por.; AVP; RAI); Umbauba Branca (Por.; AVP); Umbauba Brava (Por.; AVP); Wanasora (Br. Guy.; AVP); Waruma (Bel.; BNA); Wild Papaw (Dwi.; AVP); Yabruma (Dor.; AVP); Yagruma (Cuba; Sp.; AVP; RyM); Yagruma Hembra (Cuba; Dor.; AHL; AVP); Yagrumo (Cuba; Dor.; Pr.; Sp.; Ven.; AVP; USN); Yaruma (Dor.; AVP); Yaruma Hembra (Dor.; AVP); Yarumo (Col.; AVP); Yongol (Peru; RAR). (Nscn; American entries diacritically prepared).

Activities:

ACE-Inhibitor (1; RAI); Analgesic (f1; RAI); Antiasthmatic (f; AHL); Antiinflammatory (f1; RAI; VOD); Antiobesity (f; RAI); Antioxidant (f; RAI); Antiradicular (f; RAI); Antispasmodic (f1; RAI); Astringent (f1; AHL; HH3); Bactericide (f1; RAI; X16483385); Cardiotonic (f1; AHL; DAW; JFM; MAX); CNS-Depressant (f; RAI); Diuretic (f1; HH3; JFM; MAX; RAI); Emmenagogue (f; AHL; RAI); Expectorant (f; RAI); Fungicide (f1; HH3; RAI; X161407); Hemostat (f; JFM); Hepatotonic (f1; AAB; RAI); Hypoglycemic (f1; RAI; X16177966); Hypotensive (f; RAI; X1704056); Laxative (f; RAI); Lipolytic (f; RAI); Mucolytic (f; RAI); Secretolytic (f; RAI); Vulnerary (f; VOD).

Indications:

Amenorrhea (f; AHL); Arthritis (f; AAB); Asthma (f; AHL; JFM; MAX; RAI; VOD); Bacteria (f1; RAI; X16483385); Biliousness (f; RAI); Bites (f; RAI); Bleeding (f; JFM; MD2; VOD); Blennorrhagia (f; AHL); Bronchosis (f1; AHL; RAI); Bruises (f; RAI); Callus (f; DAW; RAI); Cancer (f; JFM); Cardiopathy (f1; AHL; DAW; JFM; MAX; RAI); Childbirth (f; JFM; MD2; RAI); Chorea (f; AHL); Colds (f; MD2); Constipation (f; RAI); Corns (f; HH3; JLH); Coughs (f; EB30:115; RAI); Dermatosis (f; RAI; VOD); Diabetes (f1; AAB; JFM; MAX; RAI; X16177966); Diarrhea (f; AHL; RAI; VOD); Dropsy (f; AAB; MAX); Dysentery (f; EB30:115; VOD); Dysmenorrhea (f; IED); Dyspepsia (f; IED); Dysuria (f; RAI); Edema (f; HH3; JFM; VOD); Epilepsy (f; VOD); Escherichia (1; RAI); Fever (f; EB30:115; JFM; MD2; VOD); Flu (f; JFM; MD2); Fracture (f; RAI); Fungus (f1; AAB; HH3; RAI; X161407); Gangrene (f; VOD); Gas (f; VOD); Gastrosis (f; RAI); Glossosis (f; RAI); Glycosuria (f; JFM); Gonorrhea (f; JFM; RAI); Hematoma (f; RAI); Hepatosis (f; AAB; JFM; MAX; RAI); Herpes (f; AHL; HH3; RAI); High Blood Pressure (f1; AAB; RAI; X1704056); Hoarseness (f; JFM); Hyperglycemia (f1; RAI; X16177966); Infection (f1; AAB; HH3; RAI; X161407; X16483385); Inflammation (f1; RAI; VOD); Mycosis (1; AAB; HH3; RAI); Nephrosis (f; AAB; RAI); Nervousness (f; JFM); Neurosis (f; JFM); Obesity (f; MAX; RAI); Oliguria (f1; RAI); Pain (f1; IED; MD2; RAI); Parkinson’s (f; JFM; RAI; VOD); Pertussis (f; JFM; RAI); Pneumonia (f; RAI); Pseudomonas (1; RAI); Pulmonosis (f1; HH3; RAI); Respirosis (f1; RAI); Rheumatism (f; AAB; RAI); Salmonella (1; RAI); Shigella (1; RAI); Snake Bite (f; JFM); Sores (f; JFM; VOD); Sore Throat (f; AAB; JFM); Spasms (f1; RAI); Splenosis (f; VOD); Staphylococcus (1; RAI); Stings (f; JFM; MD2; RAI); Stomatosis (f; RAI); Strangury (f1; JFM; MAX); Swelling (f; AAB; JFM; VOD); Toothache (f; JFM); VD (f; JFM); Viruses (f; AHL; HH3); Warts (f; AHL); Wounds (f1; AHL; MD2; RAI; VOD; X16543209).

Dosages:

FNFF = ! Facciola’s reports sound tastier than I find the plants: “Young buds are eaten as a potherb. The leaves and flowers were used by black Americans with their broths” (FAC). Leaves smoked like tobacco (AAB). Facciola (1998) is even more generous with C. palmata; ripe fruits reportedly eaten fresh or used as filling for cakes. Native Americans eat the pith (IED). Segundo, one of my Amazonian guides, called me the 5-toed sloth when he saw me eating the young buds, clearly a decent survival food. Peruvians make “cal” or lime to ingest with their coca chew from the ashes of available Cecropia leaves, I suspect unaware of the taxonomic differences, but perhaps aware of culinary differences. 1 cup leaf tea 2–3×/day (RAI); 2–3 g powdered leaf capsule/tablet 2×/day.

  • Argentinians take a cup/day (1–2 leaves in 1 liter water) for 3 months for chorea, neuroses, and Parkinson’s disease (JFM).
  • Barbadans recommend the leaf infusion as a “sure cure” for diabetes (JFM).
  • Belizeans use leaf tea (1 leaf steeped 20 min in 2 cups water, 1 cup 2×/day/3 days) as diuretic, hepatotonic, and sedative, for diabetes, dropsy, high blood pressure, infection, nephrosis, and I’ll add Syndrome X (AAB).
  • Belizeans use leaves in steams for rheumatism, bathing swellings in leaf decoctions (AAB).
  • Brazilians use the diuretic leaf decoction for bronchosis and cough, the plant for asthma bleeding, bronchitis, cancer, cardiopathy, chagas, congestion, cough, diabetes, diarrhea, dysentery, edema, flu, gonorrhea, hemorrhoids, high blood pressure, malaria, Parkinson’s, pneumonia, respirosis, rheumatism, snake bite, sores, UTIs, vaginosis, warts, and wounds (JFM; RAI).
  • Colombians use for cardiopathy, childbirth, dysmenorrhea, and Parkinson’s (RAI).
  • Cubans boil 1 fresh leaf, taking 1 cup decoction every 1–2 hr for 1–2 weeks for asthma, using the decoction as a mouthwash for toothache, and taking the plant for abscesses, asthma, bile disorders, callus, cough, dermatosis, dysentery, dyspepsia, edema, fever, gonorrhea, hepatosis, herpes, pain, sores, VD, and warts (JFM; RAI).
  • Cubans, Guianans, Jamaicans, Martiniquans, and Mexicans apply latex to corns and warts (JLH).
  • Dominicans inhale the boiled leaf tea steam for bronchitis and asthma; the leaf tea for cough (AHL).
  • Dominicans view the bark as antidiarrheal, astringent, and emmenagogue, using bark tea for blennorrhea (AHL).
  • Guadelupans take leaf/bark infusion as an enema in gonorrhea; the young leaf decoction for hepatosis and swelling (JFM).
  • Guatemalans take new shoot decoction as antipertussic, cardiotonic, and diuretic, using also for asthma, atherosclerosis, diabetes, edema, gonorrhea, and rheumatism (JFM; RAI).
  • Haitians apply the caustic latex from the bark to open callus, warts, and wounds (VOD).
  • Haitians in Marbial Valley use leaves in baths to alleviate gas (VOD).
  • Haitians take the leaf decoction for asthma, epilepsy, fever, Parkinson’s, and splenosis (VOD).
  • Jamaicans take leaf decoction for hoarseness, nervousness, and sore throat (JFM).
  • Mexicans take for asthma, bites, burns, calluses, cardiopathy, childbirth, chorea, corns, coughs, cystosis, diabetes, diarrhea, dysentery, edema, fever, fracture, hepatosis, inflammation, nephrosis, neurosis, obesity, pulmonosis, warts, and wounds (JFM; RAI).
  • Nicaraguans take for abscesses, aches, bleeding, dermatosis, diarrhea, dysmenorrhea, dyspepsia, enterosis, fever, gastrosis, headache, hepatosis, and pain (IED; RAI).
  • Peruvians take for bleeding, cardiopathy, dermatosis, diarrhea, fever, oliguria, Parkinson’s, and wounds (RAI).
  • Trinidadans take leaf decoction for cough, fever, and flu; the plant for bronchosis, high blood pressure, and snake bite (JFM; RAI; X1704056).
  • Venezuelans take for constipation, heart ailments, inflammation, and wounds (RAI).

Downsides:

Not studied (AHP; KOM; PHR). Do not take in pregnancy; consult practitioner before taking in cardiac conditions or diabetes (RAI). As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed four titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

Aqueous and ethanolic plant leaf extract exhibited wound healing properties in Sprague Dawley rat model (X16543209). Extract fungicidal (X161407).

SPANISH CEDAR (Cedrela odorata L.) ++ MELIACEAE

Illustrations:

fig 63 (DAV); fig 108 (L&W); p 38 (AAB)

Synonyms:

Cedrela glaziovii C. DC.; C. mexicana M. Roem.; C. sintenisii C. DC.; fide (POR; USN).

Common Names:

Acajou (Fr.; L&W); Acajou Amer (Guad.; L&W); Acajou a Muebles (Guad.; L&W); Acajou Pays (Guad.; L&W); Acajou Rouge (Fr.; Guad.; JTR; L&W); Acajou Senti (Guad.; L&W); Acaju (Brazil; L&W); Atoc Cedro (Peru; EGG; RAR); Barbados-Cedar (Eng.; POR; USN); Cedar (Trin.; JTR); Ceder (Sur.; L&W); Cedoro (Japan; POR); Cèdre (Haiti; L&W); Cèdre Acajou (Fr.; POR; USN); Cèdre des Barbares (Fr.; POR; USN); Cèdre Espagnol (Haiti; USN); Cedro (Bel.; Brazil; Col.; Cuba; Hon.; Por.; Sp.; AAB; BNA; JTR; MPB); Cedro Amargo (Cr.; Pan.; Ven.; JTR; L&W); Cedro Amarillo (Ven.; L&W); Cedro Blanco (Cr.; L&W); Cedro Caoba (Col.; L&W); Cedro Cebolla (Pan.; JTR); Cedro Clavel (Col.; L&W); Cedro Colorado (Peru; Sp.; LOR; MDD; POR; RAR; USN); Cedro de Altura (Peru; RAR); Cedro de Bajo (Peru; RAR); Cedro de Castilla (Ecu.; L&W); Cedro del Pais (Pr.; L&W); Cedro do Amazonas (Brazil; MPB); Cedro Dulce (Cr.; L&W); Cedro Espanyol (Pr.; L&W); Cedro Hembra (Cuba; Dor.; Pr.; L&W); Cedro Macho (Cuba; L&W); Cedro Mexicana (Pr.; L&W); Cedro Oloroso (Pr.; L&W); Cedro Real (Sal.; Sp.; POR; USN); Cedro Rojo (Bel.; Peru; Sp.; BNA; LOR); Cedro Vermelho (Brazil; L&W); Cigarbox-Cedar (Eng.; Trin.; L&W; POR; USN); Cobana (Cr.; IED; L&W); Culche (Mex.; L&W); Hibúari (Garifuna; IED); Honduras Cedar (Jam.; L&W); Iguinane (Chiriguano; Izozog; DLZ); Iguirane (Chiriguano; DLZ); Jamaican Cedar (Jam.; L&W); Ku Che (Bel.; Maya; AAB); Kurana (Br. Guy.; L&W); Leli (Curacao; L&W); Manan Conshan (Peru; Shipibo/Conibo; EGG); Mexican-Cedar (Eng.; POR; USN); Mo Xi Ge Xiang Hong Chun (China; POR); Puxni (Peru; Tepehua; EGG); Red Cedar (Bel.; BNA); Santabiri (Peru; EGG; RAR); South American Cedar (Eng.; L&W); Spanish-Cedar (Eng.; Scn.; AH2; POR; USN); Surian (Malay; POR); Thujra Witara (Aym.; DLZ); West Indian-Cedar (Eng.; POR; USN); Westindische Zeder (Ger.; POR; USN); Witara (Aym.; DLZ); Xiang Hong Chun (China; POR); Yan Yang Chun (China; POR).

Activities:

Analgesic (f; JFM); Antimalarial (1; X12570769; X9134742); Astringent (f; DAW); Collyrium (f; JFM); Emetic (f; RAR); Febrifuge (f; UPH); Hypotensive (1; AAB); Insectifuge (1; AAB); Molluscacide (1; AAB); Orexigenic (f; JFM); Pectoral (f; JFM; JTR); Tonic (f; AAB; JFM); Vasodilator (1; AAB); Vermifuge (f; IED; JTR).

Indications:

Anorexia (f; JFM); Bleeding (f; JFM); Bronchosis (f; JFM); Bruises (f; AAB); Cancer (f; JFM); Colds (f; MPB); Cramps (f; EGG); Diarrhea (f; EGG; JFM); Dysmenorrhea (f; JFM); Dyspepsia (f; JFM); Dysuria (f; DAV; EGG); Elephantiasis (f; JFM); Enterosis (f; AAB); Epilepsy (f; JFM; JTR); Fever (f; IED; JTR; UPH); Flu (f; MPB); Gangrene (f; EGG; RAR); Gastrosis (f; JFM); Gingivosis (f; JFM); Headache (f; JFM); High Blood Pressure (1; AAB); Leishmania (f; EGG); Malaria (f1; DAW; EGG; JTR; X12570769; X9134742); Miscarriage (f; JFM); Mucososis (f; AAB); Myalgia (f; DAV); Nausea (f; JFM); Ophthalmia (f; JFM); Orchitis (f; EGG; RAR); Pain (f; AAB; JFM; MPB); Pulmonosis (f; JFM); Pyorrhea (f; JFM); Rheumatism (f; DAW); Ciguatera (f; JTR); Snake Bite (f; EGG); Sores (f; EGG; JFM); Syphilis (f; JFM); Toothache (f; EGG; JFM; JTR); Tuberculosis (f; DLZ); VD (f; JFM); Worms (f; IED; JTR); Wounds (f; JFM).

Dosages:

FNFF = ! Young leaves eaten cooked (TAN).

  • Cubans use bark as febrifuge and to wash bruises and wounds; using the resin as pectoral (JTR).
  • Jamaicans use leaf and twigs in baths for fever and pain (JFM).
  • Latinos take bark decoction for diarrhea, dyspepsia, fever, gastrosis, hemorrhage, and nausea (JFM).
  • Latinos take 50 g bark in 500 cc sweetened water decoction, 100 cc 3–4×/day for epilepsy (JFM).
  • Latinos take resin tincture for elephantiasis and pulmonary tumors (JFM).
  • Latinos take sweetened bark infusion for menstrual inappetence and chronic headache (JFM).
  • Mexicans suggest 5 cups/day of the bark tea for cough (JTR).
  • Mexicans use leaf infusion for toothache, the root bark for epilepsy and fever (JFM; JTR).
  • Nicaraguan Garifuna take bark decoction for fever (IED).
  • Peruvians suggest washing leishmanic sores (“uta”) and wounds with bark decoction (EGG).
  • Peruvians take alcoholic bark macerate for malaria (EGG).

Downsides:

As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed two titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

The compound gedunin has significant antimalarial activity in vitro (X12570769). Wood extract antimalarial in vitro for Plasmodium falciparum (chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant clones), with gedunin exhibiting better activity than chloroquine (X9134742).

CEIBA (Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.) ++ BOMBACACEAE

 

Illustrations:

fig 153 (L&W); fig 172 (IED)

Synonyms:

Bombax guineense Thon.; B. occidentale Spren.; B. pentandrum L.; Ceiba anfractuosa (DC.) Maza; C. caribaea (DC.) A. Chev; C. casearia Medik; C. guineense; C. occidentalis (Spreng.) Burkh.; C. thonninggii; Eriodendron anfractuosum DC.; E. caribaeum; E. guineense; E. occidentale; E. oreintale; E. pentandrum Kurz.; Gossampinus alba Ham.; G. rumphii S. & E.; Xylon pentandrum (L.) Kun.; fide (EGG; USN).

Notes:

Big trees like this are often spiritually conceived as the link between earth and the heavens. My Peruvian confidants describe good and evil spirits therein; my Belizean Maya colleagues recognized only evil spirits. Beauvoir et al. (2001) note similar spiritual associations in Cuba, Dominica, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, and Surinam. Afro-Cuban religions associate the holy tree with the deities Oroko, Obatalá, and Oddúa, perhaps remembering the similar African Adansonia (which see). Ceiba is said to attract superior spirits and the spirits of the dead. Haitian vodou recognizes the tree as the preferred habitation of the “Ayida Wedo” and “Iwa Dambala” (VOD citing Hurbon, 1953). “The worship of [the Iwa] Loco overlaps with the worship of trees — in particular of the Ceiba ... Offerings for a sacred tree are placed in straw bags which are then hung in its branches ... [S]ouls of the big mapous (Ceiba pentandra) wander along roads at night, and their monstrous forms strike terror into the hearts of travelers. On certain nights of the year, the souls of the ‘wicked plants’ gather at the foot of a giant tree and hold a sort of sabbath there and discuss the crimes which they propose to commit” (VOD quoting Metraux, 1953). In the Soudanian region of Africa it is thought to be inhabited by “the divine Python, symbol of maleness.” For some Africans, the wandering serpentine roots extending beyond the buttresses are sacred as evoking a giant serpent. “Other trees are also considered sacred, but the Ceiba is the most important” (UPW). Most plant parts can be made into food; the floss is the “kapok” used in life jackets (JFM). Floss also used on darts for blowguns (DAV).

It will long be contentious whether Ceiba pentandra is endemic or introduced to Africa, America, and Asia. It’s clearly very important in all three continents. Burkill (1985) says the tree, said to be the largest in the West African region, is thought to be native to America, and perhaps wind distributed to Africa (I thought prevailing winds were in the opposite direction). Burkill concludes that they are all one species, C. pentandra var. caribea being the African and American variety, C. pentandra var. indica being the Asian variety (UPW). Likewise it is contentious whether its French name should be “fromager” or “fromagier.” Burkill (1985) gives nearly two pages of common names. I have taken my usual shortcut here and listed only one from Burkill (as UPW) for each country.

Common Names:

Ala (Tulu; KAB); Apurani (Kan.; KAB); Arbol Capoc (Sp.; USN); Arbol de Algodon (Ma.; Sp.; JFM); Arvore de la (Brazil; MPB); Arvore de Seda (Brazil; MPB); Banan (Bambara; Gabon; Ic.; Malinke; AVP; KAB); Banda (Gui.; UPW); Banta (Sierra Leone; UPW); Bantan (Dendi; KAB); Bantignei (Uv.; UPW); Barriguda de Espinjo (Brazil; MPB); Batigue (Sarracole; KAB); Belon (Guin; KAB); Bentegnievi (Fulah; KAB); Binteguie (Nuolof; KAB); Blo (Turca; KAB); Boboy (Tag.; KAB); Bois Coton (Fr.; Fr. Guy.; AVP; JFM); Bois Épineux (Fr.; KAB); Boju (Nig.; UPW); Bokuma (Congo; AVP); Bonga (Col.; Ma.; JFM); Bongo (Pan.; AVP; JFM); Bosanobo (Gambia; UPW); Bosongu (Congo; AVP); Buday (Serere; KAB); Bulaccastila (Pam.; KAB); Bulacdondol (Cebu; KAB); Buma (W. Cameroons; UPW); Buraga (Kan.; WOI); Busaira (Diola; KAB); Bwa Coton (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Bwa Coton Swa (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Cabellos de Angel (Ma.; JFM); Capas (Ilo.; KAB); Capoc (Fr.; Jolo; KAB; USN); Cay Gao (Annam; KAB); Cayo (Bicol; KAB); Ceiba (Cr.; Cuba; Dor.; Peru; Pr.; Scn.; AH2; AVP; EGG; USN); Ceiba de Garzon (Ma.; JFM); Ceiba de Lana (Ma.; JFM); Ceibo (Ma.; JFM); Ceibo Jabillo (Ma.; JFM); Ceibon (Ma.; JFM); Ceibo Yuca (Ma.; JFM); Chirayu (Sanskrit [1 of 8]; KAB); Corwood (Bwi.; AVP); Cotonnier Mapou (Ma.; JFM); Cotton Tree (Bel.; USN); Cumaca (Ven.; AVP); Cuypishtin (Ma.; JFM); Cybba (Ma.; Por.; AVP; JFM); Daldol (Vis.; KAB); Diulasso (Bobo; KAB); Egna (Lahu; KAB); Ekile (Ghana; UPW); Elavam (Sri.; KAB); Enya (Aowin; Sefwi; KAB); Enyainga (Nzima; KAB); Enyingna (Wassaw; KAB); Forgo (Niger; UPW); Formaggiere (It.; AVP); Fromager (Fr.; Guad.; Haiti; AVP; JFM; USN; VOD); Fromager Ceiba (Ma.; JFM); Fromager Commun (Fr.; UPW); Fromager des Antilles (Fr.; UPW); Fromager d’IndoMalaise (Fr.; UPW); Fulugonga (Congo; AVP); Fuma (Sa.; EGG; RAR); Gbe (Bussanke; KAB); Gna (Ivo.; UPW); Go (Sassandra; KAB) Gon Kok Nion (Ic.; KAB); Gounga (Gabon; Ic.; AVP); Guedee Hunsu (Savalu; KAB); Guma (Bariba; KAB); Gung (Grunchi; KAB); Gwe (Lib.; UPW); Habillo (Ma.; JFM); Hattian (Hindi; KAB); Huimba (Ma.; Peru; EGG; JFM); Hunti (Dahomey; KAB); Igarwala (Cuna; IED); Ilavam (Tam.; KAB); Ilavu (Mal.; KAB; WOI); Ilavum (Tam.; WOI); Imbul (Sin.; KAB); Inup (Bel.; USN); Jaxche (Maya; JFM); Kabu Kabes (Malaya; IHB); Kabu Kabu (Malaya; IHB); Kadami (Tel.; KAB); Kaddo Bbakkoe (Dutch; Sur.; AVP; JFM); Kankantrie (Ma.; Sur.; AVP; JFM); Kapok (Eng.; Haiti; CR2; USN; VOD); Kapokbaum (Ger.; USN); Kapokboom (Dutch; JFM); Kapok Floss (Eng.; KAB); Kapokier (Fr.; Haiti; JFM; UPW; USN; VOD); Kapokier du Togo (Fr.; UPW); Kapok Kapok (Malaya; IHB); Kapok Tree (Eng.; USN); Kap Panji (Sumatra; IHB); Kapu K (Sumatra; IHB); Katoenboom (Dutch; JFM); Katsavan (Khandesh; KAB); Katunbom (Dutch; JFM); Khatyan (Dec.; KAB); Kidem (Sen.; UPW); K Kabu (Malaya; IHB); Kokuiyu (Laos; KAB); Konde (Soussou; KAB); Kor (Cam.; KAB); Koton Mapou (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Kumaka (Ma.; JFM); Landihazobe (Hova; KAB); Len (KAB); Linihi (Dahomey; UPW); Lupina (Peru; EGG; SOU); Lupuna (Peru; Sp.; EGG; LOR); Lupuna Blanca (Peru; Sp.; EGG; LOR); Mae das Arvores (Por.; AVP); Mafumeira (Por.; UPW); Mapou (Haiti; Mart.; AVP; JFM; VOD); Mapou Coton (Haiti; AHL); Mapou Zonbi (Creole; Haiti; VOD); M Ngkapas (Malaya; IHB); Mocmayn (Ma.; JFM); Moraingy (Sakalave; KAB); Mox (Ma.; JFM); Mulende (Congo; AVP); Mullilavu (Mal.; WOI); Mu Mien (Taiwan; AJC20:135); Ngui Noi (Thai; IHB); N’gwe (Guro; KAB); Nun (Thai; IHB); Nun Tal (Thai; IHB); Nuo (Ma.; JFM); Nye (Baule; KAB); Nyina (Fanti; KAB); Ogufe (Nago; KAB); Onyaitso (Ga; KAB); Onyang (Ashanti; Twi; KAB); Ouatier (Réunion; KAB); Pachote (Ma.; JFM); Paina (Ma.; JFM); Paina Lisa (Brazil; MPB); Painera (Ma.; JFM); Pandhari (Mar.; KAB); Paniki (Ulwa; ULW); Panji (Sumatra; IHB); Panjumaram (Madras; KAB); Panya (Ulwa; ULW); Parana (Ma.; JFM); Peem (Ma.; JFM); Pi (Bobo; KAB); Piim (Ma.; JFM); Pishtin (Ma.; JFM); Piton (Ma.; JFM); Pochota (Ma.; JFM); Pochote (Ma.; JFM); Pochotl (Ma.; JFM); Pochotle (Ma.; JFM); Polão (Por.; UPW); Polião (Por.; UPW); Puchuta (Ma.; JFM); Randu (Java; Malaya; Sunda; IHB); Rimi (Hausa; Sudan; AVP; KAB); Rumbum (Gui. Bissau; UPW); Safed Simal (Hindi; WOI); Salmali (Mar.; WOI); Sambal (Urdu; KAB); Saquisaqui (Col.; IED); Schwetsimul (Ben.; KAB; WOI); Serigne (Tagonana; KAB); Silk Cotton Tree (Eng.; USN; VOD); Sterculea (It.; AVP); Sumauma (Brazil; MPB); Sumauma da Varzea (Por.; JFM); Sumaumeira (Brazil; MPB); Sumaumeira de Varzea (Brazil; MPB); Sveta Salmali (Sanskrit; WOI); Tella Buragi (Tel.; WOI); Thinbawle (Burma; KAB); Tídibu Maúru (Garifuna; IED); Tiou (Wele; KAB); Toborache (Ma.; JFM); Toborochi (Bol.; AVP); Toborqachi (Bol.; AVP); Toxapu (Cashibo; EGG; RAR); Tunuum (Ma.; JFM); Unup (Ma.; JFM); White Silk Cotton Tree (Eng.; USN); Wuti (Awuna; Ewe; Krepi; KAB); Xiloxochitl (Ma.; JFM); Xono (Amahuaca; EGG; RAR); Yaaxche (Ma.; JFM); Yaga Xeni (Ma.; JFM); Yaxche (Bel.; JFM; USN).

Activities:

Alterative (f; UPW); Analgesic (f; ULW); Antiangiogenic (1; X12601670); Antiedemic (1; AJC20:135); Antiinflammatory (1; AJC20:135); Antiprostaglandin (1; COX); Antiseptic (f1; VOD; WO3); Antisickling (1; X17113273); Antispasmodic (f; UPW); Aphrodisiac (f; IHB); Astringent (f; EGG; IED; ULW); Bactericide (1; KAB); Contraceptive (f; VOD); COX-1-Inhibitor (1; COX); COX-2-Inhibitor (1; COX); Curare (f; UPW); Demulcent (f; KAB; WO2); Depurative (f; KAB); Diuretic (f; DAV; EGG; ULW; WO2); Emetic (f; DAV; EGG; UPW; WO2); Emollient (f; UPW); Febrifuge (f; DAV; GMJ; VOD); Hypoglycemic (f1; JE84:139; WO2; X12648806); Laxative (f; UPW; WO2); Litholytic (f; IHB); Propecic (f; IED); Sedative (f; UPW); Tonic (f; WO2); Trypanocide (1; X16188409).

Indications:

Alopecia (f; IED); Alzheimer’s (1; COX; FNF); Anasarca (f; IHB); Arthrosis (1; COX; FNF); Ascites (f; IHB); Asthma (f1; COX; IHB); Bacteria (1; KAB; WO3); Blennorrhea (f; UPW); Boils (f; KAB); Cancer (f1; COX; FNF; JLH; KAB); Cardiopathy (f; UPW); Catarrh (f; IHB); Childbirth (f; JFM; VOD); Colds (f; IHB); Colic (f; UPW); Conjunctivosis (f; MPB; UPW); Constipation (f; UPW; WO2); Coughs (1; COX); Cramps (f; UPW); Cystosis (f; IHB); Debility (f; IED); Dermatosis (f; UPW); Diabetes (f1; JE84:139; UPW; VOD; WO2; X12648806); Dropsy; (f; AHL); Dysmenorrhea (1; COX; IED); Dysuria (f; KAB; WO2); Edema (f1; AJC20:135; UPW; VOD); Enterosis (f; IHB; KAB; WO2); Erysipelas (f; JFM; VOD); Fatigue (f; UPW); Fever (f; DAV; GMJ; VOD); Furuncles (f; UPW); Gastrosis (f; UPW); Gingivosis (f; UPW); Gonorrhea (f; UPW); Headache (f; AHL); Hemorrhoids (f; JFM); Hepatosis (f; KAB); Hernia (f; UPW); Hoarseness (f; IHB; VOD); Hyperglycemia (f1; JE84:139; WO2; X12648806); Impotence (f; IHB); Inebriation (f; IHB; KAB); Infection (f1; KAB; VOD; WO3); Infertility (f; UPW); Inflammation (1; AJC20:135; COX; IED); Insanity (f; UPW); Insomnia (f; UPW); Klebsiella (1; WO3); Leprosy (f; KAB; UPW); Lochiorrhea (f; KAB; WO2); Lumbago (f; UPW); Migraine (f; KAB; WO2); Obesity (f; KAB); Pain (f1; COX; IED; KAB; ULW); Plague (f; KAB); Polyps (f; JLH); Rheumatism (f; UPW); Rhinosis (f; JLH); Rickets (f; UPW); Shigella (1; WO3); Sickle-Cell (1; X17113273); Sore Throat (f; VOD); Splenosis (f; KAB); Sprains (f; JFM; VOD); Stones (f; IHB); Swelling (f1; AJC20:135; UPW; VOD); Syphilis (f; IHB); Trypanosoma (1; X16188409); Urethrosis (f; IHB); VD (f; IHB; KAB); Vertigo (f; IED; KAB; VOD; WO2); Whitlow (f; UPW); Wounds (f; JFM); Yellow Fever (f; VOD).

Dosages:

FNFF = ! Young leaves, buds, and fruits eaten like okra. Seeds roasted and eaten, used in soups or fermented into “kantong”; presscake used in making some types of tempeh. Seed oil used in cooking. Flowers and dried stamens also eaten, the latter in curries; used in coconut milk sauce. Ashes used as salt substitute (FAC; TAN; UPW).

  • Asian Indians suggest the root juice for diabetes (KAB).
  • Ayurvedic suggest the gum for blood disorders, cancer, hepatosis, obesity, pain, and splenosis (KAB).
  • Brazilians suggest the sap in conjunctivosis (MPB).
  • Cambodians prescribe the fruit in migraine and vertigo (KAB).
  • Filipinos use bark as aphrodisiac (IHB).
  • Haitians bathe or poultice leaf decoction onto bites, boils, dermatosis, erysipelas, fatigue, infections, and sprains, drinking the tea for cough, hoarseness, and sore throat (VOD).
  • Haitians mix fruit pulp with 1/3 lemon juice as antiseptic in nervousness and yellow fever (VOD).
  • Haitians use a compress or lotion of the leaves to alleviate dizziness (VOD).
  • Haitians use tender shoot decoction as a contraceptive (VOD). Conversely (perhaps because of the tree’s rapid growth, or more probably the fecundity of the seed), the bark sap is given to sterile women to promote conception in Congo, Ivory Coast, and Upper Volta (UPW).
  • Javanese take bark, with areca, nutmeg, and sugar candy as a diuretic for bladder stones (IHB).
  • Javanese take leaf tea for catarrh, cough, enterosis, hoarseness, and urethritis (IHB).
  • Latinos apply decoction (4 g bark/l water, boil 15 min) to leg ulcers and hemorrhoids (JFM).
  • Malayans use leaf decoction or tea in childbirth, fever, and syphilis (IHB).
  • Singaporans pound leaves with onions and turmeric for cough (IHB).
  • Yunani suggest the gum or roots for biliousness, boils, blood disorders, dysuria, fever, gonorrhea, impotence, and leprosy (KAB).

Downsides:

Not covered (AHP; KOM; PH2). Kapok can irritate the skin and especially most mucosa, eye, ear, and throat (UPW; X911688). As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed three titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

Vavain 3′-o-beta-d-glucoside and its aglycon, vavain, isolated from the bark, together with flavan-3-ol, and (+)-catechin. Vavain 3′-o-beta-d-glucoside, vavain, and (+)-catechin exhibited IC50 values of 381, 97, and 80 μM (indomethacin, IC50 1.1 μM). (+)-catechin is still, however, only 1/80th as antiinflammatory as indomethacin. Aqueous stem bark extract reduced parasitemia in animals (150 mg/kg b.w. 2×/day for 3 days) (X16188409). Aqueous bark extract hypoglycemic, reducing plasma glucose level in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats (X12648806). Methanol stem extract inhibited angiogenesis 87.5% at 100 μg/ml (X12601670).

BUTTONBUSH (Cephalanthus occidentalis L.) + RUBIACEAE

 

Illustrations:

p 190 (AUS)

Notes:

In the 1890s even Parke-Davis marketed the fluid extract as aperient, diuretic, febrifuge, and tonic; eclectics spoke highly of it. But it dropped off the radar. Sharing many alkaloids with, and, except for the lianoid habits and thorns, resembling the famous cat’s claw of Peru, this plant deserves reinvestigation, but it is not endangered like so many species in the tropical rainforests. Out of the tropics, there aren’t too many shrubby members of the coffee family Rubiaceae. The button bush is rather unique in being both temperate and almost aquatic. Several members of the coffee family, like Indian mulberry, Morinda spp. and Peru’s “una de gato,” Uncaria spp., have been suggested to have antitumor activity. Dr. Cragg of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), who ran “una de gato” through the new cancer screen, agreed to check out our marsh buttonbush, Cephalanthus occidentalis, which shares several compounds with Uncaria. Cephalanthus was collected for the NCI screen on July 8, 1992, from the beaver pond near I-95 at Beltsville MD.

Long-tongued butterflies and bees are the chief pollinators. Eastman (1992) describes vividly the timed brush pollination (like that in willows); the globose flower may have 200 highly aromatic bisexual flowers. First the flowers are functionally male and pollen sheds on immature pistils. Then pistils elongate and the pollen there brushes off on insect visitors. After that pollen has been brushed off, the pistil matures, getting sticky, and accepts pollen from new visitors. Buttonbushes are great places for seeking butterflies, especially two skippers, the black dash (Atrytone conspicua) and the golden-banded skipper (Autochton cellus). Black and tiger swallowtails are frequent, along with bees, beetles, flies, and wasps. Several caterpillars feed on foliage, Acronicta, Callosamia, Darapsa, and Eudryas. Gall-gnat larvae (Rhabdophaga) may cause swollen stem galls. Bitterns, bobwhites, ducks, and rails eat the seed; beaver and muskrat the stems; deer the foliage (EAS; MZN).

Common Names:

Akkasoli (Choctaw; AUS); Aroma de Ciénega (Cuba; AUS; JTR); Aroma de Laguna (Cuba; AUS; JTR); Bald Elder (Eng.; TOM); Bois de Plomb (Canada; Fr.; AUS); Box Bush (Eng.; BUR); Buttonball Shrub (Eng.; EAS); Buttonbush (Eng.; USN); Button Tree (Eng.; BUR); Button Willow (Eng.; BUR; HNI; USN); Buttonwood Shrub (Eng.; BUR); Cahuapate (Nahuatl; AUS); Clavellina de Ciénega (Cuba; AUS; JTR); Common Buttonbush (Eng.; USN); Crane Willow (Eng.; AUS; EAS); Crouper (Eng.; EAS); Crouper Bush (Eng.; BUR); Ee-Toñ-Bà-a (Kiowa; AUS); Globe Flower (Eng.; AUS; EAS); Halpáti:Hosô:Tî (Miccosukee; AUS); Honey Balls (Eng.; AUS; BUR; EAS); Honey Bells (Eng.; USN); Honey Plant (Eng.; EAS); Jasmin (Mex.; Sp.; AUS); Jazmín (Mex.; JTR); Knucklebrush (Eng.; EAS); Little Snowball (Eng.; EAS); Mimbre (Mex.; AUS); Mimbro (Mex.; AUS); Mountain Globe Flower (Eng.; BUR); Notêm Pisa (Choctaw; AUS); Pinball (Eng.; EAS); Pincushion Flower (Eng.; AUS); Pond Dogwood (Eng.; AUS; BUR; EAS; TOM); River Bush (Eng.; EAS); Rosa de San Juan (Mex.; Sp.; Tex.; AUS); Sakcó Imittó (Koasati, AUS); Sakco’Meto (Creek; AUS); Shakchikoyyo (Chickasaw; AUS); Shakchimitti (Chickasaw; AUS); Snowball (Eng.; AUS); Swampwood (Eng.; BUR); Swan Dogwood (Eng.; BUR); Uvero (Mex.; AUS; JTR); Whiteball (Eng.; BUR); Wild Licorice (Eng.; BUR); Yo Yada (Zapotec; AUS). (Nscn).

Activities:

Analgesic (1; FNF; IWU); Antiarrhythmic (1; X12546715); Antiischemic (1; X12546715); Bitter (f1; TOM); Calcium-Blocker (1; X12546715); Cathartic (f; CEB); Collyrium (f; DEM); Convulsant (1; FNF; TOM); Diaphoretic (f; BUR; CEB); Diuretic (f; BUR; CEB; DEM); Emetic (f1; CEB; DEM; TOM); Expectorant (f; AUS); Febrifuge (f; CEB; DEM); Hemolytic (1; FNF; TOM); Hemostat (f1; AUS; FNF); Hypotensive (1; X14668978); Laxative (f; CEB); Paralytic (1; TOM); Poison (1; FAH); Sedative (1; FNF); Tonic (f; CEB; JTR; TOM); Uterotonic (1; FNF); Vasodilator (1; X14668978).

Indications:

Ague (f; EAS); Arrhythmia (1; X12546715); Asthma (f; AUS; TOM); Bleeding (f1; AUS; DEM; FNF); Blennorrhagia (f; JTR); Cardiopathy (1; FNF; X14668978); Colds (f; CEB); Conjunctivosis (f; FAH); Constipation (f; CEB); Consumption (f; AUS); Coughs (f; CEB; FAH; HNI; JTR); Cramps (f; CEB; HNI); Debility (f; DEM; FAH); Dermatosis (f; AUS; JTR); Diarrhea (f; DEM); Dropsy (f; AUS); Dysentery (f; AUS; DEM; FAH); Dysmenorrhea (f; CEB); Dysuria (f; DEM); Fever (f1; CEB; DEM; EAS; FNF); Gallstones (f; TOM); Gastrosis (f; DEM); Gravel (f; CEB); Headache (f; AUS; FAH); Hepatosis (f; TOM); High Blood Pressure (1; FNF; X14668978); Inflammation (f; EAS); Insomnia (1; FNF); Ischemia (1; X12546715); Jaundice (f; DEM); Kidney Stones (f; EAS); Malaria (f; AUS; BUR; CEB; EAS; FAH; JTR; TOM); Metrorrhagia (f; CEB; HNI); Myosis (f; DEM); Nausea (f; DEM); Nephrosis (f; EAS; FAH); Ophthalmia (f; DEM); Pain (f1; CEB; FNF; HNI; IWU); Palsy (f; CEB; FAH); Paralysis (f; JTR); Pertussis (f; AUS); Pharyngosis (f; CEB); Pleurisy (f; FAH); Proctosis (f; DEM); Pulmonosis (f; BUR; CEB); Rheumatism (f; AUS; DEM); Stomachache (f; AUS; DEM); Stones (f; EAS; FAH); Strangury (f; AUS); Syphilis (f; AUS; JTR); Thrombus (1; FNF); Toothache (f; DEM; FAH; HNI); Tremors (f; DEM); VD (f; AUS; BUR).

Dosages:

FNFF = X. Boil a handful or cup of leaves and stems 5 min and drink 3 cups/day (CEB); boil 6-inch root (ca. 1″ diam.) ½ hr in a cup of water, take several cupful/day (CEB).

  • Chickasaw applied warm root poultice to the head for eye ailments (DEM).
  • Chippewa take 3 cups/day boiled stems and leaves for cramps, metrorrhagia, and pain (HNI).
  • Choctaw chewed the bark for toothache, using the bark decoction as collyrium (DEM; HNI).
  • Choctaw use the plant a/o bark for dysentery, fever, ophthalmia, and as a tonic (AUS; DEM).
  • Creek Indians mixed with mullein for coughs (HNI).
  • Fox Indians used inner bark as emetic (HNI).
  • Kiowa use the plant a/o root decoction as a hemostat (AUS; DEM).
  • Koasati took leaf decoction for rheumatism, the root decoction for enlarged muscles (DEM).
  • Louisianans used the bitter plant for malaria (AUS).
  • Panhandlers steeped the roots in whiskey for asthma and dropsy (AUS).
  • Seminoles used for dysentery, headache, stomachache, and water retention (AUS).

Downsides:

Leaves can poison grazing animals (BUR; FAH). Cephalanthine may cause violent vomiting, corpuscle destruction, convulsion, and paralysis. As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed 33 titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

Cephalanthin is convulsant, emetic, and hemolytic; cephalin is hemostat; rhynchophylline is anesthetic (IWU), antiaggregant (PH2), antihypertensive (IWU), antipyretic (JBH), antithrombic (PH2), cardiodepressant (IWU), dopaminergic (PH2), febrifuge (PJB1(2):284), hypotensive (JBH), myocontractant (IWU), neuroparalytic, protisticide (IWU), sedative, serotoninergic (PH2), uterotonic, and vasodilator (X14668978).

VIRGIN’S WEED (Cestrum hediondum Dun) + SOLANACEAE

 

Notes:

Uses and colloquial names of C. auriculatum & C. parquii overlap.

Common Names:

Hierba de la Virgin (Peru; Sp.; LOR); Hierba del Cancer (Peru; SOU); Hierba Hedionda (Peru; SOU); Hierba Santa (Peru; Sp.; LOR; MDD); Holy Weed (Eng.; DAV); Nyucjau (Peru; SOU); Virgin’s Weed (Eng.; DAV).

Activities:

Febrifuge (f; SOU); Sudorific (f; SOU); Vulnerary (f; RAR).

Indications:

Alopecia (f; SOU); Colds (f; SOU); Colic (f; SOU); Dandruff (f; SOU); Dermatosis (f; SOU); Eruption (f; SOU); Fever (f; SOU); Gastrosis (f; SOU); Measles (f; SOU); Wounds (f; SOU).

Dosages:

FNFF = ? Sudorific decoction drunk for colds; taken in enemas for colic (SOU). Tea used in baths for fever; the infusion for dandruff and dermatosis (SOU).

PILL-BEARING SPURGE (Chamaesyce hirta (L.) Millsp.) + EUPHORBIACEAE

Illustrations:

pl 846A (KAB); pl 150B (DAG)

Synonyms:

Euphorbia hirta L.; E. pilulifera L.; fide (USN).

Common Names:

Aankhle Jhar (Nepal; NPM); Achchegida (Kan.; KAB; NAD); Ahinkodze (Awuna; KAB); Aidinono (Betsileo; KAB); Akubaa (Nzima; KAB); Amampatchaiarisi (Tam.; KAP; WOI); Ambin Jantan (Malaya; IHB; KAB; KAP); Ammam Pachcharisi (Tam.; NAD); Ammanpachoharis (Tam.; KAP); Amum Patchaiaressi (Tam.; NAD); Ara Tanah (Malaya; IHB); Asthma Herb (Eng.; Ocn.; AH2); Asthma Plant (Eng.; JFM; USN); Australian Asthma Herb (Eng.; JFM); Australian Asthma Weed (Eng.; ADP); Barakeru (Ben.; NAD); Barasu (Mah.; NAD); Baro Kheruie (Ben.; WOI); Batobatones (Tag.; KAB); Bidari (Tel.; NAD); Bidarie (Tel.; ADP; WOI); Bolobotones (Pam.; KAB); Boro Keruie (Ben.; ADP); Botobotones (Pi.; KAB); Bovi (Vis.; KAB); Burakeru (Ben.; KAB); Byauli (Chepang; NPM); Caá Cambuí (Brazil; MPB); Caá Cica (Brazil; MPB); Cat’s Hair (Eng.; NAD); Chanca Piedra Negra (Sp.; MD2); Checkweed (Eng.; JFM); Chhumen (Tamang; NPM); Chickenweed (Bel.; Eng.; BNA; JFM); Chimphar Jhar (Gurung; Nepal; NPM); Coliflorcito (Sp.; JFM); Creeping Hairy Spurge (Eng.; JFM); Dadakiriya (Sin.; KAP); Da Fei Yang Cao (Pin.; DAA); Dapranchhu (Tamang; NPM); Didajar (Nepal); Didhe Aainar (Majhi; NPM); Dudajar (Nepal; KAP); Dudali (Mar.; WOI); Dudeli (Guj.; ADP; KAB; WOI); Dudhali (Mah.; NAD); Dudhe (Nepal; Rai; NPM); Dudhe Jhar (Nepal; NPM); Dudhi (Guj.; Hindi; Yunani; KAP; NAD; TAN; WOI); Dudhi Jhar (Magar; NPM); Dudhiya (Mooshar; Rai; NPM); Dudhiya Jhar (Danuwar; NPM); Dudnali (Mar.; KAB); Dudurli (Kon.; KAB; NAD); Dugadhika (Sanskrit; KAP); Entrecasadas (Peru; EGG); Erva Andorinha (Brazil; MPB); Erva de Santa Luzia (Brazil; MPB); Euphorbia (Eng.; CR2); Garden Euphorbia (Eng.; Ocn.; AH2); Garden Spurge (Eng.; USN); Gělang Susu (Java; IHB); Gěndong Anak (Java; IHB); Gnenoba (Tamang; NPM); Golondrina (Pan.; Peru; DAV; EGG; JFM; SOU; TBC); Gordon (India; KAB); Goverdhan (Mah.; NAD); Grande Mal Nommèe (Fr. Guiana; KAB); Hanuman (Chepang; NPM); Herbe a Pilules (Ma.; JFM); Herbe Jean Robert (Fr.; KAB); Hierba Colorado (Bol.; DLZ); Hierba de la Golondrina (Peru; EGG; SOU); Hierba de Paloma (Ma.; JFM); Hierba de Pollo (Pan.; JFM; TBC); Jean Robert (Réunion; KAB); Jotane Jhar (Nepal; NPM); Kanguil (Nepal; NPM); Kělusan (Malaya; IHB); Kěrěmak Susu (Malaya; IHB); Kharen (Ben.; KAP); Kiritala (Sin.; KAB); Kodasing (Mun.; KAB); Kukon Kukon (Java; IHB); Laldudhi (Hindi); Lanchang (Malaya; IHB); Leche Leche (Bol.; DLZ); Leitera (Ma.; JFM); Magaarjundudhi (Gwalior; NAD); Makaman (Tamang; NPM); Malcasá (Dor.; AHL); Málcasada (Dor.; AHL); Mal Nommèe (Creole; Fr.; Haiti; AHL; JFM; VOD); Mal Nommèe Vraie (Fr.; JFM); Malome (Ma.; JFM); Malomin (Haiti; AHL); Malonmen (Creole; Fr.; VOD); Mapempe (Jam.; JLH); Marcasá (Dor.; AHL); Milk Tea (Jam.; JFM; JLH); Milkweed (Bar.; Jam.; JFM; JLH); Mothidudhi (Mar.; ADP; WOI); Nam Nom Rācha Sī (Thai; IHB); Nanabala (Tel.; KAB); Nanabalu (Tel.; NAD); Nanangkaän (Sunda; IHB); Nangkaän (Sunda; IHB); Nargajuni (Sanskrit); Nayeti (Bom.; Mah.; NAD; WOI); Nelapalai (Mal.; Tel.; ADP; KAB; NAD; WOI); Ngonderamango (Ubangi; JLH); Nononkurchiya (Hausa; KAB); Notsigbee (Ewe; KAB); Palavi (Sri.; KAB); Patchaiyarissi (Tam.; KAB); Patikan (Java; IHB); Pempe (Jam.; JFM; JLH); Pill-Bearing Spurge (Eng.; Scn.; AH2; USN); Pillenwolfsmilch (Ger.; KAP); Pimpinela (Ma.; JFM); Pusitoa (Sanskrit; KAB); Qora Lichi Lichi (Aym.; DLZ); Quebra Pedra (Ma.; JFM); Queensland Asthma Herb (Eng.; JFM; VOD); Raktavinduchada (Sanskrit; NAD); Ratango (Nepal; NPM); Reddinanabrolu (Tel.; WOI); Rhatulo (Nepal; NPM); Sabana de la Virgen (Sp.; JFM); Saca Teta (Pan.; TBC); Sheer-i-Geyah (Iran; KAP); Shima Nishiki Sô (Japan; TAN); Snakeweed (Eng.; NPM); Sosó Shikuiji (Ese’eja.; MD2); Taiwannishikiso (Japan; KAP); Taleno (Gurung; NPM); Tea (Ma.; JFM); Tianguis (Ma.; JFM); Tikapara (Chepang; NPM); Ti Lait (Fr.; JFM); Ti Lèt (Creole; Fr.; VOD); Tripa de Pollo (Sp.; JFM); Trishubba Mran (Tamang; NPM); Urpai Micuna (Peru; EGG; RAR; SOU); Urpai Mucuna (Ma.; JFM); Wartweed (Ma.; JFM); Xanabmucuy (Ma.; JFM); Yawan Bero Keshpin (Shipibo/Conibo; MD2); Yerba Colorado (Peru; DAV; EGG; SOU); Yerba de Sapo (Sp.; JFM); Yerba Golondrina (Sp.; JFM); Yerba Lechera (Dor.; AHL); Yu Tchou Ts’ao (China; KAB).

Activities:

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor (1; DIA); Amebicide (1; KAP; VOD; X10228613); Analgesic (1; HDN; MPB; X1896520); Anthelmintic (f1; KAP; NPM); Antiaggregant (1; HDN); Antiallergic (1; X16557622); Anticancer (1; KAP); Anticonvulsant (1; HDN); Antidiabetic (1; DIA); Antidiarrheal (1; X10228613; X10782488; X16257136; X8095537); Antiedemic (f1; HDN; X16557622; X1896520); Antiemetic (f; HDN; KAB); Antifertility (1; X14610373); Antihistaminic (1; X16557622); Antiinflammatory (f1; HDN; MPB; X16557622; X1896520); Antileukemic (1; HDN; KAP); Antimalarial (1; X15182900); Antiplasmodial (1; X10624878; X15182900); Antiplatelet (1; HDN); Antiprostaglandin (1; HDN); Antiseptic (1; HDN; MD2; UPW; X16730921); Antispasmodic (1; VOD; X10228613; X10782488); Antiviral (1; HDN); Anxiolytic (1; HDN; MPB; X1973750); Aphrodisiac (f; HDN; VOD); Astringent (f; KAB); Bactericide (1; HDN; X10228613; X16730921; X9395690); Bronchodilator (f; KAB); Bronchorelaxant (f1; NAD; UPW); Carcinogenic (1; HDN); Cardiodepressant (f1; KAB; NAD); Cicatrizant (f; HDN; MD2); Curare (f; HDN); Cytotoxic (1; HDN); Diuretic (f1; EGG; HDN; VOD; X10350369; X8847884); Emetic (1; KAB); Expectorant (f; KAP); Febrifuge (f1; KAB; MPB; X1896520); Gram(+)-icide (1; HDN); Gram(–)-icide (1; HDN); Hemostat (f; KAB; MD2); Hydragogue (f; MPB); Hypoglycemic (1; DIA; HDN; KAP); Hypotensive (f; VOD); Immunosuppressive (1; X16557622); Insecticide (1; VOD); Irritant (1; HDN); Lactagogue (f1; ADP; DEP; HDN; KAB; UPW; VOD); Laxative (f; NPM); Litholytic (f; JFM); Mastogenic (1; HDN; IED); Molluscacide (1; X15722098); Myorelaxant (1; HDN; KAP); Narcotic (f; AHL; DEP; KAB); Oxytocic (f; HDN); Parasiticide (f; NAD); Plasmodicide (1; X15182900); Purgative (f; EGG; UPW); Respirodepressant (1; KAB); Respirostimulant (1; HDN); Sedative (f1; KAB; X1973750); Stimulant (f; UPW); Vulnerary (f; MPB).

Indications:

Acne (f; NPM); Adenopathy (f; KAB); Alactea (f; HDN); Allergies (f1; HDN; X16557622); Amebiasis (1; HDN; KAP; X10782488); Ancylostomiasis (f; HDN); Anemia (f; HDN); Angina (f; UPW); Anxiety (1; HDN); Aphtha (f; KAB); Arthrosis (f; DAV; EGG); Asthenia (f; HDN); Asthma (f; ADP; DEP; DIA; KAB; KAP; NPM; VOD; X15722098); Bacteria (1; HDN; X10228613; X8847884; X9395690); Blennorrhagia (f; HDN); Boils (f; NPM; SKJ); Bronchosis (f; ADP; AHL; DIA; KAB; KAP; NPM); Burns (f; HDN); Cancer (1; JLH; MPI); Cardiopathy (f; NAD); Cataracts (f; EGG); Chafing (f; NPM); Childbirth (f; HDN; X17362507); Colds (f; KAP); Colic (f; ADP; KAB; MD2; MPI; NAD; WOI; X15722098); Conjunctivosis (f; HDN); Convulsions (1; HDN); Corns (f; JLH); Corneosis (f; HDN; IHB; MPB); Coryza (f; NAD); Coughs (f; DEP; KAB; KAP; X15722098); Cystosis (f; JFM); Dermatosis (f; ADP; JFM; NPM; SKJ); Diabetes (1; DIA; HDN); Diarrhea (f1; HDN; KAB; MD2; VOD; X10228613; X10782488; X16257136; X8095537); Dislocation (f; MD2; NPM); Dysentery (f1; ADP; HDN; KAB; KAP; VOD; WOD; X15722098); Dyslactea (f1; ADP; HDN; UPW); Dysuria (f; JFM); Edema (f1; HDN; KAB; X10350369; X1896520); Enterosis (f1; KAB; KAP; MD2; X16730921); Escherichia (1; HDN; X16730921); Fever (f; HDN; JFM); Flu (f; JFM); Fracture (f; MD2); Fungus (f; NAD; SKJ; UPW); Gastrosis (f; HDN); Gonorrhea (f; DEP; IHB; JFM); Gravel (f; JFM); Guinea Worm (f; HDN); Hay Fever (f; HDN); Headache (f; HDN); Heartburn (f; HDN); Helicobacter (1; X15681161); Hematachezia (f; MD2); Hepatosis (f; HDN); High Blood Pressure (f1; HDN; JFM; VOD; X10350369); High Cholesterol (f1; X17040567); Hookworm (f; HDN); Impotence (f; HDN; VOD); Infection (f1; HDN; MD2; NPM; X15182900; X16730921); Infertility (f; X17362507); Inflammation (f1; KAB; X1896520); Insomnia (1; HDN; X1973750); Jaundice (f; HDN); Leukemia (1; HDN; KAP); Leukorrhea (f; ADP); Malaria (1; X10624878; X15182900); Mastalgia (f; ADP); Measles (f; HDN; JFM); Metrorrhagia (f; HDN; MD2); Mucososis (f; KAB); Mycosis (f; UPW); Nephrosis (f; JFM; SKJ); Ophthalmia (f; JLH; KAB; MPB); Otosis (f; NPM); Pain (f1; ADP; HDN; MPB; NPM; X1896520); Parasites (f; HDN; NAD); Proteus (1; X16730921); Pseudomonas (1; X16730921); Puerperium (f; ADP); Respirosis (f; KAB; VOD); Rheumatism (f; DAV; EGG); Ringworm (f; NAD; SKJ; UPW); Salmonella (1; HDN); Scabies (f; HDN); Shigella (1; HDN; X8847884; X9395690); Snake Bite (f; HDN; MPB); Sores (f; KAB); Staphylococcus (1; HDN; X16730921); Stings (f; HDN); Stomatosis (f; SKJ); Stress (1; HDN; X1973750); Sties (f; UPW); Swelling (f1; HDN; X1896520); Threadworm (f; UPW); Thrush (f; HDN); Tinea (f; HDN); Trichomonas (f; VOD); Ulcers (1; X15681161); Urethrosis (f; HDN); Urogenitosis (f; ADP; KAB; WOI); VD (f; DEP; UPW); Viruses (1; HDN; KAP); Vomiting (f; DEP; KAB); Warts (f; KAB; MPI; SOU); Whitlow (f; UPW); Worms (f; JFM; KAB; KAP); Wounds (f; JLH; MD2; NPM).

Dosages:

FNFF = ! Greens eaten in parts of Africa and Asia (NPM; UPW). Young leafy buds eaten in times of scarcity (TAN). Leaves eaten as a vegetable (WOI). 0.12–0.3 ml liquid extract (CAN); 120–300 mg herb, as tea (CAN); 0.6–2 ml herb tincture (CAN); 28–56 ml plant decoction (KAP); 14–28 ml plant tea (KAP).

  • Australians take 1 tsp as asthma remedy (1.5 g plant/0.5 liter water) (JFM).
  • Australians use to treat high blood pressure and edema (X10350369).
  • Brazilians use the decoction for asthma and gonorrhea (IHB).
  • Caribbean scientists report the plant is antiamebic, antiasthmatic, and antispasmodic (VOD).
  • Caribs use for childbirth and infertility (X17362507).
  • Dominican Caribs take the plant decoction for constipation (VOD).
  • Guadelupans and Martiniquans take plant as antiasthmatic, diuretic, and febrifuge (JFM).
  • Guatemalans apply the sap to granulated eyelids and skin afflictions (JFM).
  • Guatemalans take decoction for bronchosis and gonorrhea (JFM).
  • Haitians take the leaf juice or decoction for asthma and other respiratory problems (VOD).
  • Haitians take the shoot tea for diarrhea and dysentery (VOD).
  • Haitians use the leaf decoction as diuretic, lactagogue, and trichomonicide (VOD).
  • Indonesians apply crushed plant to tumors and wounds (JLH).
  • In India used for asthma, colic, cough, dysentery, and genito-urinary diseases (X15722098).
  • Madre de Dios Peruvians plaster leaves onto dislocations or fractures (MD2).
  • Madre de Dios Peruvians take plant decoction for colic, diarrhea, and enterosis (MD2).
  • Malayans drop the latex in eyes for conjunctivitis and ulcerated cornea (IHB).
  • Mayans take leaf decoction for cystosis, dysentery, gravel, kidney stones, and nephrosis (JFM).
  • Nepalese chew the flower heads for headache (NPM).
  • Nepalese drop the latex in eyes for cataracts, conjunctivosis, and corneal opacities, into the ear for ear infections; applying also to abscesses, boils, cuts, pimples, and wounds (NPM).
  • Nepalese smoke the dry plant for asthma (NPM).
  • Nepalese suggest 4 tsp plant juice 2×/day as analgesic and febrifuge (NPM).
  • Peruvians suggest the latex for removing cataracts (EGG).
  • Sukumas and Swahilis use as a diuretic, including high blood pressure and edema (X10350369).
  • Trinidadans take decoction for fever, flu, high blood pressure, measles, and urinary burning (JFM).

Downsides:

Newall, Anderson, and Phillipson (1996) caution because of its effect on smooth muscle activity, in vitro; its use in pregnancy and lactation is to be avoided. Aqueous extracts caused varying testicular degeneration and reduced mean seminiferous tubular diameter in rats, suggesting deleterious effects on testes and accessory organs of rats; caution should therefore be exercised (X14610373). As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed 19 titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

Oral doses (50 mg powdered leaf) in female guinea pigs caused breast enlargement and increased flow of milk 15% (HDN). Ghanian women, taking the plant with oilpalm kernels, produce more milk in 24 hr (UPW). Of 38 used as antidiarrheal agents, only 8 plant extracts (17.39%) proved antidiarrheal by both antibacterial, antiamebic, and antispasmodic action (X10228613). Plant extract bactericidal, especially for Shigella flexneri and Vibrio cholerae, with (MBC < 100 μg/ml) (X9395690). 95% ethanol extract of aerial parts exhibited antihistaminic, antiinflammatory, and immuno-suppressive activity (X16557622). Aqueous stem bark and leaf extract strongly molluscacidal (X15722098). Methanolic plant extract (IC50 < 3 μg/ ml) antiplasmodial (X15182900). Plant extract inhibited greater than 60% parasite growth of P. falciparum in vitro (6 μg/ml), showing significant chemosuppression of parasitemia in mice infected with P. berghei berghei (100–400 mg/kg/day) (X10624878). Plant extract analgesic (20–25 mg/kg), antiinflammatory (100 mg/kg), and antipyretic (100–400 mg/kg) (X1896520).

COOPER’S HOOP (Chamissoa altissima (Jacq.) Kunth) ++ AMARANTHACEAE

Illustrations:

fig 108-c

Synonyms:

Achyranthes altissima Jacq.; Celosia tomentosa Humb. & Bonpl. ex Schult.; Chamissoa macrocarpa HBK.; fide (BNA; USN).

Common Names:

Basket Withe (Jam.; AVP; JFM); Basket Wys (Ma.; JFM); Bejuco de Guacharaca (Ven.; JTR); Bejuco de Sajan (Ma.; JFM); Bejuco Pedorro (Pan.; IED); Bois Panier (Haiti; AHL); Cooper’s Hoop (Eng.; JFM); Cuaumecate Barba de Viejo (Ma.; JFM); Guaniquí (Cuba; AVP; JFM; JTR); Guaniquique (Ma.; JFM); Liane Panier (Haiti; AHL; AVP); Liane Tendresse (Haiti; AHL); Niguita (Ma.; JFM); Pabellón del Rey (Dor.; AHL); Pate (Ma.; JFM); Quiebra Quiebra (Ma.; JFM).

Activities:

Antiblennorrhagic (f; JTR); Antivenereal (f; IED); Depurative (f; JFM; JTR); Diuretic (f; JFM); Sedative (f; JFM).

Indications:

Asthenia (f; MPG); Blennorrhagia (f; JTR); Debility (f; MPG); Dysentery (f; DAW); Dyspepsia (f; DAW); Enterosis (f; AHL); Gonorrhea (f; IED; JFM); Insomnia (f; JFM); VD (f; DAW; IED; JFM; MPG).

Dosages:

FNFF = ! Leaves reportedly edible; young shoots eaten as potherb in Jamaica (AHL; BNA; JFM).

  • Dominican Bateyes use salted leaf soup for asthenia and debility (MPG).
  • Dominicans use leaf tea for intestinal disorders (AHL).

WHITE BACK (Chaptalia nutans (L.) Pol.) + ASTERACEAE

Illustrations:

fig 27 (MPG)

Synonyms:

Tussilago nutans L. (basionym); fide (USN).

Notes:

Austin (2004) lists “sunbonnets” for Chaptalia tomentosa. Maybe I should call it “nodding sunbonnets.” Morton lists a few English names without telling us from whence they came: Dandelion (Ma.; JFM), Heal and Draw (Ma.; JFM), Kema Weed (Ma.; JFM), Lion’s Tail (Ma.; JFM), Silver-Leafed Plant (Ma.; JFM), Valeriana (Ma.; JFM), and Whiteback (Ma.; JFM). Austin (2004) translates the Haitian Creole names for us: Fwa Pa Nan Kont = “liver is not struggling,” Pinga Nèg = “the man’s substance,” toro tig = “tiger bull,” all three names alluding “to cleansing the blood and digestive system as part of an aphrodisiac” (AUS).

Common Names:

Árnica (Cr.; MPG); Bretonica (Ma.; JFM); Chicorèe (Dor.; AHL); Costa Branca (Brazil; MPB); Coygaraca (Ma.; JFM); Dandelion (Ma.; JFM); Dos Blanc (Fr.; Fwi.; JFM; USN); Erva de Sangue (Ma.; JFM); Fois Pas Non Comtes (Haiti; Ma.; JFM); Fumo do Mato (Ma.; JFM); Fwa Pa Nan Kont (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Heal and Draw (Ma.; JFM); Heal I and Draw (Ma.; JFM); Kema Weed (Ma.; JFM); Lechugilla (Sp.; USN); Lechugillo (Col.; IED); Lingua de Vaca (Brazil; Ma.; JFM; MPB); Lingua de Vaca Miúda (Brazil; Por.; USN); Lion’s Tail (Ma.; JFM); Paraqueda (Brazil; Por.; USN); Paraquedinha (Brazil; Por.; USN); Pas d’Âne (His.; AHL); Pinga Nèg (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Pinga Nègre (Haiti; AHL); Plumerito (Cuba; Wi.; JFM; JTR); Rabasse (Ma.; JFM); Salvia de la Playa (Cuba); Sanguinera (Ma.; JFM); Silver-Leafed Plant (Ma.; JFM); Silver Puff (Eng.; Tex.; USN); Tapira (Brazil; Por.; USN); Taureau (His.; Ma.; AHL; JFM); Terciopelo (His.; AHL); Toro Tig (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Tussilage (Dor.; AHL); Valeriana (Ma.; JFM); White Back (Ma.; Vi.; JFM; USN); Wuara Dowóo (Cr.; MPG).

Activities:

Antiinflammatory (f1; VOD; X11021310); Antiseptic (1; X12764448; X14698521); Aphrodisiac (f; AUS); Bactericide (1; VOD; X12764448; X14698521); Bechic (f; AHL); Cyanogenetic (1; MPG); Depurative (f; VOD); Emmenagogue (f; EB30:141; JFM); Hypotensive (f; VOD); Stimulant (f; MPB); Tonic (f; MPB); Vermifuge (f; MPG); Vulnerary (f; EB30:141; MPG).

Indications:

Amenorrhea (f; EB30:141; JFM); Asthma (f; AHL; JFM); Bacillus (1; VOD; X12764448); Bacteria (1; VOD; X12764448; X14698521); Bronchosis (f; JFM); Catarrh (f; JTR); Childbirth (f; JFM); Colds (f; JFM); Colic (f; JFM); Convulsions (f; JFM); Coughs (f; JFM); Dandruff (f; JFM); Dermatosis (f; MPB); Diabetes (f; VOD); Dyspepsia (f; VOD); Enterosis (f; MPG); Gas (f; JFM); Gastrosis (f; MPB; VOD); Gonorrhea (f; JFM); Headache (f; MPB); Hepatosis (f; MPB); High Blood Pressure (f; VOD); Impotence (f; AUS); Infection (1; VOD; X12764448; X14698521); Inflammation (f1; VOD; X11021310); Jaundice (f; MPB); Ophthalmia (f; JTR); Pulmonosis (f; JTR); Scrofula (f; JFM); Sores (f; EB30:141; VOD); Staphylococcus (1; VOD; X12764448); Stomachache (f; VOD); Swelling (f; EB31:352; JFM); Syphilis (f; JFM); VD (f; JFM); Worms (f; MPG); Wounds (f; EB30:141; MPG).

Dosages:

FNFF = X.

  • Brazilians apply heated leaves to the forehead for headache (MPB).
  • Brazilian suggest the root tea for pulmonary and skin problems, gonorrhea and syphilis (MPB).
  • Brazilians use leaf and root for jaundice and gastrosis, also for washing sores (MPB).
  • Costa Ricans use cooled decoction to wash bruises, muscular pain, and sprains (MPG).
  • Cubans suggest the plant for catarrh, ophthalmia, and pulmonosis (JTR).
  • Dominicans suggest smoking the leaves for asthma (AHL).
  • Dominicans take floral tea with dill for stomach distress (VOD).
  • Dominicans take leaf decoction or tea for cough, diabetes, dyspepsia, high blood pressure, and inflammation (VOD).
  • Guaymi of Costa Rica use the slender roots for intestinal worms (MPG).
  • Haitians take dry floral tea (10 g flower/kg water) for dandruff and scrofulous swellings (JFM).
  • Jamaicans once used decoction as diuretic, and emmenagogue, for childbirth, colds, colic, convulsions, and gas (JFM).
  • Jamaicans soak sore feet in the decoction (JFM).
  • South Americans and West Indians use bitter root a/o plant decoction for amenorrhea, asthma, bronchosis, cough, gonorrhea, pulmonary catarrh, sores, syphilis, and wounds (JFM).

Extracts:

Extracts showed antiinflammatory activity (500 mg/kg ipr) comparable with indomethacin, but did not show it when used orally (500 mg/kg p.o.) (X11021310). The compound 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-nutanocoumarin, from the root extract, inhibited Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus (62.5 g/ml and 125 g/ml, respectively) (X12764448).

WEST INDIAN SNOWBERRY (Chiococca alba (L.) Hitchc.) ++ RUBIACEAE

 

Illustrations:

fig 133 (MPG)

Synonyms:

Chiococca anguifuga; C. brachiata; C. parviflora; C. racemosa L.; Lonicera alba L.; fide (USN).

Common Names:

Acetillo (Sal.; AUS); Bejuco de Berac (Pr.; Sp.; AUS; AVP; USN); Bejuco de Berraco (Cuba; Pr.; AUS; AVP; JTR); Bejuco de Verraco (Cuba; Pr.; AUS); Bejuco Timacle (Dor.; AUS; AVP); Bejuco Timaque (His.; AUS); Bois Branda (Guad.; Mart.; St. Bart.; AUS; AVP); Briny Roots (Ma.; JFM); Buenda (Sp.; USN); Bwa Branda (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Caimica (Col.; AUS); Cainana (Brazil; AUS; MPB); Caínca (Brazil; Cuba; Eng.; AUS; EFS; JLH; JTR); Cainica (Col.; Sp.; AUS; AVP; USN); Canchacche (Maya; Mex.; AUS); Canica (Cuba; Mex.; AUS; AVP); Caninana (Brazil; Mex.; AUS); Caringa (Brazil; AUS); Casinga (Brazil; AUS; MPB); Casinga Cheirosa (Brazil; AUS); Chiocoque (Fr.; EFS); Cipó Cruz (Brazil; AUS; JFM; MPB; RAR); Croc Souris (Haiti; AUS; AVP); Crok Souri (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Cruzeirinha (Brazil; AUS; MPB); Cuanecatashich (Mex.; AUS); Dama de la Noche de Pine Ridge (Bel.; AUS; BNA); Dambê (Brazil; MPB); Dambrê (Brazil; AUS); David’s Milkberry (Tex.; AUS; USN); David’s Root (Eng.; AUS; USN); Davis Root (Eng.; USN); Falsa Cainca (Ma.; JFM); Jasmin Bâtard (Guad.; Mart.; AUS; JLH); Jasmin Bois (Fr.; Guad.; Mart.; AUS; USN); Kaa’Chsa (Brazil; RAR); Kanchak-Che (Maya; Mex.; AUS); Kok Souri (Creole; Haiti; MPG; VOD); Lágrimas de Guadelipe (Ma.; JFM); Lágrimas de María (Pan.; AUS; IED; TBC), Lágrimas de San Pedro (Sal.; AUS); Liana Cruz (Peru; RAR); Liane de Sorciers (Fwi.; AUS); Liane des Sorciers (Fr.; USN); Madreselva (Nic.; AUS; JTR); Madreselva de las Antillas (Wi.; AUS); Man Rat Root (Bah.; AUS; JFM); Milkberry (Eng.; AUS; USN); Nianca (Bol.; Chiriguano; DLZ); Ñianca (Bol.; Chiriguano; DLZ); Oreja de Ratón (Mex.; Sp.; AUS; AVP); Pax-Che (Bel.; Maya; AUS; BNA); Pay-Che (Bel.; Maya; AAB; AUS; BNA); Pegajoso (Mex.; AUS); Perilla (Mex.; Nic.; Peru; AUS; AVP); Perlilla (Nic.; Sp.; JTR; USN); Petit Branda (Guad.; AUS); Pissabed (Bah.; AUS); Poaia (Brazil; AUS; MPB); Purga Preta (Brazil; AUS; MPB); Quimaque (His.; AUS); Quina de Raiz Preta (Brazil; AUS; MPB); Racine Noire (Fwi.; AUS; JFM); Raiz de Frade (Brazil; AUS; MPB); Raíz de Murciélago (Col.; AUS; AVP); Raiz de Quina (Brazil; AUS; MPB); Raiz de Serpentária (Sp.; AUS; MPB); Raiz de Verraco (Cuba; AUS; JTR); Raiz Negra (Peru; RAR); Raiz Preta (Brazil; AUS); Rat Bush (Bah.; AUS; JFM); Rat Root (Bah.; JFM); Schneebeere (Ger.; EFS); Skunk Root (Bel.; Eng.; AAB; AUS; BNA); Snakeroot (Ma.; JFM); Snowberry (Eng.; AVP; USN; VOD); Suelda con Suelda (Cuba; Mex.; AUS; AVP); Ti Branda (Guad.; Sp.; AUS; USN); Timaque (Dor.; His.; AUS; MPG); Tim-Tom Bush (Bar.; AUS); Tori Naca (Mex.; AUS); West Indian Snowberry (Eng.; AUS; USN); X-CanChak (Maya; Mex.; AVP); X-Kanchak-Che (Maya; Mex.; AUS); Yianoa (Bol.; Chiriguano; DLZ); Zorillo (Bel.; AAB; AUS; BNA). (Nscn).

Activities:

Abortifacient (f; MPG; VOD); Antiasthmatic (f; AUS); Anticonvulsant (1; MPG); Antiedemic (f; AUS; EGG; RAR); Antiinflammatory (f1; MPB; VOD); Antimalarial (1; MPG); Antiseptic (1; MPG); Antispasmodic (f; AUS); Antitumor (f1; AAB; AUS; JLH); Aphrodisiac (f; AUS; VOD); Astringent (f; DAW); Bactericide (1; MPG); Bechic (f; DAW; JTR); Cardiotonic (1; MPB); Carminative (f; AUS); CNS-Depressant (1; MPG); Convulsant (1; MPG); Cytotoxic (f1; AAB; AUS); Depurative (f; JTR); Diuretic (f; AUS; EGG; RAR; VOD); Emetic (f; AUS; EGG; VOD); Emmenogogue (f; AUS; EGG; MPG; RAR); Emollient (f; AUS; JTR); Expectorant (f; EFS); Febrifuge (f; AUS); Herbicide (f; EGG; RAR); Hydragogue (f; AUS); Pectoral (f; AUS; VOD); Purgative (f; AUS; EGG; RAR; VOD); Sedative (1; MPG); Tonic (f; AUS; RAR); Uterorelaxant (1; MPG).

Indications:

Acne (f; JTR); Adenopathy (f; AUS; MPG); Alcoholism (f; AAB; AUS); Amenorrhea (f; AAB; AUS); Arthrosis (f; JTR; VOD); Asthma (f; JFM; AUS); Bacillus (1; MPG); Backache (f; JFM); Bacteria (1; MPG); Blennorrhagia (f; DAW); Bronchosis (f; JFM); Cancer (f1; AAB; AUS; JLH); Cardiopathy (1; MPB); Colitis (f; AAB; AUS); Congestion (f; JTR); Constipation (f; AUS); Convulsions (1; MPG); Coughs (f; JFM); Cramps (f; AUS; JFM); Dementia (f; AAB; AUS); Depression (f; AAB; AUS); Dermatosis (f; AUS; JFM); Dropsy (f; AUS; DLZ); Dysmenorrhea (f; AUS); Edema (f; AUS; EGG; JFM; RAR); Endometriosis (f; AAB; AUS); Enterosis (f; AAB; AUS); Enuresis (f; AUS); Fever (f; AUS); Fungus (1; X10389274); Ganglia (f; MPG; VOD); Gastrosis (f; AUS); Gonorrhea (f; JFM; JTR); Headache (f; JTR); Hepatosis (f; JLH); Impotence (f; JFM); Induration (f; JLH); Infection (1; MPG); Inflammation (f1; MPB; VOD); Insomnia (1; MPG); Laryngosis (f; JFM); Malaria (1; MPG); Mycosis (1; X10389274); Nephrosis (f; JFM); Nervousness (f; AAB); Neurosis (f; AUS); Pain (f; AAB; AUS; JFM); Plasmodium (1; MPG); Rashes (f; AAB); Rheumatism (f; VOD); Saccharomyces (1; X10389274); Snake Bite (f; DAW; DLZ; EGG; IED; SOU); Sores (f; AAB; AUS); Tuberculosis (f; AUS); Tumors (f1; AAB; AUS; JLH); Ulcers (f; AAB; AUS); Urethrosis (f; VOD); VD (f; AUS; JFM; MPG); Witchcraft (f; AUS); Yeast (1; X10389274).

Dosages:

FNFF = ?

  • Antilleans poultice the leaves onto scirrhous tumors (JLH).
  • Barbadans take root tea as abortifacient and purgative (JFM).
  • Belizeans place 1 handful chopped root in 1 qt rum, vodka, or gin, soaking in sun for 5 days, strain and take 1 shot daily until mixture is gone, or finish it all at once, for alcoholism (AAB).
  • Belizeans take strained tea (handful chopped roots in 3 cups water 10 min) for colitis, constipation, dementia, depression, dysmenorrhea, enterosis, gastrosis, nervousness, and pain (AAB).
  • Brazilians use root decoction for asthma, bronchosis, cough, and laryngitis (JFM).
  • Cubans apply leaves to skin eruptions (JFM), roots as depurative for VD, often with caña brava.
  • Dominican Caribs mix flowers with those of Petraeakohautiana as an abortifacient tea (VOD).
  • Dominicans take the root infusion for gangliar inflammations (MPG).
  • Haitians mix leaves with Justicia pectoralis (4 g/500 g water) for cough (JFM).
  • Haitians poultice leaves with those of sourgrass (Trichacne) on sores (JFM).
  • Haitians take the diuretic, emetic, and purgative root decoction for rheumatism (VOD).
  • Mayans believe this to sharpen the intellect, important to the shaman in difficult diagnoses and to dispel witchcraft (AAB).
  • Mexicans use the root as abortifacient and emmenagogue (MPG).

Downsides:

A strong remedy not to be used internally on older and weaker patients (AAB; AUS). As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed five titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

Alboside IV showed moderate activity toward the DNA repair-deficient mutant RS321 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (X10389274).

PAREIRA (Chondrodendron tomentosum Ruiz & Pav.) + MENISPERMACEAE

Illustrations:

fig 69 (DAV)

Synonyms:

Chondrodendron hypoleucum Standl.

Notes:

The English common names listed by Taylor (2005), referenced as RAI, probably belong more appropriately to Cissampelos pareira, in a different genus but in the same family.

Common Names:

Ampihuasca (Peru; Sp.; LOR; MDD); Amphihuasca Blanca (Peru; RAI; SAR); Antinoopa (Peru; EGG; RAI); Atinupa (Peru; EGG; RAI; RAR); Bejuquito Hediondo (Bol.; DLZ); Comida de Venados (Peru; EGG; RAI; RAR); Curare (Peru; Sp.; EGG; LOR; MDD); Curari (Peru; EGG; RAR); Grieswurzel (Ger.; RAI); Ice Vine (Eng.; RAI); Isiporé (Bol.; Chiriguano; DLZ); Nasacata (Siona; SAR); Ourari (Peru; EGG); Pareira (Eng.; CR2; USN); Parreira Brava (Brazil; RAI; RAR); Parrera Brava (Brazil; RAR); Uva da Serra (Brazil; RAI); Uva do Mato (Brazil; RAI); Velvet Leaf (Eng.; RAI); Vigne Sauvage (Fr.; RAI); Woowari (Peru; EGG; RAR); Worali (Peru; EGG; RAR).

Activities:

Analgesic (1; RAI); Anesthetic (1; PH2); Anticonvulsant (1; FNF); Antiedemic (f; EGG; RAR); Antiseptic (f; EFS; RAI); Aperient (f; EFS); Bitter (1; PH2); Curare (1; DAV; EGG); Diuretic (f; DAV; EGG; PH2; RAI); Emmenagogue (f; DAV; EGG; HHB; PH2; RAI); Febrifuge (f; DAV; EGG; HHB; RAI); Hypotensive (1; FNF); Laxative (f; RAI); Litholytic (f; HHB; RAR); Myoparalytic (1; PH2); Myorelaxant (f1; PH2; RAI); Tonic (f; RAI); Toxic (1; EFS; EGG).

Indications:

Amenorrhea (f; RAI); Bites (f; PH2); Bladder Stones (f; HHB); BPH (f; PH2); Bruises (f; DAV; RAI); Cardiopathy (f; EGG); Constipation (f; RAI); Convulsions (1; FNF); Cramps (1; FNF); Cystosis (f; HHB); Dropsy (f; DAV; HAD); Earache (f; RAI); Edema (f; DAV; EGG; RAI; RAR); Fever (f; DAV; EGG; HHB; RAI); Gonorrhea (f; HAD); High Blood Pressure (1; FNF); Infection (f; EFS; RAI); Inflammation (f; PH2); Jaundice (f; HAD); Kidney Stones (f; DAV; HHB; RAI); Leukorrhea (f; HAD); Madness (f; DAV; RAI); Nephrosis (f; DAV; EGG); Oliguria (f; RAI); Orchosis (f; DAV; EGG; RAI); Pain (1; PH2; RAI); Prostatitis (f; RAI); Rheumatism (f; HAD); Snake Bite (f; PH2; RAI); Stones (f; EGG; HHB; RAR); Swelling (f; CTD; RAI); Tetanus (1; FNF); Tonic (f; HAD); Urethrosis (f; HHB); UTIs (f; PH2; RAI); VD (f; HAD).

Dosages:

FNFF = X. One cup root decoction 2×/day (RAI).

  • Amazonians use as antiseptic, curare, diuretic, febrifuge, and laxative (RAI).
  • Bolivians use the plant in arrow poisons (DLZ).
  • Brazilians use for amenorrhea, arrow poison, bruise, earache, edema, fever, kidney stones, mental derangements, oliguria, and snake bite (RAI).
  • Peruvians use for amenorrhea, arrow poison, earache, edema, fever, kidney stones, madness, oliguria, and snake bite (DAV; RAI).
  • Venezuelans use the plant in arrow poisons (RAI).

Downsides:

Not covered (AHP). “No health hazards or side effects are known in conjunction with the proper administration of designated therapeutic dosages” (PH2). But they designate no dosage (JAD). Contraindicated in pregnancy or lactation; caution, not recommended if hypotensive (RAI). Overdoses of tubocurarine (and other curare alkaloids) can cause respiratory paralysis and hypotension. LD50s are less than 1 mg/kg, 0.56 scu in mice, 0.5 ipr in mice, 0.18 intravenously in mice, and 0.2 mg/kg intravenously in rabbits. An injection of neostigmine methylsulfate is suggested as an antidote (HAD). As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed 14 titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

Tubocurarine is reportedly anaphylactic (antidote = neostigmine), anticonvulsant, antidotal to strychnine, antitetanic, cardiovascular (0.1 mg/kg ivn cat) (BBE), CNS-active (0.05 mg/kg ivn cat) (BBE), histaminic, hypotensive, myorelaxant (10–30 mg/ivn/man) (M29), and vagolytic; LD50 of 28 mg/kg orl inm rats, LD50 = 33 orl mus, LD50 = 0.2 ivn rbt, LD50 = 0.3 scu rat (BBE), and LD50 = 0.53 scu mus (BBE).

JACK IN THE BUSH (Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King & H. Rob.) + ASTERACEAE

Illustrations:

p 149 (TRA)

Synonyms:

Eupatorium brachiatum Witc.; E. conyzoides Vahl; E. klattii Milsp.; E. odoratum L. (basionym); Osmia odorata (L.) C. Schultz; fide (JTR; USN).

Notes:

One Haitian rainmaker reportedly wraps a mortar-pestle in the leaves to stop the rain and make the sun shine (VOD).

Common Names:

Albahaquilla (Ma.; JFM); Archangel (Jam.; Trin.; AUS); Armstrong’s Weed (Eng.; AUS); Asampatcha (Ker.; WO2); Assam-Lota (Assam; Ben.; WO2); Banmara (Nepal; NPM); Banmasuwa (Nepal; NPM); Besi Banmara (Magar; NPM); Bhayamara (Chepang; NPM); Bitterbush (Eng.; AUS; USN); Bonmara (Danuwar; NPM); Butterfly-Weed (Eng.; USN); Canutillo (Ma.; JFM); Cariaquillo Santa María (Pr.; AUS; AVP); Chilquita (Col.; IED); Chimuyo (Cuba; Ven.; AUS); Chisca (Peru; RAR); Chiva (Ma.; JFM); Christmas Bush (Eng.; AUS; NPM; USN); Christmas Rose (Eng.; AUS); Chukutenay (Nepal; NPM); Ciguapazle (Ma.; JFM); Cihuapastle (Mex.; AVP); Cihuapatle (Mex.; Nahuatl; AUS; AVP); Communist Weed (Eng.; WO2); Crucetilla (Mex.; AUS); Crucita (Jam.; Mex.; AUS; AVP); Crucita Oleroso (Nic.; AUS); Cruz de Campo (Brazil; AUS); Cruzeiro (Brazil; AUS); Cruz Quem (Brazil; AUS); Curarina (Sp.; AUS); Curarina de Monte (Sp.; AUS); Devilweed (Eng.; USN); Dodiguru (Garo; WO2); Eupatoire (Haiti; AVP); Fey Langchat (Creole; VOD); Fey Langichat (Creole; VOD); Filagrama de Savana (Cuba; AUS; JFM); Fleurit Noël (Guad.; Haiti; Mart.; AUS; AVP; VOD); Flewi Nwel (Trin.; AUS); Garrapata (Nic.; AUS); Geri Tout (Creole; VOD); Guérit Tout (Creole; Haiti; AHL; AVP; VOD); Guérit Trope Vit (Creole; VOD) Guérit Vite (Creole; Haiti; AVP; VOD); Hagonoy (USN); Hawi (Nepal; NPM); Hemp Agrimony (Ma.; AUS; JFM); Hierba de Chiva (Pan.; IED; JFM); Hotz (Bel.; BNA); Jack in a Bush (Eng.; Jam.; AVP; VOD); Jack in the Bush (Bel.; Eng.; Jam.; Trin.; AUS; BNA; CR2; USN); Jackney Bush (Ma.; JFM); Kingsweed (Eng.; AUS); Kluset (Creole; Trin.; AUS); Krus Tok’te (Huastec; Mex.; AUS); Langa Chata (Dor.; AHL; AVP); Lang Chat (Creole; Haiti; TRA; VOD); Langi Chat (Creole; VOD); Lang Shat (Creole; VOD); Langue à Chatte (Guad.; Haiti; AVP); Langue-Chatte (Haiti; AVP); Langui Chatte (Haiti; AVP); Lohasiya (Danuwar; NPM); Madhuban (Tamang; NPM); Mata Finca (Dor.; AHL); Mejorana (Sp.; AUS; JFM); Niquibei (Dom.; AVP); Niquibey (Dor.; Taino; AUS; AVP); Paleca (Pan.; AUS; IED); Palotal (Ven.; AVP); Paraffienbos (Afrikaans; USN); Paraffin Weed (Eng.; AVP; USN); Parafinbush (Eng.; AVP); Pesebrito (Ven.; AVP); Pichas (Tripura; WO2); Rey del Todo (Sp.; AUS); Rompe Zaragüey (Cuba; Dor.; AHL; AVP); Salah (Chepang; NPM); Salvia (Col.; IED); Samsimari (Garo; WO2); Santa María (Pr.; AUS; AVP); Siam Weed (Eng.; AUS; NPM; USN); Sich (Maya; Mex.; AUS; AVP); Sing Jhar (Chepang; NPM); Suplicio (Sp.; AUS); Sweet Scented Hemp Agrimony (Jam.; AVP); Thoroughwort (Eng.; AVP); Thulo Banmara (Majhi; NPM); TiteHawi (Nepal; NPM); Tocabal (Ma.; JFM); Tocaban (Ma.; JFM); Tokabal (Maya; Mex.; AUS); Tokaban (Ma.; JFM); Tonkabean (Jam.; AUS); Trebol de Olor (Cuba; AVP); Triffid Weed (Eng.; AUS; USN); Tsitsaque-Teutzzushu (Mex.; Totonac; AUS); Turpentine Weed (Eng.; AVP); Vanilla (Jam.; AUS); Varejón de Caballo (Col.; AUS); Xtokabal (Mex.; AVP); Yaxhatz (Bel.; AUS; BNA); Zanga de Grullo (Cuba; AUS); Zaragüey (Dor.; AHL). (Nscn).

Activities:

Analgesic (f; AAB); Antiallergic (1; TRA); Anticancer, lung (1; X15202555); Antiedemic (1; X16280100); Antifertility (f; WO2); Antiinflammatory (f1; VOD; X11348739; X16280100); Antioxidant (1; X11767105); Antiradicular (1; MPG); Antiseptic (f1; TRA; WOI; X9395667); Antispasmodic (1; MPG); Antitussive (f; VOD); Bactericide (1; AUS; TRA); Cathartic (f; WO3); Cytotoxic (1; MPG; X15202555); Decongestant (f; AHL); Digestive (f; VOD); Edemic (1; X16280100); Emetic (f; WO3); Emmenagogue (f; JFM; VOD); Fungicide (1; X12924132; X15202555; X16567942); Hemostat (f; WO2); Hepatoprotective (1; MPG); Herbicide (1; X12924132); Insecticide (1; X11124374); MercuryBinder (1; X15948592); Molluscacide (1; MPG); PAF-Inhibitor (1; X17541171); Piscicide (f; AUS); Spasmogenic (1; MPG); Stomachic (f; JFM); Tonic (f; AUS; JFM; JTR); Vulnerary (f1; AUS; X11767105; X16280100).

Indications:

Acne (1; X16009519); Allergies (1; TRA); Amenorrhea (f; AHL; VOD); Asthma (f; VOD); Bacillus (1; AUS; TRA); Bacteria (1; AUS; TRA); Bleeding (f; WO2); Bruises (f; WO2); Burns (1; X11679139); Cancer, lung (1; X15202555); Chafing (f; NPM); Cholera (f; JTR); Colds (f; AAB; AUS; JFM; VOD); Congestion (f; AHL); Coughs (f; AAB; AUS; JFM; VOD); Depression (f; AAB; AUS); Dermatosis (f1; AUS; JFM; VOD; X9395667); Diabetes (f; AUS; JFM); Dyspepsia (f; VOD); Edema (1; X16280100); Escherichia (1; MPG; TRA); Fever (f; AUS; JTR; VOD); Flu (f; VOD; WO2); Fungus (1; TRA; X12924132; X15202555; X16567942); Furuncles (f; TRA); Gas (f; VOD); Gastrosis (f; AUS); Gonorrhea (1; JFM; TRA); Headache (f; AAB); Indigestion (f; VOD); Infection (f1; AUS; TRA; WOI; X12924132; X15202555; X16567942; X9395667); Inflammation (f1; VOD; X11348739; X16280100); Insomnia (f; AAB; AUS); Laryngosis (f; AUS; VOD); Malaria (f; JFM; WO2); Micrococcus (1; WO2); Mycobacterium (1; X15202555); Neisseria (1; TRA); Nephrosis (f; AUS; JFM); Nervousness (f; AAB; AUS); Neurasthenia (f; JTR); Pain (f; AAB); Piscicide (f; JFM); Pregnancy (f; VOD); Propionibacterium (1; X16009519); Rheumatism (f1; TRA; VOD); Sores (f1; AUS; NPM; TRA); Spasms (1; MPG); Staphylococcus (1; MPG; TRA); Stomachache (f; AUS; JFM); Streptococcus (1; X1453706); Swelling (1; X16280100); Tonsilosis (f; VOD); Urethrosis (1; TRA); VD (f1; TRA) Wounds (f1; AUS; JFM; NPM; X11767105; X16280100).

Dosages:

FNFF = ?

  • Barbadans, Belizeans, Panamanians, and Trinidadans take leaf decoction for colds and cough (AUS).
  • Belizeans and Hispaniolans use the tea for depression, insomnia, laryngitis, and nervousness (AUS).
  • Colombians use the whole plant to fight tumors (MPG).
  • Cubans use for cholera, dermatoses, fever, and neurasthenia (JTR).
  • Dominicans poultice crushed leaves onto inflammation and sloughing skin (VOD).
  • Dominicans take mashed leaves in milk for asthma (VOD).
  • Dominicans use leaf tea for dyspepsia in pregnant women and to treat uterine malposition (VOD).
  • Guatemalans consider the root stomachic and tonic (JFM).
  • Haitians use leaf tea or decoction for colds, cough, dyspepsia, fever, flu, gas, laryngitis, rheumatism, and tonsilitis (VOD).
  • Jamaicans take leaf decoction for fever, as a wash for dermatoses (JFM).
  • Mayans use decoction for nephrosis and stomachache (JFM).
  • Mexicans use root decoction as emmenagogue (JFM).
  • Nepalese use the plant juice for chafing, cuts, and wounds (NPM).
  • Nigerians use leaf decoction for cough, influenza, internal bleeding, and malaria (WO2).
  • Panama Jamaicans take leaf tea for colds (IED).

Downsides:

Plants toxic, at least to grazing animals (AUS). Plants, especially roots and mature flower heads, contain n-oxides of 5 pyrollizidine alkaloids (WO3). As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed four titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

Hydroalcoholic extract LD50 = 1,000 mg/kg ipr rat (MPG). Leaf extract and fractions inhibit in vitro growth of Cryptococcus neoformans, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and T. rubrum, MIC = 62.5–500 μg/ml for extract and 25–100 μg/ml for fractions (X16567942). Aqueous extract reduced paw oedema in carrageenan-induced oedema in rats (25–200 mg/kg) (X16280100). From the flower, isosakuranetin moderately mycobactericidal for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MIC = 174.8 μM), acacetin moderately cytotoxic for human small cell lung cancer (MIC = 24.6 μM), and luteolin moderately toxic for human small cell lung cancer (MIC = 19.2 μM) (X15202555).

COCO-PLUM (Chrysobalanus icaco L.) ++ CHRYSOBALANACEAE

Illustrations:

p 231 (LWW)

Synonyms:

Chrysobalanus icaco var. pellocarpus (GFW Mey.) DC.; C. pellocarpus GFW Mey.

Common Names:

Abajeru (Tupi; AUS); Airu (Por.; AVP); Ajuru (Ma.; JFM); Ariu (Ma.; Por.; AVP; JFM); Bois Rada (Guad.; AVP); Caco (Chiapas; AUS); Capollaixpehualli (Mex.; JLH); Caramio (Arawak; Guy.; AUS; LWW); Caye Caulker Plum (Bel.; BNA); Ciruela de Algodon (Ma.; Mex.; Sp.; AVP; JFM; USN); Cocoa Plum (Eng.; AVP); Coco Plum (Bel.; Dwi.; Eng.; Vi.; BNA; LWW; USN); Ecacas (Dwi.; LWW); Fat Poke (Wi.; AUS); Fat Pork (Dom.; Dwi.; Guy.; Trin.; LWW); Gicaco (Ma.; JFM); Gopher Plum (Eng.; AVP); Guajeru (Ma.; JFM); Guejuru (Brazil; AVP); Hekako (Creek Seminole; AUS); Hicaco (Pr.; LWW); Hicaco Plum (Bel.; BNA); Higagu (Garifuna; IED); Hika Kapi (Mikasuki; AUS); Hikáki (Mikasuki Seminole; AUS); Hikako (Creek Seminole; AUS); Icacier (Fr.; USN); Icaco (Bel.; Pr.; Sp.; BNA; LWW; USN); Icaco de Costa (Cuba; LWW); Icaco de Playa (Ma.; JFM); Icaco Dulce (Cuba; LWW); Icaco Negro (Sal.; LWW); Icacopflaume (Ger.; USN); Icaco Plum (Eng.; TAM); Icaco Rodado (Sal.; LWW); Icaque (Guad.; Mart.; Trin.; LWW); Icaque Blanche (Wi.; AVP); Icaque des Bois (Guad.; AVP); Icaque Rouge (Wi.; AVP); Icaquier (Fr.; AHL; USN); Jicaco (Ma.; JFM); Jicaco Plum (Bel.; BNA); Jicaquillo (Ma.; JFM); Jijaco (Pr.; LWW); Kakata (Bel.; AUS; BNA); Kocho Rhum (Bel.; BNA); Koelimiru (Arawak; Ma.; AUS; JFM); Kulimiro (Guy.; LWW); Kurimiru (Arawak; AUS); Mafuli (Congo; AVP); Nocuana Bebebe (Zapotec; AUS); Nocuana Pebebe (Zapotec; AUS); Pepe (Zapotec; AUS); Pe-Pepe (Zapotec; AUS); PePepe Niza-Tao-Pani (Zapotec; AUS); Pigeon Plum (Guy.; LWW); Pomme Zicaque (Guad.; AVP); Pork-Fat Apple (Bah.; LWW); Pruim (Sur.; LWW); Prune Colon (Fr.; USN); Prune Coton (Fr.; Guad.; AUS; AVP); Prune de Guyane (Fr. Guy.; LWW); Prune Zicaque (Guad.; AVP); Prunier Coton (Wi.; AVP); Prunier d’Anse (Fr. Guiana); Prunier de l’Anse (Fr. Guiana; AVP); Prunier Icaque (Ma.; JFM); Red Coco-Plum (Wi.; LWW); Sirínguela (Garifuna; IED); Spanish Nectarine (Eng.; TAN); Tococo (Timucua; AUS); Uajura (Ma.; JFM); Uichup (Cuna; IED); White Coco-Plum (Bah.; LWW); White Plum (Bah.; LWW); Xicaco (Ma.; Oaxaca; AUS; JFM); Zicague (Trin.; LWW); Zicaque (Dom.; Haiti; Hon.; Mex.; AUS; JFM; LWW); Zicaquier (Haiti; AVP).

Activities:

Abortifacient (f; AHL); Antiangiogenic (1; X10812020); Anticancer (1; X12565171); Antioxidant (1; X15261992); Antileukemic (1; X12565171); Antitumor (1; X12565171); Astringent (f; IED; LWW); Hemostat (f; JFM); Hypoglycemic (f; AUS).

Indications:

Bleeding (f; JFM); Blennorrhagia (f; AUS); Cancer (f1; JLH; X12565171); Condyloma (f; JLH); Cystosis (f; AUS); Diabetes (f1; AUS); Diarrhea (f; IED; JFM); Dysentery (f; AHL); Hyperglycemia (f; AUS); Leukemia (1; X12565171); Leukorrhea (f; JFM); Nephrosis (f; AUS); Tumors (1; X12565171); Warts (f; JLH).

Dosages:

FNFF = !! Widely used for food in the Caribbean, even canned and exported from Brazil, Costa Rica, and Cuba. Fruits (and seeds) eaten after skewering; the seeds taste like almonds after roasting (AUS). Bark or root decoction for dysentery (JFM); 5 g fruit, bark, leaf, or root in 250 g water, 2–3 cups/day for diarrhea, hemorrhage, and leukorrhea (JFM).

Downsides:

As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed two titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

Triterpenoids from leaf fractions inhibited growth and induced apoptosis of K562 erythroleukemia cell line and inhibited proliferation of Lucena 1, a vincristine-resistant derivative of K562 with MDR characteristics (X12565171). Methanol extract exhibited 44% angiogenesis inhibition in chicken embrionary tissue (X10812020).

STAR-APPLE (Chrysophyllum cainito L.) ++ SAPOTACEAE

Illustrations:

fig 70 (DAV); p 439 (L&W)

Common Names:

Abiu do Pará (Brazil; AUS); Aguay (Arg.; AVP); Ajara (Por.; AVP); Apra (Sur.; L&W); Balata Blanca (Peru; AVP); Buis Caimitier (Fr.; AVP); Caianito (Por.; AVP); Caimite (Fr.; Trin.; L&W); Caimite des Jardines (Wi.; AHL); Caimite Franche (Wi.; AHL); Caimitero (AUS); Caimitier (Fr.; Haiti; AVP; L&W; USN); Caimitier a Feuilles d’Or (Haiti; AVP); Caimito (Bel.; Dor.; Por.; Sp.; AHL; AVP; BNA; L&W; USN); Caimito Blanco (Sp.; USN); Caimito Morado (Sp.; USN); Caimittier (Ma.; JFM); Caimo (Col.; L&W); Caimo Morado (Col.; L&W); Cainit (Ma.; Vi.; Wi.; AUS; JFM; L&W); Cainitier (Ma.; JFM); Cainito (Brazil; AVP; L&W); Cauje (Ma.; JFM); Cayumito (Ma.; Mex.; AUS; JFM); Commito (Bel.; BNA); Damsel (Bel.; AVP); Estrella (Sp.; AVP); Goldenleaf (Col.; L&W); Grand Caimite (Wi.; AHL); Guayabillo (Sal.; AVP); Kaimit (Trin.; L&W); Kê-Sê-Weé-Ree (Arawakan; Yukuna; AUS); Luma (Ma.; JFM); Macoucou (Fr. Guy.; AVP); Madura Verde (Col.; L&W); Olivoa (Arg.; AVP); O Xumacuti (Cashibo; RAR); Pied Caimite (Haiti; AVP); Pomme Surette (Fr.; AVP); Satinleaf (Fla.; AVP); So-Da-Deé (Andoke; Witototan; AUS); Star-Apple (Bel.; Eng.; L&W; USN); Star Plum (Eng.; Ma.; JFM); Sterappel (Curasao; Sur.; L&W); Sternapfel (Ger.; USN); Ta-Uh (Tikuna; AUS).

Activities:

Analgesic (f; DAW); Antiinflammatory (f; JAF50:1379); Antioxidant (1; JAF50:1379; X11879006); Astringent (f; AHL; DAW); Emollient (f; RAR); Hypoglycemic (f; DAV); Laxative (f; AHL; DAW); Pectoral (f; JFM); Refrigerant (f; DAW).

Indications:

Abscesses (f; DAV); Angina (f; JFM); Cancer (f; JFM); Catarrh (f; JFM); Constipation (f; AHL; DAW); Cystosis (f; JFM); Dermatosis (f; RAR); Diabetes (f; AHL; DAV; DAW); Diarrhea (f; JFM); Dysentery (f; DAW); Enterosis (f; DAW); Fever (f; DAW; EB30:134; IED; JFM); Fungus (f; DAV); Gingivosis (f; DAV); Gonorrhea (f; JFM); Hyperglycemia (f; DAV); Infection (f; DAV); Inflammation (f; JAF50:1379); Laryngitis (f; JAF50:1379); Mastosis (f; DAW); Mycosis (f; DAV); Pain (f; DAW); Pneumonia (f; JAF50:1379); Sores (f; DAV; RAR); VD (f; IED).

Dosages:

FNFF = !! Fruits eaten fresh, parboiled, preserved, or made into a dessert called matrimony (pulp with milk, orange juice and spices). Seed kernels also used in imitation almond or nougat desserts (FAC). Gargle fruit decoction for angina (JFM).

  • Colombians use latex as antidysenteric, diuretic, and febrifuge (JFM).
  • Ticos take bark decoction for catarrh, cystosis, diarrhea, and gonorrhea (JFM).

Downsides:

As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed one title alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

Ethyl acetate fraction exhibited high antioxidant activity in DPPH assay (IC50 = 22 μg/ml), with quercetin showing the highest antioxidant activity (IC50 = 40 μM) (X11879006).

KISWARA (Chuquiraga insignis (Willd.) Bonpl.) + ASTERACEAE

Illustrations:

p 121 (BEJ); p 610 (ROE)

Synonyms:

Chuquiraga fruticosa Juss.; C. jussieui J.F. Gmelin; C. lancifolia H & B; C. microphylla H & B; C. peruviana Jaume St. Hil.; C. pseudoruscifolia Muschler; C. rhynchophora vanischtoni Heckel; Joannesia insignis (Willd.) Pers.; Johannia insignis Willd.; fide (BEJ; MPG; USN).

Common Names:

Chuquira (Ecu.; Sp.; MPG); Chuquiragua (Ecu.; Sp.; BEJ; MPG); Inca Llaulli (Peru; ROE); Kentayllaulli (Peru; ROE); Kiswara (Peru; ROE); Kiswara Tiutumpi (Peru; ROE); Qharisirviy (Peru; ROE). (Nscn).

Activities:

Choleretic (f; MPG); Diuretic (f; MPG; ROE); Febrifuge (f; DAW); Hemostat (f; ROE); Litholytic (f; ROE); Sedative (f; MPG); Stimulant (f; MPG); Tonic (f; MPG); Vermifuge (f; MPG).

Indications:

Arthrosis (f; ROE); Bleeding (f; ROE); Bronchosis (f; ROE); Calculus (f; ROE); Childbirth (f; ROE); Colds (f; BEJ); Coughs (f; BEJ; MPG); Dysuria (f; ROE); Fever (f; DAW; MPG); Flu (f; BEJ); Hepatosis (f; MPG); Insomnia (f; MPG); Malaria (f; BEJ); Nephrosis (f; ROE); Oliguria (f; MPG; ROE); Osteosis (f; BEJ); Pain (f; BEJ); Prostatosis (f; ROE); Respirosis (f; ROE); Rheumatism (f; ROE); Sores (f; BEJ); Sore Throat (f; ROE); Stones (f; ROE); Urethrosis (f; ROE); Worms (f; MPG).

Dosages:

FNFF = ? 3–4 branches/liter water in decoction or tea; 1–2 cups/day (MPG).

  • Andean Peruvians drink floral tea during childbirth, also for bronchosis, flu, and rheumatism, often with lemon (ROE).
  • Andean Peruvians take decoction of leaves and flowers for nephrosis and prostatosis (ROE).

RED CINCHONA (Cinchona officinalis L.) + RUBIACEAE

Notes:

McGuffin et al. (2000) prefer that C. officinalis and C. pubsecens be called “red cinchona” and C. callisaya “yellow cinchona.” Both seem to share many morphological, chemical, and folkloric attributes. They are probably pretty tough to distinguish when reduced to powdered bark. Consider the entries below as likely to accrue to one as to the other species, e.g., Taylor’s entries (as RAI) may apply to C. calisaya, C. ledgeriana, C. officinalis, and C. succirubra. Felter and Lloyd (1898) entries (as FEL) sometimes based on medical uses of quinine at the beginning of the 20th century. Egg (1999) treats C. officinalis and C. pubescens as distinct species, but listing only fever and malaria as indications for any Peruvian cinchona (EGG), as noted also by Roersch (1994). García et al. (1998) entries (as VAD) assigned to C. succirubra.

Common Names:

Capirona de Bajo (Peru; EGG); Cargua Cargua (Peru; EGG); Carua-Carua (Peru; EGG); Cascarilla (Peru; EGG); China Bark (Eng.; RAI); Cinchona Bark (Eng.; RAI); Corteza Roja (Peru; EGG); Countess’ Powder (Eng.; RAI); Cuarango (Peru; EGG); Fever Tree (Eng.; RAI); Ichu Cascarilla (Peru; EGG); Jesuit’s Bark (Eng.; Ocn.; AH2); Jesuit’s Powder (Eng.; RAI); Jichukina (Peru; ROE); Kinakina (Sp.; RAI); Lojabark (USN); Mañirita (Ashaninka; Campa; Peru; EGG); Motosolo (Peru; EGG); Palo Blanco (Peru; EGG); Patorech (Amuesha; Peru; Yanesha; EGG); Peruvian Bark (Eng.; Ocn.; AH2); Quina (Sp.; RAI); Quina Rubra (Spain; VAD); Quinine (Eng.; CR2; RAI); Red Cinchona (Eng.; Scn.; AH2); Red Quinine (Eng.; Ocn.; AH2); Yellow Cinchona (Eng.; Ocn.; AH2); Yellow Quinine (Eng.; Ocn.; AH2).

Activities:

Abortifacient (1; FEL; WO2); Amebicide (1; RAI); Analgesic (f1; CRC; PNC; RAI; WO2); Anesthetic (1; CRC; DAD; RAI); Anthelmintic (1; FNF; JAD); Antiarrhythmic (f; CRC); Antichronotropic (1; MPG); Antiinflammatory (f; HAD); Antimalarial (f1; CRC; EGG; PNC; RAI); AntiMDR (1; RAI); Antiperiodic (f; CRC); Antiseptic (1; CRC; FNF; MPI; RAI); Antisialagogue (1; RAI); Antispasmodic (f1; RAI); Antitumor (1; JFM); Astringent (1; CRC; FNF; HHB); Bactericide (1; RAI; WO2; X16483385); Bitter (2; CRC; JAD; SHT); Cardiodepressant (1; PNC; WO2); Cardiotonic (1; VAD; 60P); Cholagogue (1; VAD); Cicatrizant (1; VAD); CNS-Depressant (1; WO2); Contraceptive (f; CRC; RAI); Dentifrice (f; CRC); Digestive (f1; RAI; 60P); Febrifuge (f1; CRC; RAI); Fungicide (f1; RAI); Gastrostimulant (2; KOM); Hypoglycemic (1; WO2); Hypotensive (1; WO2); Insecticide (f1; CRC; RAI); Insectifuge (f; EGG); Nervine (1; RAI); Orexigenic (f12; HHB; KOM; RAI); Oxytoxic (1; CRC; WO2); Parasiticide (1; RAI); Schizonticide (f; CRC); Sialagogue (2; KOM; PH2); Stimulant (f; WO2); Stomachic (f; CRC; HHB); Teratogenic (1; WO2); Tonic (1; CRC; DAD; 60P); Uterotonic (f; CRC; RAI).

Indications:

Adenopathy (f; CRC; JLH; RAI); Ague (f; FEL); Alcoholism (f1; PH2; RAI); Alopecia (f; CRC; RAI; VAD); Amebiasis (1; CRC; FNF; RAI; WO2); Anemia (f; FEL; HHB; PH2; RAI); Anorexia (f12; KOM; PHR; PH2; RAI); Arrhythmia (f1; CRC; WO2); Arthrosis (f; 60P); Asthma (f; HHB); Bacteria (1; RAI; WO2; X16483385); Bleeding (1; HHB); Cachexia (f; FEL); Cancer (f1; CRC; JFM; JLH; PHR; PH2; RAI); Cancer, breast (f; CRC); Cancer, gland (f; CRC; JLH); Cancer, liver (f; CRC); Cancer, mesentery (f; CRC); Cancer, spleen (f; CRC); Carcinomata (f; CRC); Cardiopathy (1; RAI; VAD; 60P); Carditis (f; CRC); Catarrh (f; MPI); Childbirth (f; FEL; ROE); Chills (f; 60P); Chlorosis (f; FEL); Cholecystosis (f; RAI); Colds (f1; CRC; PNC; 60P); Conjunctivosis (f; FEL); Coughs (f; WO2); Cramps (f1; CRC; PH2; PNC; RAI; 60P); Dandruff (f; RAI); Debility (f; FEL; GMH; PH2); Dermatosis (f; PH2); Diabetes (1; WO2); Diarrhea (f; CRC; PH2; RAI; 60P); Diphtheria (f; FEL); Dysentery (f1; CRC; MPI; RAI; WO2); Dyskinesia (1; VAD); Dyspepsia (f12; FEL; KOM; PHR; PH2; RAI; 60P); Elephantiasis (f; WO2); Enterosis (f; RAI); Erysipelas (f; FEL); Fatigue (f; RAI); Felons (f; CRC; JLH); Fever (f1; CRC; FNF; JAD; PH2; RAI); Flu (f1; CRC; PH2; PNC; RAI; WO2); Fungus (f1; RAI); Gas (f12; PHR; PH2; RAI); Gastrosis (f; PHR; RAI); Gonorrhea (f; FEL); Hangover (f; CRC; RAI); Hay Fever (f; FEL; MPI); Headache (f; FEL; RAI; WO2); Heart (1; MPG); Hemicrania (f; MPI); Hemorrhoids (f1; CRC; WO2); Hepatosis (f; JLH; RAI); Herpes (1; FNF); Hiccups (f; CRC); High Blood Pressure (1; WO2); Hydrocele (f; CRC); Indigestion (f1; RAI; 60P); Infection (f1; CRC; FNF; MPI; RAI; ROE; WO2; X16483385); Inflammation (f; HAD; PH2); Lumbago (f1; CRC; FNF; RAI); Malaria (f12; CRC; EGG; FNF; PHR; PH2; PNC; RAI; 60P); MDR (1; RAI); Metastasis (f; JLH); Myalgia (f; FEL; RAI); Mycosis (1; RAI); Myotonia (1; WO2); Neuralgia (f; CRC; FEL; HHB; MPI; PH2); Neurosis (f; CRC; PH2); Pain (f1; CRC; DAD; FEL; FNF; PH2; PNC; RAI; WO2); Palpitations (1; MPG); Paludism (f; 60P); Parasites (1; RAI); Pertussis (f; CRC; HHB; MPI); Pharyngosis (f; RAI; VAD); Piles (f; CRC); Pinworm (f; CRC; WO2); Pneumonia (f; CRC; FEL; MPI); Pyemia (f; MPI); Rashes (f; PH2); Respirosis (f; PH2); Rheumatism (f; FEL; MPI); Rhinosis (f; MPI); Sciatica (f1; CRC; FNF; PH2; RAI); Septicemia (f; CRC); Sores (f; JLH; PHR; PH2); Sore Throat (f; CRC; MPI); Splenomegaly (f; PHR; PH2); Splenosis (f; JLH; MPI; RAI); Stomatosis (f; CRC; RAI; VAD); Sunstroke (f; FEL); Tachycardia (1; MPG; VAD; 60P); Tonsilosis (1; MPI); Trachoma (f; FEL); Trypanosomiasis (1; FNF); Tumors (f1; CRC; JFM; JLH; PHR; PH2; RAI); Typhoid (f; CRC; FEL; RAI); Ulcers (f; JLH); Varicosity (f; CRC; RAI; VAR; WO2); Viruses (1; FNF); Wen (f; JLH); Worms (f1; FNF; JAD; RAI); Wounds (f1; PHR; PH2; VAD); Yeast (1; FNF).

Dosages:

FNFF = ! 1–3 g bark (KOM); 0.3–1 g powdered bark (PNC); 1 tsp bark boiled 5–10 min, 3×/day (MPG); 10 grains for hay fever, hemicrania, neuralgia, pertussis, and splenomegaly (MPI); 0.3–1 ml liquid extract (PNC); 0.3–1 ml cinchona extract (PNC); 2–4 ml cinchona tincture (PNC); max dose 50 mg (alkaloids???) (PNC).

  • Andeans use for bleeding, childbirth, infections, inflammation, itch, metrorrhagia, and wounds.
  • Brazilians take for anemia, anorexia, debility, dyspepsia, enterosis, fatigue, fever, gastrosis, and malaria (RAI).
  • Peruvians take for fever and malaria (EGG).
  • Venezuelans take for cancer and malaria (RAI).

Downsides:

Commission E reports counterindications for pregnancy and hypersensitivity; adverse effects: allergic reactions, rarely thrombocytopenia; and interactions: potentiation of coumarin derivatives (KOM). Other sources report counterindication for GI-ulcer, adverse effects for allergic skin reactions, fever, rarely thrombocytopenia. Overdosing or prolonged use may produce toxic effects (AEHD). Cinchonidine, cinchonine, hydroquinine, quinidine, and quinine all oxytocic in experimental animals at levels of 0.5–10 mg/kg (WO2). 8–20 g quinine may be fatal in humans (WO2). 8 g quinine can kill an adult in one dose (DAD). As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed four titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

Cinchonidine, cinchonine, quinidine, and quinine are some of the antipyretic compounds in this growing medicine chest called quinine. From an amebicidal point of view, compounds modified from quinine and quinidine were not as potent as emetine and derivatives (I might mix my ipecac and quinine in Amazonia). Chloro-9-desoxy-quinine and quinidine were least active while 9-desoxy-dihydro derivatives showed fair activity. More compounds which showed slight in vitro activity were also active in vivo, exceptions being 9-desoxy-dihydro quinine and quinidine which were active in vivo (MPI).

VELVETLEAF (Cissampelos pareira L.) ++ MENISPERMACEAE

Illustrations:

p 155 (NPM); p 85 (TRA); pl 42 (KAB)

Synonyms:

Cissampelos hirsuta Buchanan-Hamilton ex de Candolle; C. nepalensis Rhodes.

Notes:

Called “false pareira brava” to distinguish it from the true “pareira,” Chondrodendron tomentosum, for which it is sometimes substituted. Both contain dangerous neuromuscular blocking agents and have been used in arrow poisons, especially in Amazonian Colombia and Ecuador. The vine also yields a strong fiber. Fruits eaten by birds and white-faced monkeys (TBC).

Common Names:

Abuta (Eng.; RAI); Abútua (Brazil; Por.; KAB; MPB); Adivii Bankatige (Tel.; ADP); Akanadi (Ben.; Hindi; ADP; DEP; MPI); Akarmungpanang (Malaya; KAB; KAP); Akuadi (Hindi; KAB); Akuraso (Ashanti; KAB); Ambashtha (Sanskrit [1 of 39]; KAB); Ambashthai Patha (Sanskrit; DEP); Aportororkungma (Twi; KAB); Appata (Tam.; ADP); Areujtjantjuan (Java; KAB); Aristoloche Bilobée (Haiti; AVP); Barbasco (Peru; EGG); Bat (Pun.; KAB); Batangbatang (Cebu; KAB); Batato (Ca.; AVP); Batulpate (Majhi, Nepal; NPM); Batulpote (Nepal; NAD); Batulpoti (Nepal; KAB); Bejuco Azul (Cr.; AVP); Bejuco de Alcotan (Sal.; PCS); Bejuco de Cerca (Col.; IED); Bejuco de la Preñada (Ma.; JFM); Bejuco de Mona (Pr.; AVP; KAB; PCS); Bejuco de Ratón (Dor.; AHL; AVP); Bejuco de Sabana (Ma.; JFM); Bejuco de Salud (Ca.; AVP); Bejuco de Terciopelo (Ma.; JFM); Bejuco Ñame (Dor.; AHL); Bejuco Patacón (Col.; AVP); Bejuco Petillo (Cuba; AVP); Bejuco Prieto (Cuba; AVP); Belpath (Sin.; DEP); Butua (HHB); Caá (HHB); Calancalamayan (Batangas; KAB); Chhelem Langdu (Tamang; NPM); Chillo Batulpate (Nepal; NPM); Cipó de Cabras (Brazil; MPB); Cipó de Gota (Brazil; MPB); Cotán (Guat.; PCS); Cotán Curarina (Ma.; JFM); Curarina (Mex.; AVP); Cuscusipa (Ilo.; KAB); Cutulutur (Mun.; KAB); Cuxba (Ma.; JFM); Cuxogui (Ma.; JFM); Dalli Laharo (Majhi; NPM); Deyamittia (Sin.; DEP); Dhakani (Majhi; NPM); Diyamitta (Hindi; KAP; NAD); Duknirbissi (Nwp.; KAB); Eklega (Ben.; ADP); Equere Panar (Ma.; JFM); Erva de Nossa Senhora (Brazil; MPB); Estrella de la Preñada (Ma.; JFM); Estroloja (Ven.; AVP); Falsche Pareira (Ger.; HHB); False Pareira Brava (Eng.; AH2; HHB; KAB); Feuille Cocur (Haiti; AHL); Gasing Gasing (Malaya; IHB; RAI); Gěgasing (Malaya; IHB); Guaco (Ma.; JFM); Guayacan (Ma.; JFM); Gulangulammanan (Tag.; KAB); Gurubuti (Gurung; NPM); Hamafana (Sakalave; KAB); Harjor (Yunani; KAP); Harjori (Hindi; KAP; NAD); Hierba de Ratón (Ven.; PCS); Ice Vine (Eng.; NPM); Imchich Masha (Shipibo/Conibo; EGG); Iztacoanenpili (Mex.; MAX); Iztako–Anenep’li (Mex.; AVP); Jaluko (Nepal; NPM); Jibda Kassa (Hausa; Sudan; AVP; KAB); Joshin Astoro (Shipibo/Conibo; EGG); Kampapari (Vis.; KAB); Karandhis (Guj.; NAD); Kardhiyunbang (Porebunder; KAB); Katori (Pun.; Sin.; DEP; KAB; MPI; NAD); Kattuvalli (Mal.; ADP; SKJ); Kinikadjio (E. Afr.; KAB); Kökili (Bribri; IED); Kule (Hindi; SKJ); Kuxsogui (Ma.; JFM); Kwartang Gugai (Tamang; NPM); Laghu Patha (Sanskrit; KAP; NAD); Lahra (Ben.; SKJ); Lěmpanang (Malaya; IHB); Lepeta (Pedi; KAB); Liane 15 Jours (Guad.; AVP); Liane à Coeur (Fr.; JFM); Liane à Glacer (Fr.; KAB); Liane Amere (Fr.; JFM); Liane Amère (Guad.; AVP); Liane à Serpents (Guad.; AVP); Liane Blanche (Réunion; KAB); Liane Corde (Guad.; AVP); Liane Gourde (Haiti; AHL); Liane Molle (Guad.; AVP); Liane Patte Cheval (Haiti; AVP); Lungri (Gurung; NPM); Ma-NuPa-Tra (Tibet; NPM); Margosa (Ca.; AVP); Masquiunsabe (Ma.; JFM); M’cessie (Filabusi; KAB); Měmpanang (Malaya; IHB); Midwife’s Herb (Eng.; Ocn.; AH2); Milhombrea (Ma.; JFM); Moi Tron (Annam; KAB); Mokaekae (Chuana; Koba; Subia; KAB); Musya Belo (Raute; NPM); Nemuka (Ben.; DEP); Nimuka (Ben.; KAB); Nirbisi (Ben.; DEP; KAB); Okanobindhi (Oriya; KAB); Oreja de Ratón (Mex.; KAB; PCS); Oreja de Tigre (Ven.; AVP); Orelha de Onça (Brazil; MPB); Paatha (Sanskrit; MPI); Padavali (Kan.; KAB); Padavel (Mar.; KAB); Padvali (Kan.; NAD); Paha (Nepal; KAB); Pahadamoola (Hindi; NAD); Pahadvel (Bom.; KAB); Pahari (Garhwal; KAB); Paharval (Mar.; MPI; NAD); Paharvel (Mar.; ADP); Parayel (Goa; DEP); Parayet (Goa; KAB); Pareira (Japan; Pr.; AVP; KAP); Pareira Brava (Jam.; AVP); Paria Brava (Fr. Guiana; KAB); Parreira Brava (Brazil; MPB); Pata (Tel.; DEP; KAB; MPI; NAD); Pataca (Ma.; JFM); Patacón (Ca.; Col.; AVP; IED); Pat Chwal (Haiti; TRA); Paterutivu (Saora; KAB); Patha (Ayu.; Nepal; Sanskrit; Tibet; ADP; AH2; KAP; NPM); Patte Cheval (Haiti; AHL); Pattuvalli (Mal.; KAB); Pebá (HHB); Peteltun (Mex.; AVP); Phorgel Gil (Tibet; NPM); Picamano (Nic.; PCS); Pícamo (Nic.; AVP); Pomusktie (Tam.; DEP); Ponmootootai (Tam.; NAD); Punaittitta (Tam.; KAB); Ravinbury (Madagascar; KAB); Sansao (Pi.; KAB); Talsche Pareivawurzel (Ger.; KAP); Tamasás (Nic.; IED); Tamshaprip (Lepcha; KAB); Tanga (Tamang; NPM); Tejo Malla (San.; DEP; KAB); Tikri (Sin.; NAD); Tomatillo de Sabana (Cuba; PCS); Torola (Chepang; NPM); Tsutsucc (Ma.; JFM); Ts’uts’uk-ak (Mex.; AVP); Uva do Rio Apa (Ma.; JFM); Vaca Ñahui-Huasca (Peru; EGG); Vahemboatavo (Betsileo; KAB); Vahifotsy (Betsimisaraka; KAB); Vahivory (Hova; KAB); Vattatiruppi (Tam.; MPI); Velvetbush (Eng.; JFM); Velvetleaf (Eng.; Jam.; Scn.; ADP; AH2; KAP; NPM; USN); Venadera (Cr.; AVP); Venibel (Bom.; DEP); Venivel (Guj.; ADP; KAB); Videira Silvestre (Ma.; JFM); Voaravinaviavy (Antsianaka; KAB); Weniwela (Sin.; KAB); Xi Sheng Teng (Pin.; DAA).

Activities:

Alexiteric (f; DEP; KAB); Analgesic (f1; DAV; EGG; GMJ; KAB; RAI; X17240096); Antiabortive (f; IED); Antiarthritic (1; X17240096); Anticancer (f; JFM); Anticonvulsant (1; RAI; TRA); Antidiarrheal (1; X15050042); Antidote (f; ADP; RAI); Antiecbolic (f; DAW); Antiedemic (1; X17097249); Antifertility (1; X17324540); Antihistaminic (1; TRA; X17097249); Antiinflammatory (1; DAV; EGG; RAI; X17097249); Antileukemic (1; WO3; X8403094); Antilithic (f; WO2); Antimalarial (1; TRA); Antioxidant (1; RAI); Antiplasmodial (1; TRA); Antiradicular (1; RAI); Antiseptic (f; NPM); Antispasmodic (1; HHB; WO3); Antitrypanosomic (1; X12943789); Antiulcer (1; RAI); Aphrodisiac (f; RAI); Astringent (f1; DEP; X15050042); Bactericide (1; HDN; TRA; WO2); Bitter (f; DEP); Bradycardiac (1; TRA); Cardiotonic (1; TRA); CNS-Depressant (1; TRA; WO2); Contraceptive (1; X17324540); Curare (1; KAP; TRA; WO2); Cytotoxic (1; MPB; WO3); Depurative (f; KAP); Diaphoretic (f; IED); Diuretic (f; DAV; DAW; DEP; NPM; RAI); Emmenagogue (f; DAW; IED; KAB; WO2); Expectorant (f; DAV; DAW; EGG; IED; KAB; RAI); Febrifuge (f1; DAV; EGG; IED; KAB); Gram(+)-icide (1; WO2); Hemostat (f; IED; RAI); Hepatoprotective (f; RAI); Hypertensive (1; TRA); Hypotensive (1; TRA); Litholytic (f; DAW; DEP; IED; KAP); Mucolytic (f; RAI); Myorelaxant (1; KAP; MPI); Piscicide (f; DAV; IED; IHB); Poison (f; DAV); Purgative (f; DAW); Respirodepressant (f; DEP); Stimulant (f; DAW); Stomachic (f; DEP; KAB); Styptic (f; DAW); Tonic (f; DEP; NPM); Uterorelaxant (1; TRA); Vulnerary (f; DEP).

Indications:

Abortion (f; RAI); Abscesses (f; IHB; WO2); Acne (f; DAW; KAB; RAI; SKJ; WO2); Allergies (1; TRA; X17097249); Amenorrhea (f; KAB; WO2); Anemia (f; RAI); Arthritis (1; X17240096); Asthma (f; DAW; DEP; IED; JFM); Bacillus (1; HDN); Bacteria (1; HDN; TRA; WO2); Bites (f; SKJ); Bleeding (f; DAW; IED; RAI); Boils (f; DAW; JFM; WO2); Bronchitis (f; DAW); Bruises (f; RAI); Burns (f; DAW; WO2); Calculus (f; ADP; DAW; KAB; MAX; WO2); Cancer (f1; JFM; WO3); Cancer, colon (1; RAI); Candida (1; HDN); Carbuncles (f; DAW; SKJ); Cardiopathy (f1; ADP; JFM; RAI; TRA; WO2); Catarrh (f; DEP); Childbirth (f; JFM; KAB; RAI); Chills (f; DAW); Cholera (f; DAW); Colds (f; ADP; DAW); Colic (f; ADP; DAW; JFM; NPM; RAI); Congestion (f; RAI); Conjunctivosis (f; RAI); Constipation (f; NPM; RAI); Consumption (f; DEP); Convulsions (f1; DAW; RAI; TRA); Coughs (f; DAW; KAB); Cramps (f1; HHB; RAI; WO3); Cystosis (f; DAW; DEP; KAB; MAX; WOI); Delirium (f; DAW; SKJ); Dermatosis (f; IED; KAP; NPM); Diabetes (f; DAW); Diarrhea (f1; DAW; DEP; KAB; X15050042); Diphtheria (f; ADP); Dislocation (f; NPM); Dog Bites (f; DAW); Dropsy (f; DAW; DEP; KAB; MAX); Dysentery (f; ADP; DAW; DEP; JFM); Dysmenorrhea (f1; MPB; RAI; WO3); Dyspepsia (f; ADP; AHL; DAW; DEP; KAB; NPM); Dysuria (f; DAW; KAB); Edema (1; X17097249); Enterosis (f; DEP; KAB); Epilepsy (f; DAW; SKJ); Erysipelas (f; AHL; DAW); Escherichia (1; TRA); Fever (f1; ADP; DAV; DAW; EGG; IED; KAB; NPM; RAI); Fibroids (f; RAI); Gallstones (f; AHL); Gastrosis (f; DEP; NPM; RAI; TRA); Gingivosis (f; NPM); Gonorrhea (f; NPM); Gravel (f; DAW; KAB; SKJ); Headache (f; ADP); Hematuria (f; DAW; SKJ); Hemicrania (f; KAB); Hemorrhage (f; DAW); Hemorrhoids (f; KAB; SKJ); Hepatosis (f; MPB); High Blood Pressure (f1; DAW; TRA); Impotence (f; RAI); Infection (f1; HDN; NPM; TRA; WO2); Inflammation (f1; DAV; EGG; KAP; RAI; X17097249); Itch (f; ADP; DAW; WOI); Jaundice (f; DAW; DEP; MAX); Klebsiella (1; RAI); Leprosy (f; SKJ); Leukemia (1; WO3; X8403094); Leukorrhea (f; DAW; JFM; MAX); Low Blood Pressure (1; TRA); Malaria (f1; ADP; DAW; RAI; SKJ; TRA); Menorrhagia (f; DAW; RAI); Miscarriage (f; WO3); Mucososis (f; MPI; RAI); Myosis (f; RAI); Nephrosis (f; DAW; DEP; KAB; MAX; RAI; WO2); Nervousness (f; RAI); Oliguria (f; RAI); Ophthalmia (f; ADP; SKJ; WO2); Orchosis (f; AHL; DAW; RAI); Osteosis (f; NPM); Pain (f1; DAV; DEP; EGG; GMJ; KAB; NPM; RAI; WOI; X17240096); Palpitations (f; DAW; JFM); PMS (f; RAI); Prolapse (f; ADP; DEP); Puerperium (1; WO3); Rabies (f; DAW; SKJ); Rashes (f; IED); Respirosis (f; RAI); Rheumatism (f; DAW; MAX; RAI); Salmonella (1; RAI); Scabies (f; WO2); Sinusosis (f; DEP); Smallpox (f; ADP); Snake Bite (f; DAV; DAW; IHB; KAB; MAX; NPM); Sores (f; DEP; WOI); Spermatorrhea (f; ADP); Splenosis (f; JFM); Staphylococcus (1; HDN; TRA); Sterility (f; RAI); Stings (f; DEP; KAB); Stomachache (f; DEP; SKJ); Stones (f; DAW; DEP; IED; KAP; NAD; RAI); Stroke (f; SKJ); Swelling (f1; NPM; X17097249); Syphilis (f; KAP); Trypanosoma (1; X12943789); Tuberculosis (f; DEP); Typhoid (f; ADP); Ulcers (f1; DEP; NPM; RAI); Urethrosis (f; KAB); Urogenitosis (f; DAW; KAB; NAD); Uterosis (f; ADP; DEP; WO2); Vaginosis (f; RAI); VD (f; DAV; DAW; EGG; IED; KAP; NPM); Worms (f; KAB); Wounds (f; ADP; DAW; DEP; NPM); Yeast (1; HDN).

Dosages:

FNFF = ? Roots edible, used in making rice beer (WO2). 28–56 ml decoction (KAP); 2–8 ml liquid extract (KAP); 2–3 ml tincture 2–3×/day (RAI); 6 tsp plant juice 2×/day, given after childbirth to stop bleeding and counteract loss of blood (NPM); 3 tsp plant juice 3×/day for fever and indigestion (NPM); 4 tsp root juice 3×/day for burning urination a/o indigestion (NPM); 2 tsp root juice 3×/day to treat cough and colds (NPM); root juice dripped into wounds to kill germs and worms (NPM); 0.5–1.5 g powdered root (KAP); 1 cup wood decoction 2–3×/day (RAI); 1–2 g capsule/tablet 2–3×/day (RAI).

  • Asian Indians suggest pounded root for heat stroke and malaria (SKJ).
  • Assamese report temporary birth control with pareira in combination with black pepper, root of Mimosa pudica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (X12266264).
  • Bhoxa Tribals take leaf extract internally 15 days for spermatorrhea (ADP).
  • Brazilians take root decoction for amenorrhea and to dispel colic around childbirth (JFM).
  • Dominicans use for childbirth, erysipelas, gallstones, and fever (AHL).
  • Guatemalans take decoction for fever, and as a wash for erysipelas (JFM).
  • Guyanan Creoles steep bark, leaf, and stem in rum as aphrodisiac (JFM).
  • Guyanan Palikur poultice leaves to pain (RAI).
  • Jamaicans take the bitter diuretic tonic for dermatosis, gonorrhea, and sores (JFM).
  • Mexicans suggest 1–3 ounces (boil 1 pint water and 1.5 oz bark for 15 min, strain, fill back to 1 pint water) as diuretic and tonic (MAX).
  • Mexicans use for diarrhea, dysentery, dysmenorrhea, muscular inflammation, rheumatism, and snake bite (RAI).
  • Nicaraguans apply leaf and root decoction, orally and topically, for bites and stings of snakes, scorpions, and insects, and for fever, skin rashes, sores, and venereal diseases (IED).
  • Pauri Garhwal natives paste the plant onto itch, leukorrhea, and smallpox (ADP).
  • Peruvian Amerinds use seed as diuretic expectorant and for fever, snake bite, and VD (RAI).
  • Trinidad natives take leaf decoction for palpitations (JFM).
  • Wayãpi use leaf and stem decoction for oral pain relief (RAI).
  • Yucatanese take decoction as diuretic, for asthma, edema, jaundice, and rheumatism (JFM).

Downsides:

Sometimes deemed toxic to cattle (SOU). A poisonous plant in itself, it has served as an antidote to other poisons (HHB). As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed nine titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

Salts of the alkaloids have been used to relax muscles during operations. Leaf extract exhibited antifertility activity in mice, altering gonadotropin release and estradiol secretion, with oral LD50 = 7.3 g/kg mice (X17324540). 50% aqueous ethanolic root extract antinociceptive (100–400 mg/kg 1×/day/3 days mice) and antiarthritic (X17240096), also antiinflammatory (200–400 mg/kg rat) with no toxicity or mortality (up to 1,000 mg/kg p.o. rat), and did not cause gastric lesions (X17097249). The compound cissampeloflavone, from the aerial parts, active against Trypanosoma cruzi and T. brucei rhodesiense (X12943789). Cissampareine reportedly has activity against carcinoma of the nasopharynx. LD50 (aqueous decoction) = >5,000 mg/kg orl rat (TRA).

PRINCESS VINE (Cissus verticillata (L.) Nicolson & C. E. Jarvis) + VITACEAE

 

Illustrations:

fig 168 (MPG)

Common Names:

Achite (Ma.; JFM); Ampato Huasca (Peru; Sp.; LOR; MDD); Anil Trepador (Brazil; MPB); Bastard Bryony (Ma.; JFM); Bejuco Castro (Col.; MPG); Bejuco Chirriador (Col.; MPG); Bejuco Comemano (Guat.; Hon.; MPG); Bejuco de Agua (Col.; AVP); Bejuco de Caro (Cuba; Dor.; Pr.;Ven.; MPG); Bejuco de Gallina (Ma.; JFM); Bejuco Flexible (Bol.; DLZ); Bejuco Iasu (Cr.; MPG); Bejuco Loco (Mex.; MPG); Bejuco Ubi (Cuba; MPG); Blisterbush (Ma.; JFM); Boeng Abie Ma (Ma.; JFM); Cabuja di Tranke (Ma.; JFM); Caro (Cuba; Dor.; AVP; MPG); Chirriador (Ma.; JFM); Cipo (Brazil; MPG); Cipo Puca (Brazil; MPB); Cipo Puci (Brazil; MPB); Coronilla (Bel.; BNA); Cortina (Brazil; AVP); Cortina de Oxala (Brazil; AVP); Cortina de Pobre (Brazil; MPB); Cortina Japones (Brazil; AVP); Godmort (Ma.; JFM); Herbe a Ulceres (Haiti; AVP); Hierba de Buey (Mex.; MPG); Iasu (Cr.; MPG); Isipore (Bol.; Chiriguano; DLZ); Kaboeja di Trankera (Ma.; JFM); Lambrali (Ma.; JFM); Liane a Eau (Fwi.; AVP); Liane a Minguet (Ma.; JFM); Liane des Chasseurs (Fwi.; AVP); Liane Molle (Guad.; Haiti; AVP); Liane Mortelle (Haiti; AVP); Mary Bush (Ma.; JFM); Molonqui (Mex.; MPG); Omheimingtouw (Ma.; JFM); Paja de Culebra (Peru; Sp.; LOR); Picamano (Ma.; JFM); Pinakoop (Ma.; JFM); Poison Wyth (Ma.; JFM); Prenada Segunda (Bel.; BNA); Princess Vine (Eng.; Scn.; AH2; USN); Puca (Brazil; MPB; MPG); Puca Ampato Huasca (Peru; SOU); Pudding Bush (Ma.; JFM); Pudding Vine (Ma.; JFM); Pudding Wis (Ma.; JFM); Rockrope (Ma.; IED; JFM); Ruipato-Huasca (Peru; SOU); Sanalotodo (Ma.; JFM); Sapo Huasca (Peru; Sp.; LOR; MDD); Scratch Wys (Ma.; JFM); Season Vine (Eng.; AVP); Tab Kanil (Mex.; AVP); Ta Kan (Bel.; BNA); Temecate (Mex.; AVP); Tinto dos Gentios (Brazil; AVP); Toad Vine (Eng.; DAV); Tripa de Vaca (Mex.; MPG); Tripa de Zopilote (Mex.; MPG); Tripas de Judas (Mex.; MPG); Tumba Vaqueros (Mex.; MPG); Uva Branca (Ma.; JFM); Uva Cimarrona (Ma.; JFM); Uva de Culebra (Peru; SOU); Uvilla (Bol.; Nic.; MPG); Uvilla Silvestre (Ma.; JFM); Vid Silvestre (Mex.; MPG); Wild Yam (Ma.; JFM); Yaws Bush (Ma.; JFM); Yedra (Peru; DAV); Zapo Huasca (Peru; SOU).

Activities:

Analgesic (f; DAW); Anticonvulsant (1; MPG); Antiinflammatory (f; DAW); Antiseptic (1; MPG); Bactericide (1; MPG); Cicatrizant (f; DAW); CNS-Depressant (1; JFM; MPG); Diuretic (f; DAW); Emmenagogue (f; JFM); Febrifuge (f; DAW); Sedative (1; MPG); Stomachic (f; MPG); Tonic (f; JFM); Uterotonic (1; MPG); Vesicant (f; DAW).

Indications:

Abscesses (f; MPG); Anemia (f; DAV; MPB); Arthrosis (f; DAW); Asthma (f; MPG); Bacillus (1; MPG); Backache (f; JFM); Bacteria (1; MPG); Boils (f; DAW); Bruises (f; DAW); Carbuncles (f; DAW); Cardiopathy (f; MPB); Catarrh (f; MPG); Colds (f; DAW; EB30:131); Colitis (f; DAW); Convulsions (1; MPB); Coughs (f; EB30:131); Cramps (1; MPG); Dermatosis (f; JFM); Diarrhea (f; DAW); Dropsy (f; MPB); Epilepsy (f1; DAW; MPG); Fever (f; DAW); Flu (f; EB30:131; MPG); Fracture (f; DLZ; MPG); Furuncles (f; MPG); Gangrene (f; JFM); Headache (f; DAW); Hemorrhoids (f; DAV; SOU); Hepatosis (f; MPG); High Blood Pressure (f; DAV; MPB); Hoarseness (f; DAW); Hydrocele (f; JFM); Infection (1; MPG); Inflammation (f; DAW; MPG); Insomnia (1; MPG); Itch (f; JFM); Nephrosis (f; MPG); Neuralgia (f; DLZ); Pain (f; DAW; JFM); Respirosis (f; MPG); Rheumatism (f; DAW); Sores (f; DAW); Sore Throat (f; DAW); Sprains (f; DAV); Sunburn (f; EB30:131); Tachycardia (f; MPB); Tumors (f; DAW); Ulcers (f; DAW); Uterosis (f; MPG); Wounds (f; DAW).

Dosages:

FNFF = ? Jamaicans drink the decoction with coconut or condensed milk as a beverage (JFM). Bark tincture applied topically, decoction drunk for rheumatism (JFM). Stems bound around painful joints and fractures (JFM).

  • Amazonians use the sap for epilepsy (MPB).
  • Cubans use leaf, stem, a/o root decoction, preferably fresh, for asthma, catarrh, and cough (MPG).
  • Dominicans apply heated leaves to furuncles and gangliar afflictions (MPG).
  • In Trinidad and Tobago it is considered “cooling,” used for high cholesterol and urinary problems (X17040567).

Downsides:

Sap vesicant, contains calcium oxalate. As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed one title alluding to toxicity of this species.

WACA (Clibadium surinamense L.) + ASTERACEAE

 

Synonyms:

Baillieria aspera Aubl.; Clibadium asperum (Aubl.) DC.; fide (USN).

Notes:

“Waca,” “huava,” “guaca” are all rather similar names. I’d have used “barbasco,” but I already used that for another fish poison, Dioscorea.

Common Names:

Barbasco (Col.; Sp.; DAV; SAR); Barbasco Amarillo (Ma.; JFM); Conabi (Brazil; Sa.; MPB; RAR); Conambi (Brazil; MPB); Conami (Sa.; RAR); Counami Batard (Creole; Sur.; GMJ); Cunambi (Brazil; X16616455); Guaco (Col.; SAR); Huaco (Peru; Sp.; LOR); Koo Mapre (Miranya; SAR); Senyamba (Kofan; SAR); Topa Blanc (Creole; Sur.; GMJ); Toteeo (Secoya; SAR); Toteo (Secoya; SAR); Tupa Kamwi (Palikur; GMJ); Waca (Peru; Sp.; LOR; MDD); Wy Ee Nee Ma (Barasana; SAR).

Activities:

Bitter (f; MPB); CNS-Stimulant (1; X16616455); Convulsant (1; X16616455); Neurotoxic (1; X16616455); Parasiticide (f; JFM); Piscicide (1; IED); Tonic (f; MPB); Toxic (1; X16616455).

Indications:

Anemia (f; JFM; MPB); Chlorosis (f; MPB); Colds (f; JFM); Colic (f; JFM); Dermatosis (f; JFM; MPB); Diarrhea (f; JFM); Erysipelas (f; JFM; MPB); Freckles (f; JFM); Itch (f; JFM); Parasites (f; JFM); Wounds (f; JFM).

Dosages:

FNFF = !

  • Brazilians bathe erysipelas and wounds with flower and leaf decoction (JFM).

Downsides:

Neurotoxic. Ethanolic leaf extract induced seizures followed by death within 30 min in mice (X16616455). As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed three titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

Hexane extract of the stems and leaves CNS-stimulant and convulsant (22.5–360 mg/kg, p.o. mice); cunaniol acetate identified as the convulsant compound (X16616455).

TREE SPINACH (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (Mill.) I. M. Johnst.) ++ EUPHORBIACEAE

Synonyms:

Jatropha aconitifolia Mill. (basionym); fide (USN).

Common Names:

Cabbage-Star (Eng.; USN); Tree-Spinach (Eng.; USN); Manioc Bâtard (Fr.; USN); Chaya (Sp.; USN); Copapayo (Sp.; USN).

Activities:

Antidiabetic (1; X17531147); Antioxidant (1; X14709023); Insulinogenic (1; X17531147).

Indications:

Diabetes (1; X17531147).

Dosages:

FNFF = !! Other species, like this one, cooked and eaten like spinach (FAC; JAD)

Downsides:

Cooking is necessary to inactivate the toxic hydrocyanic glycosides present in chaya leaves (X10540979).

Extracts:

Leaf extract insulinogenic, decreasing glucose levels by 25.6% in moderately diabetic mice, and by 43.7% in severely diabetic mice (X17531147). Leaf extracts, containing kaempferol-3-O-glycosides and quercetin-3-O-glycosides, had higher antioxidant activity in raw rather than the cooked extracts (X14709023). Beta-carotene 27–52 mg/100 g dry plant; lutein 140–193 mg/100 g of dry plant (X15826042).

SEA GRAPE (Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L.) ++ POLYGONACEAE

 

Illustrations:

fig 96 (IED); p 398 (TTS); p 83 (L&W)

Synonyms:

Guaiabara uvifera House; Polygonum uvifera L.

Notes:

In Haitian vodou, this characteristically coastal shrub or tree is the preferred tree habitation of the “Iwa Agwe” (VOD).

Common Names:

Agraz (Col.; Ma.; AUS; JFM); American Kino (Eng.; AUS); Anyalque (Peru; AVP); Aragueque (Ven.; AUS); Arahueque (Ma.; JFM); Arco de Pipa (Por.; AVP); Baga da Praia (Por.; AVP); Barána Baíbai (Garifuna; IED); Baya de Praga (Ma.; AUS; JFM); Bay Grape (Bwi.; Eng.; JFM); Bihcô:Bî (Mikasuka; AUS); Boga de Praia (Ma.; AUS; JFM); Bois Baguette (Fwi.; AVP); Buisbasa (Wi.; AUS); Calentura (Col.; AVP); Camere (Ma.; JFM); Carro Caliente (Cr.; AVP); Coccoloba (Peru; AVP); Cocoloba (Brazil; Por.; USN); Corralero (Ma.; JFM); Cumare Blanco (Ma.; AUS; JFM); Dreifi (Dutch; AVP); Dreifi de la Mar (Sur.; AUS); Dreifi die Lamon (Dwi.; AUS; JFM); Druif (Dwi.; Sur.; AUS; AVP; JFM); Druifi (Dwi.; AUS; JFM); Duraznillo (Arg.; AVP); False Rhatany (Eng.; AUS); Grape (Bel.; Sur.; Vi.; AUS; AVP; BNA; JFM); Guajabara (Por.; AVP); Guaya-Conejo (Cuba; AUS); Guiabara (Dom.; Por.; AUS; AVP); Guibasa (Ma.; JFM); Hai P’u Tao (China; TAN); Hamudo Noki (Japan; TAN); Hopwood (Bwi.; Eng.; AUS; JFM); Horsewood (Eng.; JFM); Hueso (Pan.; AVP); Hueson de Negro (Col.; AVP); Irayol de Montanya (Guat.; AVP); Jamaica Kino (Eng.; AUS); Jamaican Kina (Eng.; USN); Juan Garrote (Col.; Ma.; AUS; JFM); Ki:Horáko (Creek; AUS); Kiichhe (Maya; Mex.; AUS; AVP); Lappenbeere (Ger.; AVP); Manggel die Sabbana (Curacao; AUS); Mangle de Falda (Ma.; JFM); Mangrove Grape Tree (Eng.; AUS); Manzana Extranjero (Mex.; Sp.; AUS); Manzano (Mex.; AUS; AVP); Matora (Arawak; Sur.; AUS); Meertraubenbaum (Ger.; USN); Miconga (Ma.; JFM); Micongo (Col.; AUS; IED); Murta (Col.; Ma.; AUS; JFM); Niichhe (Bel.; Mex.; AVP; BNA); Nula (Cuna; AUS; IED); Paletuvier Rouge (Fr.; AVP); Palétuvyé Wouj (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Palo Mulato (Pan.; AVP; JFM); Papalón (Sal.; AVP); Papaton (Ca.; AVP); Papaturro (Cr.; Hon.; Sal.; AVP); Papaturro Extranjero (Nic.; AVP); Pigeonwood (Bwi.; Ma.; JFM); Platterleaf (Eng.; USN); Purgua (Peru; AVP); Quiabara (Ai.; AUS); Quinino de Jamaica (Sp.; AHL); Quino (Col.; Ma.; AUS; JFM); Raisin de Fer (Fr.; Haiti; AHL); Raisinier a Grappes (Fwi.; AVP); Raisinier Bord de Mer (Fr.; Fwi.; AUS; USN); Raisinier d’Amerique (Fr.; AVP); Raisin la Mer (Fr.; Haiti; AHL; AUS); Rézen d’Mè (Creole; Haiti; VOD); R’zen Lann MP (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Schusterdruif (Ma.; JFM); Sea Grape (Eng.; Scn.; AH2; USN; VOD); Seaside Grape (Fwi.; AUS; AVP; VOD); Seetraube (Ger.; AVP); Shoregrape (Eng.; TAN); Shore Sea-Grape (Eng.; USN); Squinom Raisin Bord de Mer (Fwi.; AUS); Uva (Dor.; Mex.; AUS); Uva Caleta (Cuba; Dor.; Sp.; AHL; AUS; AVP; RyM; USN); Uva-da-Praia (Por.; USN); Uva de Galeta (Ma.; JFM); Uva de la Costa (Dor.; AUS); Uva de Mar (Dor.; Mex.; Pr.; AHL; AUS); Uva de Playa (Hon.; Mex.; Pan.; Peru; Pr.; Sp.; Ven.; AUS; AVP; EGG; USN); Uva do Mar (Brazil; Por.; USN); Uva Silvestre (Por.; AVP); Uverna (Sp.; IED); Uvero (Col.; Cuba; Mex.; Pan.; Pr.; Sp.; Ven.; AUS; AVP; EGG; USN); Uvero de Monte (Trin.; AVP); Uvero de Playa (Cr.; Dom.; Mex.; Ven.; AUS; AVP); Uvero Macho (Col.; Dor.; Ven.; AUS; AVP; JFM); Uvilla (Dor.; AUS; AVP); Virao Blanco (Arg.; AVP); West Indian Kino (Eng.; AUS); Wezen (Trin.; AUS); Wild Grape (Bwi.; Eng.; Hon.; AUS; AVP); Zeedreifi (Dutch; Sur.; AUS; AVP; JFM); Zeedruif (Sur.; AVP); Zusterdruif (Sur.; AUS; JFM).

Activities:

Antidiarrheal (f; DAW); Antidysenteric (f; DAW); Antitumor (1; FNF); Antivenereal (f; DAW); Astringent (f; DAW; VOD); Febrifuge (f; AUS; DAW); Hemagenic (f; JFM); Tonic (f; DAW).

Indications:

Anemia (f; JFM); Asthma (f; JFM); Bleeding (f; JFM; VOD); Blennorrhagia (f; VOD); Cancer (1; FNF); Childbirth (f; JFM); Dermatosis (f; IED; VOD); Diarrhea (f; AHL; DAW; VOD); Dysentery (f; AHL; AUS; DAW; VOD); Dyspepsia (f; IED); Enuresis (f; JFM); Eruption (f; JFM); Fever (f; AUS; DAW; VOD); Hemorrhoids (f; JFM); Hoarseness (f; JFM); Incontinence (f; JFM); Itch (f; VOD); Rashes (f; JFM); Sores (f; IED); VD (f; DAW; JFM); Wounds (f; JFM).

Dosages:

FNFF = !! Fruits edible raw or in jams, jellies, or in wine (AUS; FAC). Austin even recounts seeing a Florida mockingbird drunk from eating too many fermented berries (AUS).

  • Caicos Islanders apply the root decoction to hemorrhoids and rashes (JFM).
  • Caicos Islanders take the wine for anemia, the root decoction for puerperium (JFM).
  • Cubans use the leaf decoction for asthma and hoarseness (JFM).
  • Guyanans take fresh fruit juice for diarrhea and dysentery (JFM).
  • Haitians bathe in a bark bath for itching dermatoses (VOD).
  • Haitians take the bark decoction for diarrhea and fever (VOD).
  • Haitians take the fruit, root, and stem decoction for blennorrhagia, diarrhea, dysentery, and hemorrhage (VOD).

Downsides:

If the anthaquinones in Aloe, Rhamnus, Rheum, Senna, etc. prove to have a downside so will the anthraquinones here. As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed three titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

If the anthaquinones in Aloe, Rhamnus, Rheum, Senna, etc. prove to have positive medicinal virtues, so will the anthraquinones here.

COMASUCHE (Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willd.) Spreng.) + BIXACEAE

Synonyms:

Bombax vitifolium Willd. (basionym); Cochlospermum hibiscoides Kunth; Maximilianea hibiscoides (Kunth) Kuntze; M. vitifolia (Willd.) Krug & Urb.; fide (USN).

Common Names:

Comasuche (Sp.; USN); Huevos del Burro (Sp.; USN); Pumpumjuche (Sp.; USN); Pumpunjuche (Sp.; USN); Rosa Amarilla (Sp.; USN); Tecomasúchil (Sp.; USN); Tecomasuche (Sp.; USN).

Activities:

Angiotensin-Inhibitor (1; X11292241); Hepatoprotective (f1; X16978815); Hypoglycemic (f1; X16978815); Immunomodulant (1; X15500263); Vasorelaxant (f1; X16978815).

Indications:

Diabetes (f1; X16978815); Hepatitis (f1; X16978815); High Blood Pressure (f1; X16978815); Metabolic Syndrome (1; X16978815).

Dosages:

FNFF = !

Downsides:

As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed one title alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

Hexane bark extract showed a significant endothelium-independent relaxation on rat aorta rings at 120 mg/kg (IC50 = 14.42+/–5.90 μg/ml) and also showed significant decrease of blood glucose levels; methanolic bark extract produced an endothelium-dependent relaxation at 100 mg/kg (IC50 = 21.94+/–6.87 μg/ml) (X16978815). Stem bark extract immunomodulatory in vitro (X15500263). Methanol:dicloromethane bark extract inhibited angiotensin II AT1 receptor more than 50% (X11292241).

ERECT DAYFLOWER (Commelina erecta L.) + COMMELINACEAE

Illustrations:

p 232 (AUS)

Synonyms:

Commelina elegans Kunth; Commelina virginica auct.; fide (BNA; USN).

Common Names:

Bluebird (Nic.; AUS); Botoncillo (Dor.; AHL); Burabaya (Nig.; UPW); Bura Bura Ba (Mali; Sen.; UPW); Canutillo (Sp.; AUS); Consuelda (Dor.; AHL); Day Flower (Fla.; HOC); Dew Flower (Eng.; AUS); Erect Dayflower (Eng.; USN); Espuelitas (Mex.; AUS); Hierba de Pollo (Tex.; AUS); Lancetilla Blanca (Peru; DAV); Leandro Gomez (Uru.; MPG); Little Bamboo (Bel.; AUS); Maïs Marron (Haiti; AHL); Mataliste (Mex.; Sal.; AUS); Nyame Bewu Na Mawu (Ghana; UPW); Oki Ahissi (Koasati; AUS); Pah Tsá (Maya; AUS); Santa Lucia (Uru.; MPG); Spiderwort (Eng.; HOC); Suelda Consuelda (Dor.; AHL); Tamakusi (Car.; Sur.; AUS); Utek’ (Huastec; Mex.; AUS); White Mouth Dayflower (Eng.; AUS); X-Habul-Ha (Maya; AUS); Ya’ax Ha Xiu (Maya; Mex.; AUS); Yerba de Santa Lucia (Uru.; MPG); Z’Herbe Maïs Marron (Haiti; AHL). (Nscn).

Activities:

Antispasmodic (f; AHL); Diuretic (f; AHL); Emollient (f; HOC); Febrifuge (f; AHL); Nervine (f; AHL).

Indications:

Bleeding (f; MPG); Conjunctivosis (f; MPG); Cramps (f; AHL); Dermatosis (f; HOC; MPG); Erythema (f; MPG); Fever (f; AHL); Hepatosis (f; MPG); Herpes (f; MPG); Infertility (f; MPG); Itch (f; HOC; MPG); Leucorrhea (f; MPG); Nervousness (f; AHL); Oliguria (f; AHL); Ophthalmia (f; MPG); Rashes (f; MPG); Sterility (f; EB31:304).

Dosages:

FNFF = ! I tend to eat any species but find that Burkill refers to it being fed to camels, cattle, horses, and poultry in Western Africa (UPW).

  • Belizeans, Bolivians, a/o Mexicans use the fresh sap, or water caught in flowers, to clarify the vision (AUS; MPG).
  • Ecuadorians take the aqueous root extract as anticontraceptive (MPG).
  • Haitians view as antispasmodic, diuretic, febrifuge, and nervine (MPG).
  • Paraguayan women take the aqueous extract to promote fertility (MPG).
  • Seminoles use sap to soothe irritations and itch (AUS; HOC).
  • Uruguayans use leaf decoction for leucorrhea (MPG).
  • Uruguayans use the mucilaginous flowers in decoction for bleeding, conjunctivosis, dermatosis, erythema, hepatosis, herpes, rashes, and itch (MPG).
  • Yorubans invoke the plant in incantation to cause itch in the enemy (UPW).

FLAX-LEAF FLEABANE (Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist) + ASTERACEAE

Illustrations:

p 108 (MPG)

Synonyms:

Conyza albidas; C. ambigua; C. bonariensis; C. floribunda; C. linifolia; Erigeron bonariensis L. (basionym); E. crispus Pourr.; fide (EGG; USN).

Notes:

In Peru, from Amazonian to ca. 4,000 m.

Common Names:

Carnicera (Uru.; MPG); Cola de Zorro (Peru; EGG); Flax-Leaf Fleabane (Aust.; Eng.; USN); Tabaquilla (Pan.; TBC); Wavy-Leaf Fleabane (Eng.; Nz.; USN); Yerba Carnicera (Uru.; MPG). (Nscn).

Activities:

Allergenic (1; X743885); Anticholinergic (1; MPG); Antiviral (1; MPG); Cardiotonic (1; MPG); CNS-Depressant (1; MPG); Decongestant (f; MPG); Diuretic (f1; MPG); Fungicide (1; MPG); Gamma-Interferon-Inhibitor (1; X12967039); Hepatoprotective (f; MPG); Hypouricemic (f; MPG); IL-4-Inhibitor (1; X12967039); Insecticide (f; MPG); Natriuretic (1; MPG); Positive Inotropic (1; MPG); Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor (1; X11576616).

Indications:

Arthrosis (f; MPG); Cardiopathy (1; MPG); Congestion (f; MPG); Diarrhea (f; MPG); Dysentery (f; MPG); Dysuria (f; MPG); Fungus (1; MPG); Gonorrhea (f; MPG); Gout (f; MPG); Hepatosis (f; MPG); Infection (1; MPG); Mycosis (1; MPG); Oliguria (f; MPG); Rheumatism (f; MPG); VD (f; MPG); Viruses (1; MPG).

Dosages:

FNFF = ?

  • Argentinians use aqueous extract as anthelmintic, antirheumatic, astringent, digestive, diuretic, febrifuge, and hepatoprotective, using for diarrhea, dysuria, hepatic congestion, and VD (MPG).
  • Peruvians use medicinally (EGG).
  • Sotho take leaf decoction for ringworm and sore throat (UPW).
  • Uruguayans view tea as diuretic, hepatoprotective, and hypouricemic, using for dysentery, gonorrhea, gout, and rheumatism (MPG).

Downsides:

Perhaps toxic to cattle (MPG) but browsed by goats (UPW). As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed five titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

Hydroalcohol extract antiviral at 50 μg/ml (MPG). Syringic acid and takakin 8-O-glucuronide slightly inhibit xanthine oxidase (IC50 = 500+/–41 μM and 170+/–12 μM, respectively) (X11576616).

CANADA FLEABANE (Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist) + ASTERACEAE

Illustrations:

fig 197 (AH366)

Synonyms:

Erigeron canadensis L. (basionym); E. paniculatus Lam.; E. pusillus Nutt.; E. strictus DC.; Leptilon canadense Britt.; L. pusillum Britt.; Senecio liliatus Walt.; fide (BUR; JFM; USN).

Notes:

This species can accumulate high concentration of Cd, and tolerate high Cd and Cd-Pb-Cu-Zn pollution. (X15559831). Grazers might wish to avoid it in polluted areas.

Common Names:

Achicoria Cimarrona (Cuba; JTR); Achicoria Silvestre (Cuba; JTR); Ajila (Cherokee; AUS); Anisillo (Cuba; JTR); Atackro:Lasti (Creek; AUS); Atackto:Lasti (Creek; AUS); Atsil Sun’ti (Cherokee; AUS); Barilla (Dor.; AHL); Bittersweet (Eng.; BUR); Bitter Weed (Eng.; BUR); Blood Staunch (Eng.; BUR); Butter Weed (Eng.; BUR; USN); Button Weed (Eng.; BUR); Canada Erigeron (Eng.; BUR); Canada Fleabane (Eng.; Scn.; AH2); Canadees Fijnstraalkraud (Dutch; EFS); Canadian Butterweed (Eng.; EFS); Canadian Coltstail (Eng.; EFS); Canadian Fleabane (Eng.; CR2; USN); Canadian Horseweed (Eng.; CR2; USN); Canhlo’Gan Was’temna Iye’cece (Lakota; AUS); Cauda de Raposa (Brazil; AVP); Cocash (Na.; JLH); Colt’s Tail (Eng.; BUR); Conize Lobée (Fr.; VOD); Conyze du Canada (Fr.; AVP); Delis (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Erigeròn (Fr.; EFS); Erigeron du Canada (Guad.; AVP); Fausse Camomille (Fr.; AVP); Fireweed (Eng.; BUR); Fleabane (Eng.; BUR; CR2); Foxtail (Dwi.; AUS); Franzosenkraut (Ger.; EFS); Gababi’kwuna’tig (Ojibwa; AUS); Ha’mo U’teawe (Zuni; AUS); Herbe des Francais (Fr.; AVP); Hierba de Burro (Mex.; AUS); Himewmukashi Yomogi (Japan; FAC); Hogweed (Eng.; BUR; USN); Horsetail (Usa.; AUS); Horseweed (Eng.; BUR; CR2; USN); Kamomi Mawon (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Kanadisches Berufkraut (Ger.; EFS; USN); Kanadisches Dürrwurz (Ger.; EFS); Kanadisches Flohkraut (Ger.; EFS); Kanaryaotu (Tur.; EFS); Mare’s Tail (Eng.; BUR); No’sowini (Meskwaki; AUS); Orozuz (Pr.; AVP; JTR); Pascueta (Pr.; AVP); Pazcueta (Pr.; JTR); Pazitillo (Nahuatl; AUS); Pinillo (Dor.; AHL); Pinito (Dor.; AHL); Prideweed (Eng.; AUS; BUR; EFS); Rake (Hocak; WIN); Saeppola (It.; EFS); Scabious (Eng.; BUR); Squawweed (Eng.; EFS; JLH); Tabak a Djab (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Tackro:Cî (Mikasuk; AUS); Ts’iitsil Xiu (Mex.; MAX); Vergerette du Canada (Fr.; AVP); Vtakru Luste (Muskogee; AUS); Zancaraña (Cuba; JTR); Zèb a Pik (Creole; Haiti; VOD).

Activities:

Anthelmintic (f; PHR); Antiaggregant (1; X16973495); Anticonvulsant (f; DEM); Antiedemic (f; PH2); Antiinflammatory (f1; PHR; VOD; X3725873); Antioxidant (1; X16973495); Astringent (f; BUR; FAD); Diuretic (f; BUR; FAD; JFM); Hemostat (f; BUR; PHR); Hypotensive (1; PNC); Sternutatory (f; DEM; JFM); Sudorific (f; DEM); Tonic (f; BUR; JFM; PNC).

Indications:

Acne (f; DEM); Arthrosis (f; DEM); Asthma (f; DEM); Backache (f; DEM); Bleeding (f; BUR; JFM; PHR; PH2); Bronchosis (f; FAD; JFM; MAX; PH2); Cancer (f; JLH; PH2); Childbirth (f; DEM); Cholecystosis (f; FAD; PH2); Colds (f; AUS; DEM); Congestion (f; DEM); Convulsions (f; DEM); Coughs (f; AUS; DEM; FAD); Cramps (f; DEM); Cystosis (f; FAD; PH2); Dermatosis (f; DEM); Diabetes (f; BUR; MAX); Diarrhea (f; DEM; FAD; JFM); Dropsy (f; PH2); Dysentery (f; MAX; PHR); Dysmenorrhea (f; PH2); Dysuria (f; BUR; FAD); Eczema (f; FAD); Edema (f1; JFM; PHR; PH2; VOD; X3725873); Enterosis (f; FAD); Epistaxis (f; HHB); Fever (f; DEM; VOD); Gastrosis (f; FAD; PH2); Gonorrhea (f; JFM); Gout (f; PH2); Granuloma (f; PH2); Gravel (f; BUR; FAD); Headache (f; BUR; DEM); Head Colds (f; DEM); Hematochezia (f; BUR); Hemorrhoids (f; FAD; PH2); Hepatosis (f; PH2); High Blood Pressure (1; PNC); Hysteria (f; DEM); Inflammation (f1; PHR; VOD; X3725873); Leukorrhea (f; AUS; DEM); Liver Spots (f; DEM); Menorrhagia (f; PH2); Nephrosis (f; FAD); Nervousness (f; VOD); Pain (f; DEM; VOD); Pulmonosis (f; BUR); Rheumatism (f; PH2); Rhinosis (f; DEM; JFM); Ringworm (f; FAD); Snake Bite (f; DEM); Sore Throat (f; DEM; PHR; PH2); Sprains (f; DEM); Stomachache (f; DEM); Sunburn (f; DEM); Tumors (f; FAD; JLH); Uterorrhagia (f; BUR; MAX; PHR); Uterosis (f; PH2); UTIs (f; PHR; PH2); VD (f; DEM); Worms (f; PHR); Wounds (f; BUR; DEM).

Dosages:

FNFF = ! Japanese eat the young leaves and seedlings boiled, cooked with rice, or dried for future preparation. EO used in candy, soft drinks, and spice mixes (FAC). Tops consumed as food by Miwok Indians (DEM). 3 cups/day or 2 tsp (PH2); 4–8 ml liquid extract; 0.01–0.25 ml EO (PNC).

  • Argentinians take decoction (5 g herb in 300 g water) as diuretic in gonorrhea (JFM).
  • Cahuila use leaf infusion for diarrhea (DEM).
  • Chippewa use leaf/root decoction for female weakness and stomachache (DEM).
  • Cree use plant for diarrhea (DEM).
  • Cubans give shoot tea (50 g fresh herb/100 g water) for diarrhea, edema, and hemorrhage (JFM).
  • Hawaiians apply expressed juice to backache, sore joints, and sprains (DEM).
  • Hopi poultice or rub plant on temples for headache (DEM).
  • Houma Indians take hot root infusion for leukorrhea (AUS; DEM).
  • Iroquois infuse whole plant (with roots of another) for childhood convulsions and fever (DEM).
  • Mesquaki use herb as a steaming agent in sweat baths (DEM).
  • Navajo use plant lotion for pimples or snake bite, poulticing the hot plant on babes with “prenatal infection” (DEM).
  • New Mexicans stuff the sternutatory flowers up their nose for rhinitis (JFM).
  • North Americans apply decoction or tincture to hard tumors (JLH).
  • Seminoles take plant for colds, congestion, coughs, sore throat, and stuffy nose (AUS; DEM).
  • Western Keres rub the crushed plant onto sunburn (DEM).
  • Yucatanese take astringent decoction as diuretic tonic, also for bronchial afflictions, diabetes, dysentery, and uterine hemorrhage (JFM).

Downsides:

Class 1 (AHP). None recorded (PHR); “Health risks or side effects following the proper administration of designated therapeutic dosages are not recorded” (PH2). May cause dermatosis in humans; irritates nostrils and throats of grazing animals (FAD; JFM). May cause mild hay fever, at least in the U.S. (EFS). As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed 17 titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

The polysaccharide extract antiaggregant and antioxidant (X16973495). Extract antiinflammatory in carrageenin and formalin oedema (rats), with highest activity in petroleum ether fraction of eight sesquiterpenic hydrocarbons (alpha-curcumene, beta-himachalene, beta-santalene, cuparene, gamma-cadinene and three unidentified) (X3725873). Limonene allelochemic, antiacetylcholinesterase, anticancer, antifeedant, antiflu, antilithic, antimutagenic, antiseptic, antitumor (breast, pancreas & prostate), antiviral, bactericide, cancer-preventive, candidistat, enterocontractant, expectorant, fungistat, insect-repellent, insecticide, nematocide, sedative, spasmolytic, and viricide (LD50 = 4,600 (orl rat)); myrcene reportedly allergenic, analgesic, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antioxidant, bactericide, fungicide, insect repellent, and spasmolytic (FNF). Flavonoids apigenin, isohamnetin, luteolin quercetin, and rhamnetin also have mutagenic properties (X2179716).

DIESEL TREE (Copaifera langsdorffii Desf.) + CAESALPINIACEAE

Common Names:

Copahu (Fr.; USN); Copaiba (Eng.; USN); Copaiva (Ger.; USN); Diesel Tree (Eng.; JAD).

Activities:

Anticancer, breast (1; X12165328); Anticancer, colon (1; X12165328); Anticolitic (1; X14567068; X15182904); Antiinflammatory (1; X14567068); Antiseptic (1; JAD; PH2); Antitumor (1; X12165328); Bactericide (1; PH2); Calcium-Blocker (1; X12722132); Carminative (f; JAD); Cytotoxic (1; X12165328); Diuretic (f; JAD); Embryotoxic (1; X12165328); Emetic (f; JAD); Expectorant (f; JAD); Gastroprotective (1; X9720615); Hydragogue (f; JAD); Larvicide (1; X16253435); Laxative (f; JAD); Stimulant (f; JAD); Trypsin-Inhibitor (1; X11330343; X11526330; X15134830); Urinary Antiseptic (1; PH2); Uterorelaxant (1; X12722132).

Indications:

Bacteria (1; PH2); Bronchosis (f; JAD); Cancer (1; X12165328); Cancer, breast (1; X12165328); Cancer, colon (1; X12165328); Catarrh (f; JAD); Chilblains (f; JAD); Colitis (1; X14567068; X15182904); Constipation (f; JAD); Cystosis (f; JAD; MAD); Dermatosis (f; DAW); Diarrhea (f; JAD); Dropsy (f; JAD; MAD); Dysuria (f; MAD); Eczema (f; DAW); Fever (f; MAD); Gas (f; JAD); Gastrosis (1; X9720615); Gonorrhea (f; DAW; JAD; MAD); Hemorrhoids (f; JAD; MAD); Infection (1; JAD; PH2); Inflammation (f1; PH2; X14567068); Kidney Stones (1; PH2); Leucorrhea (f; JAD); Mucososis (f; PH2); Psoriasis (f; MAD); Pulmonosis (f; MAD; PH2); Rheumatism (f; MAD); Tumors (1; X12165328); UTIs (1; PH2); VD (F; JAD; MAD); Wounds (1; X12458476).

Dosages:

FNFF = ? ½–1 g capsule (MAD); 25–30 drops tincture 3×/day (MAD).

Downsides:

Not covered (AHP). 5 g can cause stomach pain (PH2). Large doses purgative and emetic, causing strangury, bloody urine, and fever. The resin irritates the whole mucous membrane, imparting a peculiar odor to the urine and breath, and causes an eruption resembling measles attended with irritation and tingling (JAD). As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed two titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

Oil larvicidal for Aedes aegypti, LC50 = 41 μg/l (X16253435), is also rich in the diterpene kaurenoic acid, known to have antiinflammatory, diuretic, and hypotensive effects in vivo, antimicrobial, cytotoxic, smooth muscle and uterorelaxant in vitro, is also shown to be embryotoxic (sea urchin embryo), genotoxic (ant at 78 μM), antileukemic (95%), and anticancer (breast and colon) 45% (X12165328; X12722132; X16182426). Oleo-resin and kaurenoic acid had protective effect in colitis-induced rats (200–400 mg/kg and 50–100 mg/kg, respectively) (X14567068; X15182904); bark oleo-resin gastroprotective in induced gastric lesions in rats (200–400 mg/kg), and wound healing (X12458476; X9720615).

COPAIBA (Copaifera officinalis (Jacq.) L.) + CAESALPINIACEAE

Illustrations:

fig 74 (DAV) (C. reticulata)

Synonyms:

Copaifera paupera (Herzog) Dwyer; Copaiva officinalis Jacq. (basionym); fide (USN).

Notes:

The taxonomy and chemical composition of copaiba is about as complex as that of myrrh. Collected in the wild by non-taxonomists, the collections may often represent a mixture of highly variable species. So the studies of the resins can rarely if ever be authenticated, unless the resin and the voucher specimens are gathered by the same interested party. I am almost certain that the indications below refer to one of the four scientific names, and suspect they apply equally well to all four. But until all have been vouchered and studied properly, I think a rather broad-brush generic approach is in order. McGuffin et al. (2000) give “copaiba” as the standardized common name for Copaifera officinalis, and “Brazilian copaiba” for both Copaifera multijuga Hane and Copaifera reticulata Ducke. Taylor (2005) entries below, as RAI, may apply to any of these, the so-called “diesel tree” Copaifera langsdorffii, or one of the above. Egg (1999) aggregates both C. officinalis and C. reticulata under C. paupera (not in USDA nomenclature database (USN)). That the oleoresin called “copaiba” could be obtained incising the trunk was reported in England in 1625, “... a single tree ... said to yield about 40 litres” (GMH). Natives reportedly drill a 5-centimeter hole into the 1-meter thick trunk and put a bung into it. Every 6 months or so, they remove the bung and collect 15 to 20 liters of the hydrocarbon. Since there are few diesels in the jungle, the natives use the hydrocarbon as an emollient and for other non-energy-related purposes. But tests show that the liquid can be placed directly in the fuel tank of a diesel-powered car. As the price of energy rises, you can bet that they’ll be revisiting concepts like these for alternative energy sources (HOE).

Common Names:

Aciete (Sp.; USN); Akui Ná (Ese’eja; MD2); Aracaibo Copaiba (Ocn.; AH2); Balsam Capivi (Eng.; IED); Bois de Sang (Fr.; USN); Bonshish (Shipibo/Conibo; MD2); Bonshish Matisiati (Shipibo/Conibo; EGG); Bunxix (Conibo; EGG); Cabimo (Pan.; IED); Canime (Col.; IED); Copahu (Fr.; USN); Copaiba (Eng.; Scn.; AH2; IED; USN) Copaiba Balsam (Eng.; IED; USN); Copaibabaum (Ger.; USN); Copaíba Verdadeira (Brazil; MPB); Copaiba Negra (Peru; RAR); Copaíva (Brazil; MPB); Copal (Peru; DAV); Copayer (Fr.; USN); Copayero (Sp.; USN); Jatobá-Mirim (Brazil; MTB); Jesuit’s Balsam (Eng.); Kempe (Matsigenka; MD2); Kopnu (Piro; Yine; MD2); Kupedn Kupedn (Amarakaeri; MD2); Marimari (Sa.; EGG); Matisihuati (Sa.; EGG); Namboman Tsacati (Shipibo/Conibo; EGG); Palo de Aceite (Peru; RAR); Pau de Óleo (Brazil; MPB); Venezuela Copaiba (Eng.; AH2); Vonshiish (Amahuaca; Peru; EGG); Wonshish (Amahuaca; Peru; MD2); Yapicaé (Bol.; Chiriguano; DLZ).

Activities:

Analgesic (f; RAI); Antacid (f; RAI); Antiedemic (1; PR15:476); Antiinflammatory (1; MPB; PR15:476; X3352280); Antiseptic (f1; JAD; PH2; RAI); Antitumor (f; RAI); Antitussive (f; RAI); Antiulcer (f1; RAI); Bactericide (1; PH2; RAI); Balsamic (f; MPG); Carminative (f; JAD); Diuretic (f; RAI); Emetic (f; JAD; MPB); Emollient (f; HOE; RAI); Expectorant (f; JAD; RAI); Fungicide (f1; RAI); Gastroprotective (f1; RAI); Hemostat (f; RAI); Hydragogue (f; JAD); Hypotensive (f; MPG); Laxative (f; MPB); Mucolytic (f; RAI); Secretolytic (f; RAI); Stimulant (f; JAD); Stomachic (f; MPG); Urinary Antiseptic (1; PH2); Vermifuge (f; RAI); Vulnerary (f1; MPG; RAI).

Indications:

Arthritis (f; EGG); Asthma (f; EGG; MD2); Bacteria (f1; PH2; RAI); Bleeding (f; RAI); Blennorrhagia (f; MPG); Bronchosis (f; DLZ; EGG; RAI); Burns (f; DLZ; MD2); Cancer (f1; EGG; MPG; RAI); Cancer, breast (f1; EGG; MPG; RAI); Cancer, colon (f1; EGG; MPG; RAI); Cancer, lung (f1; EGG; MPG; RAI); Carcinoma (2 × 5-Fluorouacil) (1; RAI); Catarrh (f; MPG); Chilblains (f; JAD; RAI); Colds (f; EGG); Colic (f; MD2); Constipation (f; MPB; RAI); Coughs (f; EGG; RAI); Cystosis (f; DLZ; JAD; MAD; RAI); Dandruff (f; RAI); Dermatosis (f; DAW; EGG; RAI); Diarrhea (f; JAD); Dislocation (f; DLZ); Dropsy (f; JAD; MAD); Dysentery (f; MPG; RAI); Dysuria (f; MAD); Earache (f; EGG); Eczema (f; DAW; RAI); Edema (f1; PR15:476; RAI); Enterosis (f; RAI); Fever (f; MAD); Flu (f; RAI); Fungus (f1; MD2; RAI); Gas (f; JAD; RAI); Gastrosis (f1; RAI); Gonorrhea (f; DAW; JAD; MAD; MD2; RAI); Hemorrhoids (f; EGG; MAD); High Blood Pressure (f; EGG; MPG; RAI); Incontinence (f; DLZ; RAI); Indigestion (f; RAI); Infection (f1; JAD; PH2; RAI); Inflammation (f1; EGG; MPB; PH2; PR15:476; RAI; X3352280); Itch (f; EGG; RAI); Kidney Stones (1; PH2); Leishmania (f; RAI); Leukemia (1; RAI); Leukorrhea (f; MPG); Lymphoma (1; RAI); Melanoma (1; RAI); Mucososis (f; PH2; RAI); Myalgia (f; EGG; RAI); Mycosis (f1; EGG; MD2; RAI); Nephrosis (f; DLZ; RAI); Oliguria (f; RAI); Onychosis (f1; RAI); Pain (f1; EGG; RAI); Phthisis (f; DLZ); Pleurisy (f; RAI); Pneumonia (f; MPG; RAI); Psoriasis (f; MAD; MPG); Pulmonosis (f; MAD; PH2; RAI); Respirosis (f; RAI); Rheumatism (f; DLZ; MAD); Sinusosis (f; RAI); Sores (f; DLZ; MD2); Sore Throat (f; MAD; RAI); Swelling (f; RAI); Syphilis (f; RAI); Tetanus (f; EGG); Tonsilosis (f; EGG); Tuberculosis (f; RAI); Ulcers (f1; EGG; RAI); UTIs (f1; PH2; RAI); Vaginosis (f; RAI); VD (f; IED; MAD; RAI); Worms (f; RAI); Wounds (f1; DLZ; MD2; MPG; RAI).

Dosages:

FNFF = ? ½–1 g capsule (MAD); 25–30 drops tincture 3×/day (MAD); 5–15 drops copaiba/ cup hot water 2–3×/day (RAI).

  • Bolivians suggest for bronchitis, burns, cystosis, dislocated bones, incontinence, nephrosis, phthisis, rheumatism, sores, syphilis, and wounds (DLZ).
  • Brazilians use for bacteria, bronchitis, cancer, cough, cystitis, dandruff, dermatitis, diarrhea, dysentery, enterosis, flu, gastritis, gonorrhea, high blood pressure, incontinence, infection, inflammation, nephritis, pain, parasites, pharyngitis, pneumonia, psoriasis, pulmonosis, respirosis, sinusitis, sores, sore throat, syphilis, tetanus, tonsilitis, tumors, ulcers, urethrosis, UTIs, vaginosis, and wounds (MPB; RAI).
  • Peruvians use C. reticulata (or C. officinalis; C. paupera) as cicatrizant, for gonorrhea, psoriasis, and sores (SAR); for bleeding, bronchoses, catarrh, edema, gastrosis, herpes, incontinence, Leishmania, myalgia, oliguria, pleurisy, sore throat, syphilis, tetanus, tuberculosis, urinary incontinence, UTIs, vaginosis, and wounds (DAV).
  • Yaviza Negroes (Darien, Panama) mix copaiba with honey and put in the mouths of newly born to impart knowledge and ward off hexes; also used for VD (IED).

Downsides:

Not covered (AHP). 5 g can cause stomach pain (PH2). Large doses purgative and emetic, causing strangury, bloody urine, and fever. The resin irritates the whole mucous membrane, imparting a peculiar odor to the urine and breath; causes an eruption resembling measles attended with irritation and tingling (JAD). As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed two titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

Oleoresin (C. paupera) diterpenes antimicrobial (MIC < 10 μg/ml) against Gram-positive bacteria, comparable to cephotaxime, and moderately cytotoxic against four cancer cell lines (X12357392). Oleoresin from Brazilian Copaifera species containing copalic acid and sesquiterpenes antiinflammatory (0.70–2.69 ml/kg), less effective than 50 mg/kg calcium phenylbutazone, and at 1.26 ml/kg for 6 days reduced granuloma formation comparable to 20 mg/kg calcium phenylbutazone; LD50 = 3.79 (3.21–4.47) ml/kg rat (X3352280). It was shown that some commercial copaiba oils were antiedemic and antiinflammatory, attributing the activities to the sequiterpenes. Some inactive oils may have been adulterated (PR15:476).

GARLIC TREE (Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Oken) ++ BORAGINACEAE

Illustrations:

fig 105 (IED)

Synonyms:

Cerdana alliodora Ruiz & Pav. (basionym); Cordia gerascanthus Jacq.; fide (MPG; USN).

Notes:

Two attendant ant species at La Selva behave mutualistically, while two others appear to be parasites of the mutualism. The mutualistic ants feed at a higher trophic level than the parasitic ants. Behavioral and dietary evidence suggest a protective role for the mutualists; parasitic ants probably do not protect the plant by consuming herbivores (X15179580). A honey tree, often used to shade coffee.

Common Names:

Abib (Ma.; JFM); Aguardientillo (Ma.; JFM); Ajasasa (Peru; SOU); Ajo Ajo (Aym.; Bol.; Peru; DLZ; USN); Ajo de Montana (Ecu.; MPG); Ajoes de Monte (Bol.; DLZ); Ajos Quiro (Peru; DAV); Ajos Sacha (Que.; DLZ); Alatrique (Sp.; Ven.; AVP; USN); Amapa (Ma.; JFM); Amapa Bola(Ma.; JFM); Amapa Hasta (Mex.; AVP; JFM); Amapa Prieta (Ma.; JFM); Anyallo Caspi (Peru; DAV); Arbol del Ajo (Ma.; Peru; AVP; JFM); Bari (Ma.; JFM); Baria (Cuba; Sp.; AVP); Bohon Blanco (Ma.; JFM); Bohum (Ma.; JFM); Bohun (Bel.; BNA); Bois de Chypre (Fr.; USN); Bois de Rhodes (Ma.; JFM); Bois de Rose (His.; AHL); Bois Saumee (His.; AHL); Bois Soumis (Haiti; AVP); Bojon (Mex.; AVP); Bojon Prieto (Mex.; AVP); Brown Silver Balli (Guy.; AVP; JFM); Canalete (Col.; IED; USN); Canalete de Humo (Ma.; JFM); Canjaro (Ven.; AVP); Canjelon (Ven.; AVP); Capá (Dor.; Pan.; Pr.; AVP; IED; USN); Capa de Olor (Ma.; JFM); Capa de Sabana (Dor.; AHL); Capa Prieta (Pr.; AVP); Caparo (Dor.; AHL); Capa Roja (Cuba; AVP); Cautaro (Ma.; JFM); Chene Caparo (Haiti; AHL; AVP); Chullachaqui Blanco (Peru; SOU); Clammy Cherry (Eng.; DAV); Cueramo (Ma.; JFM); Cyp (Trin.; AVP); Cypre (Fwi.; Trin.; AVP; USN); Cypre Oranger de la Martinique (Fr.; AVP); Cypress (Tobago; AVP); Frutilla (Ma.; JFM); Guacimilla (Dor.; AHL); Guinine (Chiriguano; DLZ); Hormiguero (Mex.; AVP); Hormiguillo (Mex.; AVP); Huixte (Ma.; JFM); Lana Plancho (Peru; Sp.; MDD); Laurel (Bel.; Pan.; Peru; AVP; IED); Laurel Blanco (Bel.; Ecu.; Sal.; Sp.; AVP; MPG; USN); Laurel Cypre (Ma.; JFM); Laurel de Puna (Ecu.; MPG); Laurel Macho (Nic.; AVP); Laurel Negro (Por.; Sp.; AVP; USN); Laurel Prieto (Ma.; JFM); Louro (Por.; AVP); Louro-Amarelo (Por.; USN); Louro Amarillo (Por.; AVP); Mapou Blanc (Fr.; AVP); Onion Cordia (Eng.; AVP); Pajarito Prieto (Ma.; JFM); Palo de Rosa (Mex.; AVP); Palo de Viga (Ma.; JFM); Palo Maria (Mex.; AVP); Pardillo (Fr.; Ven.; AVP; USN); Pardillo de Monte (Ma.; JFM); Pardillo Negro (Ma.; JFM); Peterbi (Par.; AVP); Pomarosa (Bel.; BNA); Popocotle (Ma.; JFM); Prince Wood (Eng.; AVP); Rosadillo (Ma.; JFM); Salaam (Ma.; JFM); Salmwood (Bel.; Eng.; BNA; USN); Samwood (Bel.; Eng.; BNA; IED); Sebestes (Fr.; AVP); Solera (Ma.; JFM); Soleria (Ma.; JFM); Solerillo (Ma.; JFM); Spanish Elm (Eng.; Jam.; AVP); Spruce (Antigua; AVP); Sucha (Ma.; JFM); Suchicahue (Peru; AVP); Suchicuahua (Ma.; JFM); Tacurai (Ma.; JFM); Tambor (Mex.; AVP); Tambor Hormiguero (Ma.; JFM); Tusa Tioco (Ma.; JFM); Ullukachi (Callawaya; DLZ); Ururazeiro (Por.; AVP); Varia (Sp.; AVP); Varia Amarilla (Ma.; JFM); Varia Colorado (Ma.; JFM); Varia Negra (Cuba; AVP); Varia Prieta (Cuba; AVP).

Activities:

Antiseptic (f1; MPG); Attifuge (f; MPG); Bactericide (1; X17178202); Cicatrizant (f; MPG); Depurative (f; IED); Emollient (f; MPG); Fungicide (1; X10757739); Insectifuge (f; MPG); Larvicide (1; X10757739); Mosquitocide (1; X10757739); Stomachic (f; IED); Tonic (f; IED); Vulnerary (f1; MPG).

Indications:

Anemia (f; IED); Asthma (f; DLZ); Bacteria (1; X17178202); Bronchosis (f; DLZ); Bruises (f; JFM); Catarrh (f; IED); Cramps (f; MPG); Dermatosis (f; IED); Fungus (1; X10757739); Infection (f1; MPG; X10757739; X17178202); Myalgia (f; MPG); Mycosis (1; X10757739); Pain (f; MPG); Pulmonosis (f; JFM); Rashes (f; IED); Rheumatism (f; MPG); Sciatica (f; MPG); Sores (f1; IED; MPG); Swelling (f; JFM); Tuberculosis (f; DLZ); VD (f; MPG); Wounds (f1; MPG).

Dosages:

FNFF = ! Fruits said to be eaten (IED). Powdered leaves or bark used as garlic substitute (MPG).

  • Bolivians suggest the floral infusion for bronchial infections (DLZ).
  • Bolivians suggest wood decoction in baths for cramps and myalgia (DLZ).
  • Ecuadorians use a poultice of mashed young shoots on sores and wounds, as antiseptic, cicatrizant, and emollient (MPG).
  • Latinos use alcoholic bark macerate to massage cramps, myalgia, rheumatism, and sciatica (MPG).
  • Latinos use decoction for VD (100 g bark/l water) (MPG).
  • Latinos use leaf tea or decoction as stimulant tonic for asthma, bronchitis, catarrh, and tuberculosis (DLZ; JFM).
  • Salvadorans apply leaf decoction to bruises and swellings; heated leaves to wounds (JFM).
  • West Indians make a seed ointment and apply to dermatoses (JFM).

Extracts:

Bark extract antimicrobial (X17178202). Several compounds from root bark antifungal against Cladosporium cucumerinum and larvicidal against Aedes aegypti (X10757739).

CHÁ-DE-BUGRE (Cordia ecalyculata Vell.) + BORAGINACEAE

Synonyms:

Cordia salicifolia Cham.; fide (USN).

Common Names:

Boid d’Inde (Sa.; RAI); Bois d’Ine (Sa.; RAI); Bugrinho (Brazil; MPB; RAI); Café de Bugre (Sa.; RAI); Café do Mato (Brazil; MPB); Cafezinho (Brazil; MPB); Chá-de-Bugre (Eng.; Por.; Scn.; AH2; USN); Chá-de-Frade (Brazil; MPB; RAI); Chá-de-Negro-Mina (Brazil; MPB; RAI); Chá-do-Bugre (Brazil; MPB); Claraiba (Sa.; RAI); Coquelicot (Sa.; RAI); Grao do Porco (Sa.; RAI); Laranjeira do Mato (Brazil; MPB; RAI); Louro Mole (Brazil; MPB; RAI); Louro Salguiero (Brazil; MPB; RAI); Porangaba (Brazil; MPB; RAI); Rabugem (Sa.; RAI).

Activities:

Anorectic (f; RAI); Antiherpetic (1; RAI; X1963951); Antiobesity (f1; MPB); Antiviral (1; RAI; X1963951); Cardioprotective (f; RAI); Cardiotonic (f1; RAI); Circulotonic (f; RAI); Diuretic (f1; MPB; RAI); Febrifuge (f; RAI); Hypouricemic (f; RAI); Stimulant (f; RAI); Vulnerary (f1; FNF; MPB).

Indications:

Arthritis (f; RAI); Cancer (1; RAI); Cardiopathy (f1; RAI); Cellulite (f; RAI); Coughs (f1; MPB); Fever (f; RAI); Gout (f; RAI); Herpes (1; RAI; X1963951); Infection (1; RAI; X1963951); Kidney Stones (f; RAI); Nephrosis (f; RAI); Obesity (f1; MPB); Oliguria (f; RAI); Rheumatism (f; RAI); Viruses (1; RAI; X1963951); Wounds (f1; FNF; MPB).

Dosages:

FNFF = ! Berries roasted and brewed like coffee (RAI). 1 cup tea 30–60 min before meals (RAI); 2–3 ml tincture 2–3×/day (RAI); 2–3 g capsule/tablet 2×/day (RAI).

  • Brazilians use as cardiotonic, circulotonic, and diuretic, for arthritis, cellulite, cough, fever, gout, kidney stones, nephrosis, obesity, rheumatism, and wounds (RAI).
  • Haitians use as a digestive stimulant in obesity (RAI).

Downsides:

As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed two titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

AÑALLO CASPI (Cordia nodosa Lam.) + BORAGINACEAE

Notes:

Apparently Guyanese treat or use C. hirsuta and C. collacocca similarly if not rendering them synonymous (GMJ).

Common Names:

Allqa Maliki (Aym.; DLZ); Almenchillo (Peru; SOU); Almendrillo (Peru; SOU); Añallio Caspi (Peru; SOU); Añallo Caspi (Peru; Sp.; LOR); Arua Felpudo (Por.; GMJ); Ayahuasco (Peru; SOU); Grād de Galo (Por.; GMJ); Huevo de Gato (Peru; Sp.; MDD); Ibrachoreri (Huitoto; SAR; SOU); Kaag (Miraña; SAR); Kasiu Ban (Palikur; GMJ); Lamoussé Fourmi (Creole; Guy.; GMJ); Picana Blanca (Bol.; DLZ); Pucaruro Caspi (Peru; SOU); Samkagantaje (Peru; SOU); Yawatai (Guy.; Wayãpi; GMJ); Yuquerobuso (Chiriguano; DLZ). (Nscn; American entries diacritical prepared).

Activities:

Antispasmodic (f; DLZ); Larvicide (f; SAR); Pectoral (f; GMJ).

Indications:

Arthrosis (f; DLZ); Botfly (f; SAR); Chest Colds (f; GMJ); Colds (f; GMJ); Cramps (f; DLZ); Paralysis (f; DLZ); Pulmonosis (f; GMJ); Rheumatism (f; DLZ); Snake Bite (f; DAV); Spasms (f; DLZ); Tetanus (f; DLZ).

Dosages:

FNFF = ? Leaf paste poulticed over botfly larvae (SAR). Leaves poulticed onto snake bite.

SHANSHI (Coriaria ruscifolia L.) X CORIARIACEAE

Synonyms:

Coriaria atropurpurea DC.; C. microphylla DC.; C. phylicifolia Humb. & Bonpl.; C. thymifolia Humb & Bonpl.; Heterocladus caracasanus Turcz.; Heterophylliea caracasana (Turcz.) Turcz.; fide (MPG).

Common Names:

Barbasco (Col.; MPG); Chanche (Peru; MPG); Chanchi (Col.; MPG); Chanchí (Peru; MPG); Chanci (Ecu.; MPG); Curtidera (Col.; MPG); Guinanina (Bol.; Chiriguano; DLZ); Llama Miyo (Peru; MPG); Milloghya (Peru; EGG); Mio (Bol.; Peru; DLZ; MPG); Mio Mio (Bol.; Peru; DLZ; MPG); Miyo Miyo (Peru; MPG); Mortiño Borrachero (Col.; MPG); Mortiño Zumaque (Col.; MPG); Piñan (Ecu.; MPG); Pinyang (Ecu.; MPG); Reventadera (Col.; MPG); Saca Saca (Bol.; Peru; DLZ; MPG); Sak’a Sak’a (Aym.; Bol.; DLZ); Sansá (Col.; MPG); Sansí (Col.; MPG); Sansú (Col.; MPG); Shanchi (Ecu.; MPG); Shanshi (Ecu.; Eng.; CR2; MPG); Sumaque (Col.; MPG); Teñidera (Col.; MPG); Tinta (Col.; Ecu.; MPG); Tisis (Ven.; MPG); Zeu (Chile; MPG); Zhazhi (Ecu.; MPG); Zumaque (Peru; MPG). (Nscn).

Activities:

Antiseptic (1; X11429254); Astringent (f; CRC); Bactericide (1; X11429254); Canicide (f; CRC); CNS-Stimulant (1; MPG); Convulsant (1; MPG; X17303114); Cytotoxic (1; X11429254); Febrifuge (1; MPG); Hallucinogenic (f; CRC), Hypotensive (1; MPG); Poison (f; CRC); Respirostimulant (1; MPG); Rodenticide (f; CRC); Spasmogenic (1; X17303114); Stimulant (1; MPG); Toxic (1; MPG; X17303114).

Indications:

Bacteria (1; X11429254); Collapse (f; CRC; MPG); Diarrhea (f; CRC); Fever (1; MPG); Hepatosis (f; MPG); High Blood Pressure (1; MPG); Infection (1; X11429254); Mucosis (f; MPG).

Dosages:

FNFF = X. Fruits sometimes considered edible but better considered poisonous. 1 mg used as a stimulant in case of collapse (CRC).

Downsides:

“Classified as a narcotic hallucinogen (giving flight sensations). The LD50 for the leaves is 3.75 mg/kg, mature fruits 1.55 mg/kg, and green fruits 0.45 mg/kg. Frequent symptoms of intoxication include stupor, vertigo, convulsion. Death may result from asphyxia, respiratory paralysis, and heart failures” (CRC). Coriamyrtin and corarine described as lethal (EGG). Toxic; seizures and convulsions followed by coma and death seen in humans and mice (X17303114). As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed 13 titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

Methanolic powdered fruit extract yielded corianin and ellagic acid 3,3′-dimethylether with slight antibacterial and cytotoxic activity (X11429254).

CANDLESTICK GINGER (Costus scaber Ruiz & Pav.) ++ COSTACEAE

Illustrations:

fig 76 (DAV); p 111 (DLZ)

Common Names:

Caña Agria (Bol.; DLZ); Caña Caña (Peru; Sp.; MDD); Cañagre (Peru; Sp.; LOR; MDD); Canne Congo (Creole; Guy.; GMJ); Kapiyai Pila (Wayãpi; GMJ); Nupurumunga (Chiriguana; DLZ); Oboris (Chiquitano; DLZ); Purum Punya (Peru; SOU); Tuiu (Palikur; GMJ).

Indications:

Biliousness (f; DLZ); Blennorrhagia (f; GMJ); Bronchosis (f; CTD); Calluses (f; DLZ); Fever (f; CTD); Flu (f; GMJ); Gastrosis (f; CTD); Hepatosis (f; DAV; DLZ); Infection (f; DAV); Leukorrhea (f; GMJ); Snake Bite (f; DAV); Splinters (f; DLZ); Stomachache (f; DAV); Vaginosis (f; DAV); Worms (f; DAV).

Dosages:

FNFF = ! Widely eaten (FAC; TAN). Has ethnoveterinary applications in Trinidad (X11737880).

SPIKED SPIRAL-FLAG (Costus spicatus (Jacq.) Sw.) ++ COSTACEAE

 

Synonyms:

Alpinia spicata Jacq. (basionym); Amomum petiolatum Lam.; Costus conicus Stokes; C. cylindricus Jacq.; C. micranthus Gagnep.; C. quartus Roem. & Schult.; fide (POR; USN).

Notes:

Close kin to C. arabicus (GMJ). Antillean species whose name is often misapplied to C. spiralis (BNA). Mors et al. (2000) treat both C. spicatus and C. spiralis in Brazil.

Common Names:

Amome Velu Pétiolé (Car.; Fr.; POR); Caatinga (Brazil; MPB); Caña Amarga (Ma.; JFM); Cana Branca (Brazil; MPB); Caña de Arroyo (Cuba; Ma.; JFM; RyM); Caña de Cristo (Ma.; JFM); Cana de Macaco (Brazil; Por.; GMB; POR; RAR); Cana do Brejo (Brazil; Por.; GMJ; MPB; POR); Caña do Mato (Ma.; JFM); Cañagria (Ma.; JFM); Canarana (Brazil; MPB); Cana-Roxa (Brazil; Por.; POR; RAR); Cana Roxa do Brejo (Brazil; Por.; POR); Cañita Agria (Ma.; JFM); Canne Congo (Car.; Creole; Fr.; Guy.; GMJ; POR); Canne d’Eau (Car.; Creole; Fr.; Ma.; JFM; POR); Canne Marron (Fr.; Creole); Cañuela Santa (Ma.; JFM); Costos (Sp.; POR); Flor-da-Paixão (Brazil; Por.; POR); Gengibre Cimarrón (Dor.; AHL); Indian-Head Ginger (Eng.; POR); Jacuacanga (Brazil; GMJ; MPB; RAR); Kapiyuwa Asikalu (Wayãpi; GMJ); Ku (Ma.; JFM); Ninya Pucchucu Pango (Peru; RAR); Paco Caatinga (Brazil; MPB); Pacova (Brazil; MPB); Pahtsab (Ma.; JFM); Pakuite (Ma.; JFM); Peninaa (Brazil; RAR); Perina (Brazil; MPB); Petit Degonfle (Ma.; JFM); Petit Dégonflé (Car.; Créole; Fr.; POR); Pobre Velha (Brazil; MPB); Sangapilla (Peru; RAR); Singafu (Boni; GMJ); Spiked Spiral-Flag (Eng.; Scn.; AH2; POR; USN); Tirabuzon (Ma.; JFM); Tuiu Seino (Palikur; GMJ); Ubacaia (Brazil; MPB); Ubacaia Caatinga (Brazil; RAR).

Activities:

Anthelmintic (f; RAR); Antiseptic (1; X382278); Carminative (f; AHL); Depurative (f; MPB); Diaphoretic (f; MPB); Diuretic (f; IED; JFM; MPB); Emmenagogue (f; JFM; MPB); Litholytic (f; JFM; MPB); Stimulant (f; JFM).

Indications:

Blennorrhagia (f; GMJ); Cancer (f; MPB); Coqueluche (f; GMJ); Coughs (f; MPB); Cystosis (f; JFM; MPB); Dysuria (f; JFM); Fever (f; MPB); Flu (f; GMJ); Gas (f; AHL; JFM); Gonorrhea (f; MPB); Infection (1; X382278); Kidney Stones (f; JFM); Leukorrhea (f; MPB); Nephrosis (f; MPB); Rheumatism (f; AHL; JFM); Stones (f; JFM; MPB); Urethrosis (f; JFM; MPB); VD (f; JFM; MPB); Worms (f; RAR).

Dosages:

FNFF = ! Fairly widely eaten (FAC; TAN). Brazilians drink the plant juice sweetened with added water (JFM).

  • Brazilians suggest poulticing the plant onto tumors (MPB).
  • Central Americans drink the plant juice as diuretic, emmenagogue, and stimulant (JFM).
  • Costa Ricans boil the plant with horsetail and passionflower as a diuretic (JFM).
  • Dominicans and French West Indians suggest leaf decoction for gas and rheumatism (AHL; JFM).
  • Latinos consider the violet-scented root decoction (that turns the urine purple) useful in cystosis, kidney stones, and urethrosis (JFM).
  • Trinidadans take the decoction for urinary burning and VD (JFM).

Downsides:

As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed one title alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

Leaf and root alcoholic extracts antimicrobial (X382278).

MILK TREE (Couma macrocarpa Barb. Rodr.) ++ APOCYNACEAE

 

Illustrations:

fig 77 (DAV)

Common Names:

Arbol de Leche (Col.; IED); Aso (Sp.; USN); Avichuri (Col.; IED); Bimion (Cashibo; RAR); Capirona (Peru; Sp.; LOR); Chicle (Eng.; IED); Cow Tree (Eng.; IED); Cuman (Brazil; RAR); Cumassu (Brazil; RAR); Daum (Peru; SOU); Fransoco (Sp.; USN); Icucau (Huitoto; SAR); Inumentsis (Shipibo; RAR); Itapeua (Brazil; RAR); Juansoco (Col.; Peru; RAR; SAR); Leche Caspi (Peru; Que.; Sp.; DLZ; LOR; MDD; USN); Leche Huayo (Sp.; USN); Marfim (Brazil; RAR); Osurba (Peru; RAR); Perillo (Col.; IED); Perillo Sorva (Peru; RAR); Pero (Col.; IED); Popa (Col.; IED); Sejuco (Karijona; SAR); Sorva (Por.; USN); Sorva da Mata (Brazil; MPB); Sorveira (Brazil; MPB).

Activities:

Amebicide (f; MPB); Antiseptic (f; DAV); Purgative (f; DAV); Resolvent (f; DAV); Vulnerary (f; DAV).

Indications:

Amebiasis (f; DAV; MPB); Asthma (f; DAV); Childbirth (f; DAV); Dermatosis (f; DAV); Diarrhea (f; DAV; IED); Infection (f; DAV); Wounds (f; DAV).

Dosages:

FNFF = ! Fruits widely eaten; latex used for chewing gum; leaves used as coffee substitute (RAR; SOU). Latex used for amebiasis (MPB).

  • Huitoto may chew leaves like coca leaves (RAR; SOU).

CANNONBALL TREE (Couroupita guianensis Aubl.) + LECYTHIDACEAE

 

Notes:

Culivated in parks in Dominican Republic as a curio (AHL).

Common Names:

Abricó de Macaco (Por.; AVP); Abricot de Singe (Fr. Guiana; AVP); Abricot Sauvage de Cayenne (Fr.; AVP); Aia Huma (Peru; EGG); Arbre à Bombes (Fr.; Haiti; Trin.; AVP; USN); Arbre à Boulet de Canon (Fr.; USN); Ayuhuma (Peru; EGG); Ayu Huma (Peru; EGG); Ayuman (Peru; EGG); Bala de Cañón (Cuba; Dor.; AHL; AVP); Boesi (Dutch; Sur.; AVP); Boskeabas (Dutch; AVP); Boskelabas (Dutch; AVP); Boulet de Canon (Fr. Guin.; Guad.; AVP; USN); Calabasse Colin (Fr. Guiana; AVP); Cannonball (Trin.; AVP); Cannonball Tree (Br. Guy.; Eng.; AVP; USN); Carrion Tree (Eng.; AVP); Castanha de Macaco (Por.; AVP); Coco de Mono (Pan.; Sp.; Ven.; AVP); Couroupitoumou (Fr. Guiana; AVP); Cuia de Macaco (Por.; AVP); Cuirano (Por.; Sp.; AVP); Granadillo (Pan.; Sp.; AVP); Kalabasi (Dutch; AVP); Koppe (Sur.; AVP); Koppe Jewadabalh (Dutch; AVP); Mamey Hediondo (Ven.; AVP); Marako (Col.; AVP); Mgenoklu Masne (Piro; EGG); Moke (Sp.; Trin.; AVP); Muco (Dor.; His.; Trin.; Ven.; AHL; AVP); Mucuratu (Peru; RAR); Taparo de Chuco (Ven.; RAR); Wilde Abrikoos (Sur.; AVP); Zapote de Mono (Pan.; Sp.; AVP). (Nscn).

Activities:

Analgesic (f; EGG); Antirheumatic (f; RAR); Canicide (f; RAR); Depilatory (f; AHL; DAW); Poison (f; AHL; DAW); Vulnerary (f; RAR).

Indications:

Acariasis (f; RAR); Arthritis (f; RAR); Bacteria (f; DAV); Dermatosis (f; DAV; RAR); Dysmenorrhea (f; RAR); Fungus (f; DAV); Gastrosis (f; RAR); Infection (f; DAV; RAR); Mange (f; EGG); Mycosis (f; DAV); Pain (f; EGG); Rheumatism (f; RAR); Stomachache (f; RAR); Toothache (f; EGG); Viruses (f; DAV); Wounds (f; RAR).

Dosages:

FNFF = X.

  • Peruvian shamans use the fruits in ritual baths (EGG).
  • Peruvians use the leaves for toothache (EGG).
  • Peruvian vets use the fruit in treating mange in dogs (EGG).
  • Piro Indians of Peru use the plant to treat serious bacterial, fungoid, or viral dermatoses (DAV).

Downsides:

As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed one title alluding to toxicity of this species.

CALABASH TREE (Crescentia cujete L.) + BIGNONIACEAE

 

Illustrations:

fig 232 (L&W); fig 51 (MPG)

Synonyms:

Crescentia acuminata; C. angustifolia; C. arborea; C. cuneifolia; C. fasciculata; C. plectantha; C. spathula.

Notes:

This plant is very symbolic in Haitian vodou, the “reposoi” or “preferred tree” or habitat of several Iwa, Ayida Wedo, Dambala, Gede, Legba, Ogou Feray, Marinet, and Simbi (VOD).

Common Names:

Ankunip (Peru; EHH; SOU); Arbe à Calebasse (Fr.; KAB); Arbe à Couis (Fr.; KAB); Buhango (Peru; EGG; RAR; SOU); Cabaca (Ma.; JFM); Cabeceira (Ma.; JFM); Calabaca (Ma.; JFM); Calabacero (Cr.; JTR; L&W); Calabash Tree (Bel.; Eng.; Scn.; AAB; AH2; CR2; VOD); Calabasse (Fwi.; L&W); Calabassenbaum (Ger.; AVP); Calabassiere (Fwi.; L&W); Calabaza (Cuba; Pan.; Sp.; L&W; RAR); Calbas (Dwi.; L&W); Calbas Rondo (Dwi.; L&W); Calebasse (Haiti; AVP); Calebassier (Fr.; Fwi.; Haiti; AVP; KAB); Camasa (Ven.; L&W); Cayeira (Peru; EGG; SOU); Cerna (Peru; EGG); Choyne (Brazil; KAB); Choyte (Brazil; KAB); Ciriam (Ma.; JFM); Cirián (Mex.; JTR; L&W); Coite (Ma.; JFM); Coitezeira (Por.; AVP); Columo (Ma.; JFM); Cuautecomate (Mex.; AVP); Cucharo (Ven.; L&W); Cueira (Ma.; JFM); Cuia (Por.; AVP); Cuieira (Brazil; RAR); Cuiete (Brazil; Ma.; JFM; KAB); Cuintenseira (Ma.; JFM); Cuite (Ma.; JFM); Cuiteceira (Por.; AVP); Cujete (Mex.; Sp.; L&W; RAR); Cutuco (Ma.; Sal.; JFM; JTR); Cuyera (Peru; EGG; SOU); Dweraba Dua (Fanti; KAB); Goud dè Pèlren (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Gourd Tree (Eng.; RAR; VOD); Gua (Ma.; JFM); Guacal (Cr.; Sal.; JTR; L&W); Guaje (Mex.; L&W); Guaje Cirial (Ma.; JFM); Guaje Cirian Guiro (Ma.; JFM); Güira (Cuba; Sp.; EGG; JFM; L&W; RAR; RyM); Güira Cimarrona (Cuba; Ma.; JFM; JTR); Güira Comun (Cuba; JTR); Güira Larga (Cuba; JTR); Güira Redondo (Cuba; JTR); Guire (Ma.; JFM); Guiro Totumo (Ma.; Mex.; JFM; JTR); Gwo Kalbas (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Hibuero (Wi.; RAR); Higuera (Ma.; JFM); Higüero (Dor.; Peru; Pr.; Sp.; EGG; JTR; L&W; RAR); Hom (Bel.; Guat.; AVP; BNA); Huacal (Ma.; Sal.; JFM; JTR); Huas (Ma.; JFM); Huaz (Bel.; BNA); Huingo (Peru; Sp.; EGG; LOR); Huingo Mase (Peru; EGG; SOU); Ibira Cajia (Chiriquano; DLZ); Japacary (Arg.; AVP); Jenen Mashen (Shipibo/Conibo; EGG); Jicara (Ca.; L&W); Jicaro (Ca.; Haiti; L&W; VOD); Jicaro de Cuchara (Ma.; Sal.; JFM; JTR); Jicaro de Guacal (Ma.; Sal.; JFM; JTR); Kalabas (Afrikaan; KAB); Kalbas (Creole; Haiti; Ma.; JFM; VOD); Kalbas di Mondi (Ma.; JFM); Kalbas Fran (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Kalbas Kouran (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Kalbasyé (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Kalebas (Sur.; L&W); Kalebasboom (Sur.; L&W); Krabasie (Ma.; JFM); La (Chiriguano; DLZ); Marmita de Mono (Bol.; DLZ); Mase (Sp.; RAR); Mate (Chaco; Col.; DLZ; EGG; JTR; SOU); Merique (Pan.; IED); Moñaahño (Peru; EGG; SOU); Monito (Ma.; JFM); Morrito (Sp.; AH2); Morro (Guat.; Hon.; L&W); Morro Guaco (Guat.; JTR); Naba (Cuna; IED); Narrow-Leaved Calabash (Jam.; AVP); Pache (Sp.; EGG; RAR); Packy (Wi.; AVP); Pajo (Culina; EGG; RAR); Palo de Calabaza (Ma.; JFM); Palo Totumas (Pan.; JTR); Pamuco (Peru; EGG; SOU); Pati (Peru; AVP; EGG; SOU); Pati Pamuco (Sp.; EGG; RAR); Pilche (Ecu.; L&W); Pog (Ma.; JFM); Poque (Ma.; JFM); Poro (Bol.; DLZ); Porongo (Bol.; DLZ); Pyé Kalbas (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Raspa Guacal (Cr.; AVP); Savanna Calabash (Bel.; BNA); Sokeburude (Kan.; KAB); Sutak (Ulwa; ULW); Taparo (Ven.; L&W); Tecomate (Mex.; L&W); Totuma (Cuba; JTR); Totumbo (Ma.; JFM); Totumo (Peru; SOU); Tree Calabash (Gold Coast; KAB); Tsápa y Pati (Aguaruna; EGG); Tsitopa (Sakalave; KAB); Turuvottukkay (Tam.; KAB); Tutuma (Ma.; JFM); Tútumo (Bol.; Peru; DLZ; EGG); Tutumo Masen (Shipibo; EGG); West Indian Calabash (Eng.; KAB); Wild Calabash (Bel.; BNA); Wingo (Sp.; RAR); Wira (Garifuna; IED); Yatuseque (Choco; IED); Zacual (Ma.; JFM).

Activities:

Abortifacient (f; AAB; DAV; EGG; 60P); Analgesic (f; MPG; 60P); Antiallergic (1; MPG; TRA); Antidiarrheal (f; MPG); Antidote (hippomane) (f; JFM); Antiinflammatory (f1; TRA; VOD; 60P); Antiseptic (f1; MPG; TRA; X11137354; X7604753; 60P); Antitussive (f; EGG; RAR); Aperient (f; KAB); Astringent (f; IED); Carcinogenic (1; MPG; 60P); Choleretic (1; DAV; 60P); Depurative (f; JTR); Emetic (f; MPG; WBB; 60P); Emmenagogue (f; AAB; DLZ; MPG); Emollient (f; MPG); Expectorant (f; IED; MPG; VOD); Febrifuge (f; KAB); Hemostat (f; JFM; MPG); Laxative (f1; DLZ; IED; 60P); Orexigenic (f; MPG); Pectoral (f; MPG); Pulifuge (f; JFM); Purgative (1; DAV; JFM; 60P); Suppurative (f; EGG; RAR); Vermifuge (f; MPG; 60P); Vulnerary (f; MPG).

Indications:

Abscesses (f; EGG); Adenopathy (f; VOD); Allergies (1; MPG; TRA); Alopecia (f; DAV; JFM); Amenorrhea (f; DLZ; EGG); Asthma (f; AAB; DAV; JFM; VOD; 60P); Bacillus (1; MPG); Bacteria (1; TRA; X11137354; X7604753); Biliousness (f; DAV); Bleeding (f; JFM; MPG); Blennorrhea (f; DLZ); Bronchosis (f; AAB; DAV; EGG; 60P); Bruises (f; JTR; WBB); Burns (f; WBB); Catarrh (f; MPG; VOD; 60P); Childbirth (f; AAB; JFM); Colds (f; JFM); Congestion (f; AAB; JFM); Constipation (f1; DLZ; IED; TRA; VOD; 60P); Coughs (f; AAB; EGG; JFM; RAR); Dermatosis (f; EGG); Diabetes (f; JFM); Diarrhea (f; IED; MPG; ULW; VOD; 60P); Dropsy (f; DLZ; EGG); Dysentery (f; JFM; JTR; VOD); Dysmenorrhea (f; MPG); Dyspepsia (f; MPG); Earache (f; EGG; MPG; SOU; TRA); Edema (f1; TRA; VOD); Epilepsy (f; VOD); Erysipelas (f; EGG); Escherichia (1; AAB); Fever (f; IED; KAB; ULW); Flu (f; 60P); Freckles (f; JFM); Ganglia (f; VOD); Headache (f; EGG; KAB); Hematochezia (f; JFM); Hemorrhoids (f; JFM); Hepatosis (f; MPG); Hernia (f; DAV); Infection (f1; MPG; TRA; VOD; X11137354; X7604753; 60P); Inflammation (f1; MPG; TRA; VOD; 60P); Itch (f; JFM); Leukorrhea (f; MPG); Nervousness (f; MPG); Pain (f; MPG; 60P); Palpitations (f; MPG); Phthisis (f; DLZ); Pneumonia (f; 60P); Pseudomonas (1; AAB); Puerperium (f; VOD); Pulmonosis (f; AAB; IED; JFM; JTR; VOD); Respirosis (f; JTR; ULW); Salmonella (1; MPG; TRA); Snake Bite (f1; KAB; WBB; X11025161); Spider Bites (f; JFM); Splenosis (f; VOD); Sprains (f; DAV; JFM; VOD); Staphylococcus (1; AAB; MPG; TRA); Streptococcus (1; MPG; TRA); Sunburn (f; JFM); Swelling (f1; TRA; VOD); Toothache (f; DAV; EGG; MPG; 60P); Tuberculosis (f; JFM; VOD); Tumors (f; JFM; JLH); Urethrosis (f; MPG; VOD); UTIs (f; JFM); Vaginosis (f; JFM); Worms (f; EGG; MPG; 60P); Wounds (f; JFM; MPG; VOD).

Dosages:

FNFF = ! Fruits eaten (FAC; TAN). Toasted seed eaten (EGG).

  • Belizeans boil inner pith from 1 fruit in 2 qt. water with 2 cups sugar 30 min, taking 6 spoonful/day for asthma, bronchosis, congestion, cough, and other lung ailments (AAB).
  • Bolivians suggest the fruit decoction with honey as an emmenagogue (DLZ).
  • Brazilians take unripe fruit pulp with sugar for fever, poulticing ripe fruit on the forehead for headache (KAB).
  • Cubans employ the antiseptic and astringent leaf decoction as a vaginal douche (JFM).
  • Cubans regard plant pulp as emetic, emollient, laxative, and pectoral, using for diarrhea, dropsy, and dysentery (JTR).
  • Cubans use fruit pulp in beverages (“jarabe”) for asthma, bronchosis, catarrh, and flu (MPG).
  • Haitians apply the fruit pulp to bruises, burns, and sunburns, renewing the compress every 4 hr (VOD).
  • Haitians, like other nationalities, roast the unripe fruits, incise them, and express the pulp through a cloth, using the juice for asthma, bronchosis, catarrh, constipation, diarrhea, splenosis, and tuberculosis (EGG; VOD).
  • In Trinidad and Tobago used for high blood pressure (X17040567).
  • Peruvians apply the ripe fruit pulp to erysipelas (EGG).
  • Peruvians chew the leaves for toothache (EGG).
  • Peruvians drop floral decoction into ear for earache (EGG).
  • Peruvians take the jelly (hot fruit juice with honey and lemon) for bronchosis and cough (EGG).
  • Peruvians take the ripe fruit decoction as an abortifacient (EGG).
  • Peruvians use juice of young fruits for asthma, bronchosis, and diarrhea (EGG).
  • Transvaal Afrikaans take burned and powdered small fruits internally; apply locally to snake bite (KAB).

Downsides:

While listed as edible in several edible plant books, internal consumption is discouraged (TRA). Fruit pulp may be carcinogenic; ingestion may produce severe diarrhea (TRA). Pulp poisonous, sometimes with HCN. As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed six titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

Unripe fruits had moderate neutralization on hemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom (X11025161). Methanol leaf and stem bark extracts show broad spectrum antimicrobial activity (X7604753). Several compounds exhibit selective activity towards DNA-repair-deficient yeast mutants (X8254347).

GREEN STICK (Critonia morifolia (Mill.) R. M. King & H. Rob.) + ASTERACEAE

Synonyms:

Eupatorium critonioides Steetz.; E. megaphyllum Baker; E. morifolium Mill.; E. populifolium HBK.; E. sartorii Schultz.

Common Names:

Arbol de Santa Maria (Mex.; PCS); Carrizo (Sal.; PCS); Chimaliote (Sal.; PCS); Green Stick (Bel.; Eng.; BNA); Palo Verde (Sp.; BNA); Suelta con Suelda (Sal.; PCS); Taco (Sal.; PCS); Vara Hueca (Sal.; PCS); Xa-Ax-Como-Che (Bel.; Maya; AAB); Xa-Sh-Como-Ch (Bel.; Maya; BNA); Yax Che (Bel.; Maya; BNA). (Nscn).

Activities:

Antiedemic (f; AAB); Febrifuge (f; AAB).

Indications:

Arthritis (f; AAB); Boils (f; AAB); Bruises (f; AAB); Cysts (f; AAB); Dermatosis (f; AAB); Edema (f; AAB); Fever (f; AAB); Flu (f; AAB); Infection (f; AAB); Insomnia (f; AAB); Malaise (f; AAB); Myosis (f; AAB); Oliguria (f; AAB); Pain (f; AAB); Paralysis (f; AAB); Rheumatism (f; AAB); Sores (f; AAB); Spasms (f; AAB); Swelling (f; AAB); Tumors (f; AAB); Wounds (f; AAB).

Dosages:

FNFF = ?

  • Belizeans apply leaf, heated in oil, to cysts, sores, and tumors (AAB).
  • Belizeans use in steam baths for many of the indications above (AAB).
  • Mexicans apply root/shoot decoction to bruises and wounds (AAB).

DRAGON’S BLOOD CROTON (Croton lechleri Müll. Arg.) + EUPHORBIACEAE

 

Illustrations:

fig 80 (DAV)

Notes:

Many American species produce red latex, the subject species Croton lechleri (Brazil, Bol., Col., Ecu., Peru), C. charaguensis (Bol.), C. draco (Ca., Mex.), C. draconioides, C. erythrochilus, C. gossypifolius (Cr. to Ven.), C. hibiscifolius (Cr. to Ven.), C. salutaris (Brazil), C. sordidus (Andean), C. urucurana (Brazil, Par.), and C. xalapensis (Ca., Mex). Many of them are called “dragon’s blood” or some variant thereof and many are used similarly in folk medicine.

I acquiesce to the judgment of the American Herbal Product Association (AHP) which has decided to standardize “dragon’s blood croton” as the official standardized common name. Hmm. I never heard anyone refer to it as “dragon’s blood croton” before, but I’ll abide by the higher hired hands, who laboriously devised standardized common names for 2048 species. And I’ll have to admit, that after a study of all the common names around, Meza (1999) titled her book “Sangre de grado” not “Sangre de drago,” as McGuffin et al. (1997), and perhaps most gringoes and I, seem to prefer. They interviewed 25 of 72 ethnic groups registered by the Instituto Indigenista del Peru. In summary, 24 of the names are used by the aborigines from the rainforest, one from the piedmont of Ayacucho, and 14 by Mestizos. The names belong to 25 ethnic groups corresponding to 10 different linguistic families. No one vernacular name was common to two ethnic groups, except in the Jibaro and Arawak languages. Some of the Mestizo names are mixed Quechua with Spanish. No native name translated “Sangre de grado,” but some translated “tree’s blood,” “wood’s blood,” and “croton tree.” I’ve entered all those names, even if they did not necessarily apply to C. lecherli, as generic common names for red-blooded Crotons below, with MEZ to indicate this paper as source (Meza and Pariona, 1999). Many of the names could apply also or exclusively to C. palanostigma. The common name “dragon’s blood” has also been applied to Bocconia, Daemonorops, Dracaena, Gliricidia, Jatropha, Machaerium, and Pterocarpus (JAD).

And for years I followed Shaman Pharmaceuticals, a venture-capital pharmaceuticals firm in south San Francisco, under the capable leadership of CEO Lisa Conte, who believes in the empirical wisdom of shamanistic medicine. Anybody smart enough to hire the best ethnobotanists in the country for their medical advisory board is worth following, methinks. On Oct. 25, 1995, some two weeks after I lectured to them on synergy among phytomedicines, they fired out a press release saying Shaman Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ: SHMN) today announced that Virend, its plant-derived anti-viral drug, was shown to be efficacious in healing herpes lesions in a phase II clinical trial ... The study involved 45 patients with AIDS and recurring genital herpes ... Based on these results, Shaman has begun planning a pivotal Phase III study in patients with genital herpes. Virend, which is a topical formulation of the compound SP-303, is derived from a plant that for generations has been used in South America to treat herpes lesions, as well as a host of other medical conditions. Genital herpes affects more than 30 million people worldwide, with 500,000 new cases diagnosed each year.

The exciting thing is that the Shaman product was used topically, just as my shaman, Antonio Montero Pisco, has applied “dragon’s blood” topically to me and many other workshop participants, rather than internally (in Peru, “dragon’s blood” is also taken internally). Acyclovir has numerous side effects to boot. “No clinically significant side-effects were noted” with 21 days of topical Virend.

Ironic that employees of Shaman Pharmaceuticals, who, like most pharmaceutical firms, go for the isolated silver magic bullet rather than the synergic whole, should provide me with a reprint showing synergy of the dimethylcedrusine, pycnogenols and taspine, parts of that whole called “dragon’s blood.” They were synergic in causing wounds in exfoliated rats to heal over. The isolated compounds caused granulation in four days, while the synergic whole accomplished the job in just one. That’s why I use “dragon’s blood” when I get a cut or abrasion in tropical Peru. And if I were to develop cholera in Peru and had no doctor or pharmaceutical available, you can bet I’d be taking oral “dragon’s blood.” Unlike Shaman Pharmaceuticals, my shaman, Antonio Montero Pisco, recommends the whole “dragon’s blood” which, at least for some indications, has proven better than the sum of its parts (JAD).

Common Names:

Atadijo (Peru; MEZ); Balsa Macho (Ecu.); Chokillo (Peru; MEZ); Drago (Sa.; RAI); Dragon’s Blood (Eng.; CR2; UNS); Dragon’s Blood Croton (Eng.; Scn.; AH2; USN); Dyéhpíyibe (Bora; MEZ); Eshápe (Ese’eja; Tacana; MD2; MEZ); False Balsa (Eng.; DAV); Ginmunaji (Arahuaca; Piro; Yine; MD2; MEZ); Huampo (Sp.; RDF5:101); Huampo Roja (Peru; MEZ); Ifi Imo (Yaminahua; Pano; MEZ); Imi Iupo (Amahuaca; Pano; MEZ); Irari (Arahuaca; Ashaninka; MEZ); Irarika (Arahuaca; Ashaninka; MEZ); Jata Akui (Ese’eja; Tacana; MD2; MEZ); Jijimí (Cashinahua; Amahuaca; Pano; MEZ); Jimi Mosho (Conibo; Pano; Shipibo; MEZ); Kosamáti (Arahuaca; Matsigenka; MD2; MEZ); Majati (Arahuaca; Nomatsiguenga; MEZ); Masíkamboya (Amahuaca; MD2; MEZ); Móxooco Jimí (Amahuaca; Pano; MEZ); Nagii Ya Ngugü Gugü (Ticuna; MEZ); Omo’i (Chayahuita; MEZ); Omon Omo’i (Chayahuita; MEZ); Palo de Drago (Peru); Palo de Grado (Arahuaca; Ashaninka; MEZ); Palo Sangriento (Sp.; RDF5:101); Pashña Huachana (Peru; MEZ); Pucure (Peru; MEZ); Ramparampach (Arahuaca; Yanesha; MEZ); Sampatil (Peru; MEZ); Sangre de Dragao (Brazil); Sangre de Drago (Ecu.; Peru; DAV; USN); Sangre de Dragón (Peru; Sp.; MEZ; USN); Sangre de Grado (Bol.; Peru; Sp.; DAV; USN); Sangre del Arbol (Sp.; RDF5:101); Sangre de Palo (Sp.; RDF5:101); Sangue de Agua (Sa.; RAI); Sangue de Drago (Sa.; RAI); Señora Vara (Peru; MEZ); Shambo Quiro (Peru; MEZ); Shambu Quiru (Peru; MEZ); Shawan Karo (Conibo; Pano; Shipibo; MEZ); Stie Soquéo (Secoya; Tucano; MEZ); Tigigonyeit (Ocaina; MEZ); Topa Roja (Peru; MEZ); Topillo (Peru; MEZ); Tuúvaée (Bora; MEZ); Ujuchnum (Aguaruna; Jibaro; MEZ); Ujushnum (Aguaruna; Jibaro; MEZ); Uksa Vakiro (Peru; MEZ); Umo’i (Cahuapana; Chayahuita; MEZ); Uruchnum (Huambisa; Jibaro; MEZ); Urúchnum (Achuar; Jibaro; MEZ); Uruch Numi (Achuar; Jibaro; MEZ); Uwura Tsú (Cocamilla; Guarai; Tupi; MEZ); Widnku (Amarakaeri; Harakmbet; MD2; MEZ); Xöncärúbëpin (Cacataibo; Pano; MEZ); Yawar Gradwascca (Ayacucho; Que.; MEZ); Zangrado (Sp.; RDF5:101).

Activities:

Analgesic (1; X11564183); Anticomplement (1; RDF5:101); Antiedemic (1; X758452); Antiherpetic (1; 60P); Antiinflammatory (f1; X14598201; X15507372; X758452; 60P); Antileukemic (1; RDF5:101); Antimutagenic (1; RAI); Antioxidant (1; X14598201; X9406898; 60P); Antiphagocytotic (1; RDF5:101); Antiradicular (1; 60P); Antirheumatic (1; MPG); Antiseptic (1; RAI; X10898763; 60P); Antitumor (1; PM60:541; 60P); Antiulcer (1; RAI; X10898763); Antiviral (1; RAI; 60P); Astringent (f1; MPG); Bactericide (1; PM60:541; RAI; X7809208); Candidicide (f; MD2); Cicatrizant (f1; MPG; PM55:140; RAI; X15507372; X2748730; 60P); Contraceptive (f; MD2); Cytotoxic (1; PM60:541; 60P); Fungicide (f; MD2; RAI); Hemostat (f1; DAV; RAI); Immunodepressant (f1; RAI; RDF5:101); Immunomodulator (1; X14598201); Immunostimulant (f1; RAI; RDF5:101); Neuroprotective (1; X11564183); Phagocytotic (1; RDF5:101); Prooxidant (1; X14598201; X9406898); Vulnerary (f1; DAV; PM60:541; RAI; RAR).

Indications:

Abortion (f; CTD); Allergies (f; RAI); Aphtha (f1; RAI); Bacillus (1; RDF5:101); Bacteria (1; PM60:541; RAI; X7809208); Bites (f1; RAI; X14736360); Bleeding (f1; CTD; DAV; MPG; RAI); Cancer (f1; HAD; PM60:541; RAI; X14736360; X15507372; 60P); Cancer, bone (f; CTD); Cancer, colon (1; RAI); Cancer, liver (f1; MD2; RAI); Cancer, skin (f; RAI); Cancer, stomach (f1; MD2; RAI); Cancer, uterus (f; MD2); Candidiasis (f; MD2; SHM); Childbirth (f1; DAV; RAI); Cholera (1; RDF5:101); Colic (f; RDF5:101); Cramps (1; RDF5:101); Cytomegalovirus (1; 60P); Decubitus (f; RAI); Dermatosis (f; RAI; SHM); Diabetes (f; RAI); Diabetic Neuropathy (1; RAI); Diarrhea (f12; RDF5:101; X14736360); Duodenosis (f1; RDF5:101; SHM); Dysentery (1; HAD); Eczema (f; RAI); Edema (1; X758452); Enterosis (f1; DAV; MD2; RAI); Flu (1; RAI; SHM; 60P); Fracture (f1; DAV; RAI; RAR); Fungus (f; MD2; RAI); Gastrosis (f1; DAV; HAD; X10898763); Gingivosis (f; RAI); Gonorrhea (f; MD2); Hemorrhoids (f1; DAV; RAI; RAR); Hepatosis (1; RAI; 60P); Herpes (1; RAI; X14736360; 60P); IBS (f; RAI); Infection (f1; BEJ; PM60:541; RAI; X10898763; X7809208; 60P); Inflammation (f1; 60P; X11564183; X14598201; X15507372; X758452; 60P); Laryngosis (f; RAI); Leishmania (f; MD2); Leukemia (1; RAI; RDF5:101); Leukorrhea (f1; DAV; RAR); Mycosis (1; RAI); Nephrosis (f; BEJ); Neuroses (1; RAI; RDF5:101); Oliguria (f; RDF5:101); Onychopathy (f; RAI); Pain (1; X11564183); Parainfluenza (1; RAI); Parotitis (f; MD2); Pharyngosis (f; SHM); Pneumonia (f; SHM); Pyorrhea (f; RDF5:101); Rashes (f; RAI); Respirosis (1; HAD; RAI); Rheumatism (f1; MPG); RSV (1; HAD); Sarcoma (1; RAI); Sores (1; DAV; HAD; MD2); Sore Throat (f; MD2; RAI); Staphylococcus (1; MPG; 60P); Stings (f; RAI); Stomatosis (f1; RAI); Swelling (f; RAI); Thrush (f; MD2); Tonsilitis (f; SHM); Toothache (f; SHM); Tuberculosis (f; CTD); Ulcers (f1; DAV; MD2; RAI; X10898763; X14736360); Uterosis (1; DAV); Vaginosis (1; DAV; RAI); VD (f; MD2); Viruses (1; RAI; 60P); Wounds (f1; CTD; DAV; MPG; PM55:140; PM60:541; RAI; RAR; X14736360; X15507372; X2748730; 60P); Yeast (f; MD2; SHM).

Dosages:

FNFF = X. Since he came on board (ca. 1994) our “shaman,” Antonio Montero Pisco, applied it topically to bugbites and stings. He also suggests a couple drops of the “blood” in a glass of water for topical and internal applications. Traditional doses are generally 5–20 drops of bark latex, mixed in cold or warm water, juice, milk, or alcohol, taken orally 1–3×/day for up to 3 weeks. I have not seen many references in the literature to the ethnomedical use of Croton for stings or bites, but local people on the Napo did indicate that it could be used for that back in the 1980s.

  • Brazilians use for bacterial infections, bleeding, cancer, dyspepsia, fever, mycoses, tumors, ulcers, and wounds (RAI).
  • Ecuadorians use for cancer, inflammation, and wounds (RAI).
  • Madre de Dios Peruvians gargle salted coca tea with 3 drops of resin for sore throat, possibly mumps (MD2).
  • Madre de Dios Peruvians mix dragon’s blood with Plantago major leaf decoction as a douche for gonorrhea (MD2).
  • Peruvians apply dragon’s blood to leishmanial sores, thrush, wounds, and yeast (MD2).
  • Peruvians consider it cicatrizant (X2748730), also using for bleeding, bug bites, cancer, Candida, diabetes, diarrhea, eczema, fractures, gastroenterosis, gingivosis, hemorrhoid, infection, laryngosis, pharyngosis, rashes, rheumatism, toothache, tumors, ulcers, vaginosis, and wounds (MD2; RAI).
  • Peruvians make a contraceptive of dragon’s blood and paico (MD2).

Downsides:

“No side effects are known for the internal use of sangre de drago” (as quoted in SHM). “peligroso porque quema los tejidos” (RAR). One study showed that extract given to 53 children with acute leukemias may have actually stimulated survival of leukemic cells, with no effect seen in normal lymphocytes (X16047362). As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed three titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

Taspine cicatrizant in vivo in mice (ED50 = 0.375 mg/kg) with no carcinogenic or tumor promoter activity after 17 months of treatment (X2748730). 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene and 2,4,6-trimethoxyphenol more active against Bacillus subtilis than chloramphenicol and penicillin (RDF5:101). Studies in vitro and in vivo support most ethnomedical uses, e.g., for diarrhea, herpes, insect bites, stomach ulcers, tumors, and wounds (X14736360). Studies show it to be a potent and cost-effective treatment for gastrointestinal ulcers and distress via antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, and sensory afferent-dependent actions (X10898763). Latex shows immunomodulatory activity, inhibition of proliferation of activated T-cells, free radical scavenging capacity, antioxidant or prooxidant properties (dosage dependent), and good antiinflammatory activity i.p. (X14598201). Sap was found to be non-cytotoxic and had little effect upon the proliferation of endothelial cells, but several phenolic compounds and diterpenes show strong antibacterial activity (X7809208).

HUIRA HUIRA (Culcitium canescens H. & B.) + ASTERACEAE

Synonyms:

Culcitium rufescens H. & B; Senecio canescens (H. & B) Cuatr.; S. rufescens Cuatr, non HBK; fide (MPG).

Notes:

Genus often misspelled anagramatically as Culticium.

Common Names:

Anckosh (Peru; EGG); Ancosh (Peru; MPG); Ckola-Huiru (Peru; EGG); Huila-Huila (Peru; MPG); Huira (Peru; Sp.; EGG); Huira de la Sierra (Peru; Sp.; EGG); Huira Huayo (Peru; Sp.; EGG); Huira-Huira (Aym.; Bol.; Peru; Que.; DLZ; MPG); Huisa-Huisa (Peru; MPG; SOU); Kina Kina (Peru; Sp.; EGG); Milguash (Peru; MPG); Pfhuiña (Peru; Sp.; EGG); Pulluaga (Peru; Sp.; EGG; SOU); Vira de la Sierra (Bol.; Sp.; DLZ); Vira Vira de la Sierra (Peru; Sp.; EGG; RAR; SOU); Wira-Wira (Peru; MPG). (Nscn).

Activities:

Analgesic (1; X7805141); Antitussive (f; RAR); Depurative (f; EGG); Expectorant (f; EGG; MPG); Febrifuge (f; EGG); Mucolytic (f; MPG); Pectoral (f; DLZ; EGG; MPG; SOU); Sudorific (f; DLZ; MPG; SOU).

Indications:

Asthma (f; MPG); Coughs (f; EGG; MPG; RAR; SOU); Cystosis (f; EGG); Dyspepsia (f; EGG); Fever (f; EGG); Flu (f; MPG); Pain (1; X7805141); Prostatosis (f; EGG); Respirosis (f; MPG); Rheumatism (f; EGG).

Dosages:

FNFF = X.

  • Bolivians suggest plant decoction as pectoral and sudorific in coughs (DLZ).
  • Peruvians take aqueous tea as depurative, expectorant, febrifuge, and pectoral; tea of 2–3 leaves in milk for asthmatic coughs (MPG).

Extracts:

Methanolic extract was analgesic and also prolonged pentobarbital-induced hypnosis (X7805141).

AMERICAN DODDER (Cuscuta americana L.) + CUSCUTACEAE

Notes:

Some host plants pass genes to the parasitic species that feed off them. It appears that Cuscuta (dodder) has passed at least one gene (atp1) to one of its host Plantago. Cuscuta taps into host by inserting tiny tendrils into inner plant, perhaps enabling foreign DNA to escape the host plant’s natural defenses. Dodders wrap themselves around many species, and DNA transfer between host and parasite can be a two-way street.

Common Names:

Abrazos (Ma.; JFM); Aletria di Mondi (Ma.; JFM); American Dodder (Eng.; Scn.; AH2); Amitie (Haiti; Mart.; AUS; AVP; JFM); Amora Falsoe (Ma.; JFM); Amor di Neguer (Dwi.; Ma.; AUS; JFM); Amor Falso (Ma.; AUS; JFM); Angourre (Fr.; AVP); Arhui Arhui (Ma.; AUS; JFM); Bassbiol Strings (Ma.; AUS; JFM); Bejuco Amarillo (Dor.; AHL; AUS); Bejuco de Buey (Ma.; Pr.; AUS; JFM); Bejuco de Fideo (Cuba; AUS; AVP; RyM); Bejuco de Mono (Pr.; AUS); Bejuquito de Amor(Dor.; AVP); Cabello de Ángel (Chile; Sp.; AVP); Carpaterra (It.); Cheveaux de Venus (Fr.; AVP); Cheveaux de Vierge (Fr.; AVP); Cheveaux du Diable (Fr.; AVP); Cipó Chumbo (Brazil; Por.; AUS; AVP; JFM); Cipó Dourado (Brazil; Por.; AUS); Corde à Violon (Guad.; Mart.; AUS; AVP); Cremaiflère (Fr.; AVP); Cuerda de Violin (Col.; Pr.; Ven.; AUS; AVP; JFM); Curedilla (Col.; Ma.; AUS; JFM); Cuscuta (Por.; AVP); Cuscuta Dourado (Por.; AVP); Cuscute (Fr.; Haiti; AVP); Cuscute d’Amérique (Haiti; AUS; AVP); Devil’s Gut (Ma.; JFM); Dodder (Eng.; Jam.; Pr.; AVP; BUR; JFM; VOD); Duivelsnaaigaren (Dwi.; Ma.; AUS; JFM); Enreda Cotorra (Col.; AUS); Fideillo (Cuba; Ma.; AUS; JFM); Fideítos (Dor.; AHL; AUS); Fideo(s) (Col.; Cuba; Dor.; Pr.; Ven.; AUS; AVP); Fil Madame (Fr.; AVP); Fios de Ovos (Brazil; AUS); Gale (Fr.; AVP); Garen (Dwi.; AUS); Hell Weed (Ma.; AUS; JFM); Herbe a Amitie (Mart.; AUS; JFM); Herbe a Amourette (Mart.; AUS); Herbe a Z’amourette (Mart.; AVP); Herbe z’Amitié (Guad.; AVP); Hierba Mala (Sp.; AUS); Hilo de Oro (Ven.; AUS; AVP; JFM); Hilu di Diabel (Dwi.; Ma.; AUS; JFM); Kanlecay (Maya; Mex.; AUS; JFM); Lamitye (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Love Bush (Eng.; Jam.; BUR; JFM); Love Vine (Eng.; Jam.; AVP; BUR; JFM); Love Weed (Ma.; JFM); Matalimon (Ma.; JFM); Planta de Bruja (Ma.; Sp.; AUS; JFM); Planta sin Pie (Ma.; Sp.; AUS; JFM); Râche (Fr.; AVP); Regillo (Col.; Sp.; AVP); Rejillo (Col.; AUS; JFM); Rougeot (Fr.; AVP); Ruble (Fr.; AVP); Snaar (Dwi.; AUS); Teigne (St. Bart.; AVP); Teigne Rogne (Fr.; AVP); Teuferlszwirn (Ger.; AVP); Tignasse (Fr.; AVP); Vermicelle (Haiti; St. Bart.; VP); Wild Vermicelli (Ma.; JFM); Yellow Dodder (Vi.; AVP; JFM). (American entries diacritically prepared).

Activities:

Alterative (f; AUS); Antibilious (f; AUS); Antiparasitic (f; AUS); Antiseptic (f; DAW; VOD); Aphrodisiac (f; JFM); Astringent (f1; EB30:135; HOC); Carminative (f; AUS; DAW; VOD); Cicatrizant (f; VOD); Deodorant (f; DAW); Digestive (f; BUR); Emmenagogue (f; AUS; JFM); Febrifuge (f; AUS; BUR); Hydragogue (f; BUR); Larvicide (1; X2082565); Laxative (f; AUS; DAW; VOD); Orexigenic (f; VOD); Parasiticide (f; AHL; DAW); Purgative (f; VOD); Resolvent (f; DAW); Stomachic (f; BUR); Tonic (f; AUS); Vulnerary (f; DAW).

Indications:

Amenorrhea (f; AUS; JFM); Anorexia (f; VOD); Backache (f; JFM); Biliousness (f; AUS; DAW; JFM); Colds (f; AUS; JFM); Colic (f; AUS; JFM); Constipation (f; AUS; DAW; VOD); Dermatosis (f; VOD); Dysentery (f; AUS; JFM); Dyspepsia (f; AUS; BUR; JFM); Dysuria (f; AUS; JFM); Fever (f; AUS; BUR); Gas (f; AUS; DAW; VOD); Hepatosis (f; VOD); Impotence (f; JFM); Infection (f; DAW; VOD); Itch (f; AUS; DAW; JFM; VOD); Jaundice (f; EB30:135; VOD; X17040567); Mange (f; DAW); Marasmus (f; AUS; EB30:135; JFM); Pain (f; JFM); Parasites (f; AHL; AUS; DAW); Prickly Heat (f; AUS); Scrofula (f; BUR); Sores (f; DAW; VOD); Strongyloidiasis (1; X2082565); Wounds (f; DAW; VOD).

Dosages:

FNFF = ?

  • Argentinians take the decoction over time to promote well-being (JFM).
  • Bahamans take plant decoction as aphrodisiac and to bathe itch and prickly heat (JFM).
  • Cubans use the herb for constipation and jaundice (AUS).
  • Dominicans drink the stem tea for jaundice (VOD).
  • Haitians apply the decoction on dermatosis and itch, as an antiseptic and cicatrizant (VOD).
  • Haitians take the juice or whole plant macerate for anorexia, hepatosis, or jaundice (VOD).
  • Haitians use the plant tea as carminative and laxative (VOD).
  • Jamaicans drink tea for pediatric cold, colic, and marasmus (JFM).
  • Trinidadans take the tea for jaundice and bathe with it for marasmus (JFM; X17040567).
  • Yucatanese take tea for biliousness and dyspepsia (JFM).

Downsides:

As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed two titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

In his great book, Florida Ethnobotany, Dan Austin (2004) seems to rule out both the convolvulaceous ergoline alkaloids and calystegines in Cuscuta, citing Eich and Schimming, respectively. This renders Cuscutaceae a stronger candidate for an independent family, Cuscutaceae. One must remember that parasites, like Cuscuta, may extract phytochemicals and DNA from their host plants. Aqueous methanolic leaf extract larvicidal for Strongyloides stercoralis (X2082565).

CAYGUA (Cyclanthera pedata (L.) Schrad.) ++ CUCURBITACEAE

Illustrations:

fig 85 (DAV)

Synonyms:

Cyclanthera digitata Arm.; C. edulis Naud.; C. pedata var. edulis (Naudin) Cogn.; Momordica pedata L. (basionym); M. pedisecta Ler.; fide (PIO; USN).

Notes:

Able to withstand cold temperatures, it grows prolifically in mountainous valleys in South America, up to 2,000 m elevation (RA2).

Common Names:

Achoccha (Peru; Que.; RA2; USN); Achocha (Japan; Que.; Sp.; FAC; POR; RA2); Achojcha (Aym.; Bol.; Peru; Que.; DLZ; FAC; EGG; RA2; SOU); Achokcho (Arg.; PIO); Archucha (Col.; IED); Caiba (Sp.; RA2; USN); Caigua (Bol.; Cinti; Haiti; Peru; Sp.; DAV; DLZ; POR; RA2; SOU; USN); Caihua (Peru; Sp.; RA2; SOU; USN); Caygua (Cr.; Scn.; Sp.; AH2; RA2; USN); Cayhua (Peru; EGG; SOU); Concombre des Andes (Fr.; POR); Concombre Grimpant (Fr.; POR; RA2; USN); Jachoxcha (Aym.; Bol.; DLZ); Kaíhua (Aguaruna; Peru; EGG); Kaikua (RA2); Kaywa (Bol.; Que.; DLZ); Korila (Eng.; Ger.; FAC; POR; RA2; USN); Korilla (Eng.; POR); Lady’s Slipper (RA2); Pepino Andino (RA2); Pepino de Comer (Sp.; RA2; USN); Pepino de Rellenar (Col.; Sp.; FAC; IED; RA2); Slipper Gourd (Eng.; POR; RA2); Stuffing Cucumber (RA2); Taiiuiá de Comer (Brazil; PIO); Taimiá de Cipó (Por.; POR; RA2); Taimiá de Comer (Por.; POR; RA2); Wild Cucumber (Eng.; Ocn.; AH2; POR; RA2; USN).

Activities:

Analgesic (f; RA2); Antiatherosclerotic (f; RA2); Antidiabetic (f; RA2); Antiinflammatory (f; EGG; JAF49:5156; RA2); Antioxidant (f1; JAF49:5156; RA2); Antiparasitic (f; RA2); Dentifrice (f; RA2; SOU); Diuretic (f; EGG; RA2); Febrifuge (f; DLZ; SOU); Hypocholesterolemic (f12; JAF49:5156; RA2); Hypoglycemic (f; JAF49:5156); Hypotensive (f; DAV; RA2); Hypotriglyceridemic (f12; RA2); Trypsin-Inhibitor (1; X16635550); Vermifuge (f; EGG).

Indications:

Angina (f; EGG); Atherosclerosis (f; RA2); Cancer (f; DLZ); Circulosis (f; EGG; RA2); Diabetes (f; DAV; JAF49:5156; RA2; SOU); Enterosis (f; RA2); Fever (f; DLZ; SOU); Gastrosis (f; RA2); High Blood Pressure (f; DAV; RA2); High Cholesterol (f12; EGG; JAF49:5156; RA2); High Triglycerides (f12; RA2); Inflammation (f1; EGG; MPB; JAF49:5156; RAI; RA2; X15124085); Otosis (f; EGG; RA2); Pain (f; RA2); Parasites (f; RA2); Tonsilosis (f; EGG; RA2); Worms (f; EGG).

Dosages:

FNFF = ! Fruit eaten, much like bell peppers, cooked like zucchini, pickled, raw, or stuffed with cheese, fish, or meat, then baked; leaves and tender shoots also eaten (FAC; RA2). Leaves poulticed onto tumors (DLZ); ¼–½ cup fruit juice 2×/day (RA2); ¼ cup fruit juice 2×/day for high blood pressure and inflammation (RA2); 1–2 g capsules 2×/day for atherosclerosis, balance blood sugar, digestion, and as diuretic (RA2).

  • Peruvians consider analgesic, antiinflammatory, diuretic, and hypoglycemic, using for angina, arteriosclerosis, circulatory problems, diabetes, earaches, gastrointestinal disorders, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, intestinal parasites, and tonsilitis (RA2).
  • Peruvians boil the fruit a/o leaves in olive oil and apply topically as an analgesic and antiinflammatory (RA2).
  • Peruvians boil the fruit in milk, using as a gargle for tonsilitis (RA2).
  • Peruvians consider the leaf decoction hypoglycemic, using for diabetes (RA2).
  • Peruvians take the fruit juice a/o tea for atherosclerosis, circulatory problems, diabetes, high blood pressure, tonsilitis, and as a diuretic (RA2).
  • Peruvians take 1 g dry crushed seed for intestinal parasites (RA2).
  • Peruvians use seeds a/o fruit for gastrosis (RA2).
  • Peruvians use the roots to clean teeth (DLZ; RA2).

Downsides:

Not covered (AHP; KOM; PH2). No drug interactions, contraindications or side effects reported (RA2). As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed one title alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

In a double-blind placebo study using placebo, or 4 or 6 (300 mg) fruit juice capsules/day for 1 year, 82% of the 60 patients lowered their LDL cholesterol by 18.3% (RA2). In several other similar studies, patients achieved similar results in just 10–21 days, taking 100 cc fruit juice or 2 (300 mg) dehydrated fruit juice capsules/day, lowering total cholesterol up to 21.51% (RA2).

PIRIPIRI (Cyperus articulatus L.) ++ CYPERACEAE

Synonyms:

Chlorocyperus articulatus Rikli.; Cyperus corymbosus Rottb.; C. diphyllus Retz.; C. niloticus Forssk.; C. nodosus Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.; C. subnodosus Nees & Meyen; fide (RA2; USN).

Notes:

Thank goodness for scientific names. Of all the common names offered I picked piripiri (“del vibora”) because that’s the name used in my Amazon haunts, not selecting others such as “enea,” “hadsrow,” “junco,” “junco bravo,” or “sontul.” In India it is called “guinea rush.” Lacaze and Alexiades (1995) note that each indigenous group in Madre de Dios has it own select choices of “piripiris,” one for good luck, one for farming, one for fishing, one for health, one for happiness, one for hunting, and one for love. They called it Cyperus sp. (MD2) and it’s more superstition to us gringoes than medicine. Most species of Cyperus in Peru are called “piripiri.” Strangely they did not mention the contraceptive concept which seems universal in Loreto, if not Madre de Dios.

Some consider C. elongatus a synonym. Taxonomy difficult at best.

Common Names:

Adrue (RA2); Andek (RA2); Chintul (RA2; USN); Guinea Rush (RA2); Hadrue (RA2); Huaste (RA2); Ibenki (Matsigenka; MD2; RA2); Ibenkiki (Huachipaeri; MD2; RA2); Jointed Flat Sedge (Eng.; RA2; USN); Kajiji (RA2); Kamaleji (Piro; Yine; MD2; RA2); Karihi (RA2); Mandassi (RA2); Masho Huaste (RA2); Nihue Huaste (RA2); Nuni (RA2); Piripiri (Sp.; CR2; USN); Piripiri de Sangre (RA2); Piripiri de Víbora (Peru; Sp.; DAV); Piriprioca (RA2); Priprioca (RA2); Savane Tremblante (RA2); Shakó (Amahuaca; MD2; RA2); Waste (Shipibo/ Conibo; MD2; RA2); Yahuar Piripiri (RA2); Zacoo (RA2).

Activities:

Abortifacient (f; DAV; RA2); Anthelmintic (f; WBB); Anticonvulsant (1; RA2; X11390127); Antiemetic (1; PH2; RA2); Antifeedant (1; X10861974); Antimalarial (f1; RA2); Antioxidant (1; RA2); Aphrodisiac (f; UPW); Bactericide (1; RA2); Candidicide (1; RA2; X15707770); Carminative (f1; PH2; RA2); Contraceptive (f1; RA2); Demulcent (f; RA2); Digestive (1; RA2); Fungicide (1; RA2); Hemostat (f; DAV; RA2); Insectifuge (1; UPW; X10861974); Nervine (f; RA2); NO-Inhibitor (1; RA2); Prostaglandin-Synthetase-Inhibitor (1; RA2); Sedative (f1; PH2; RA2; X11163936); Stimulant (f; SKJ); Stomachic (f; RA2); Tonic (f; SKJ); Vermifuge (f1; RA2; UPW); Vulnerary (f; DAV; RA2).

Indications:

Alopecia (f; RA2); Amenorrhea (f; PH2); Bacteria (1; RA2); Bites (f; DAV); Bleeding (f; DAV; RA2); Cancer, throat (f; RA2); Candida (1; RA2; X15707770); Childbirth (f; RA2); Colic (f; WBB); Conjunctivosis (f; RA2); Convulsions (1; RA2; X11390127); Coughs (f; JFM; RA2; UPW); Cramps (f; RA2); Diarrhea (f; JFM); Dysentery (f; RA2); Dysmenorrhea (f; PH2; RA2); Dyspepsia (f1; PH2; RA2; WOI); Dysuria (f; RA2); Edema (f; UPW); Enterosis (f; JFM; RA2); Epigastrosis (f; PH2); Epilepsy (f1; RA2); Fever (f; DAV; JFM); Flu (f; DAV); Fright (f; DAV); Fungus (1; RA2); Gas (f1; PH2; RA2); Gastrosis (f; RA2); Headache (f; PH2; RA2); Hematemesis (f; PH2); Hematuria (f; PH2); Impotence (f; UPW); Infection (f1; RA2); Insomnia (f1; PH2; RA2; X11163936); Leukorrhea (f; PH2); Malaria (f1; RA2; UPW); Mastosis (f; PH2; RA2); Migraine (f; UPW); Morning Sickness (f; JFM; RA2); Mycosis (1; RA2); Nausea (f1; PH2; RA2); Neurosis (f; RA2); Ophthalmia (f; RA2); Pain (f; JFM; PH2; RA2); PMS (f; PH2); Pseudomonas (1; RA2); Respirosis (f; UPW); Rheumatism (f; UPW); Snake Bite (f; DAV; MD2; RA2); Snoring (f; DAV); Spasms (f; RA2); Staphylococcus (1; RA2); Stomachache (f; RA2); Stress (f; RA2); Swelling (f; UPW); Toothache (f; RA2; WBB); Vaginosis (f1; RA2); Worms (f1; RA2; UPW; WBB); Wounds (f; DAV; RA2); Yeast (1; RA2); Yellow Fever (f; JFM).

Dosages:

FNFF = ! 6–9 g root (PH2); 1–2 g capsule 2×/day (RA2); 1 cup rhizome tea 2×/day (RA2); 2 ml fluid extract 2–3×/day (RA2).

  • Brazilians use for dysentery, fever, and headache (RA2).
  • Ese’eja Indians use it for diarrhea and dysentery (RA2).
  • Madre de Dios Peruvians believe the plant good for warding off snakes and bathe their children with piripiri to prevent illness (MD2).
  • Native Americans stuff crushed stems in their nose to alleviate snoring (DAV). I’ll wager Mrs. Duke wishes she had some when I snore.
  • Peruvians chew the pulp (considered abortifacient), swallowing the juice and poultice the cud onto snake bite (DAV).
  • Peruvians consider the herb abortifacient, anticonvulsant, antiepileptic, antivenom, carminative, contraceptive, hemostat, nervine, stomachic, tonic, and vulnerary, using for baldness, childbirth, conjunctivitis, convulsions, coughs, diarrhea, dysentery, dyspepsia, epilepsy, fever, flu, GI disorders, hemorrhage, mental and nervous disorders, nausea, rheumatic pain, snake bite, spasms, stress, throat cancer, tumors, vomiting, and wounds (RA2).
  • Secoya add ground rhizome to water for fever, flu, fright, and nervousness (SAR; RA2).
  • Shipibo-Conibo grind fresh rhizomes and use the juice for a nerve tonic in stress, nervous and mental disorders (including epilepsy), and for digestive and GI disorders, to facilitate childbirth or to induce an abortion, as a contraceptive, and for throat cancer; used as hair tonic to treat or prevent baldness, and applied to wounds and snake bite (RA2).

Downsides:

Not covered (AHP). “Health risks or side effects following the proper administration of designated therapeutic dosages are not known” (PH2). As of July 2007, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed three titles alluding to toxicity of this species.

Extracts:

EO active against Candida albicans; antimicrobial compounds included 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, and menthol (X15707770). Methanolic rhizome extract anticonvulsant in strychnine-induced seizures (1,000 mg/kg i.p. mouse) but exhibited no or moderate effect for picrotoxinor bicuculline-induced seizures (X11390127).

SACHA PIRI-PIRI (Cyperus odoratus L.) ++ CYPERACEAE

Illustrations:

p 251 (MD2)

Synonyms:

Cyperus engelmannii Steud.; C. ferax Rich.; C. luzulae (L.) Metz; Torulinium confertum Desv. ex Ham.; T. ferax (Rich.) Urb.; T. odoratum (L.) S. S. Hooper; fide (EGG; MD2; USN).

Common Names:

Amen Shani (Shipibo/Conibo; MD2); Calingale (USN); Capim de Cheiro (Brazil; EGG); Khuchi Muchu (Bol.; Callawaya; DLZ); Papagallo Piripiri (Peru; EGG); Piripiri (Peru; DAV); Qhora Wanarpu (Bol.; Que.; DLZ); Sacha Piri-Piri (Peru; MD2); Sachichi (Ese’eja; MD2); Shako (Amahuaca; MD2).

Activities:

Analgesic (f; MD2); Antidote (f; EGG); Antimalarial (f; JTR); Antiseptic (f; MD2); Contraceptive (f; EGG); Diuretic (f; JTR); Febrifuge (f; EGG); Parturient (f; DAV); Stomachic (f; JTR); Sudorific (f; EGG); Tonic (f; EGG).

Indications:

Childbirth (f; DAV); Diarrhea (f; DAV; EGG); Fever (f; EGG); Gastrosis (f; DAV; EGG); Infection (f; MD2); Malaria (f; JTR); Pain (f; MD2); Respirosis (f; EGG); Stings (f; MD2); Stomachache (f; DAV; EGG).

Dosages:

FNFF = ?

  • Chami take cold water macerate for diarrhea and stomachache (DAV).
  • Cubans consider the rhizome antimalarial, diuretic, stomachic, and sudorific (JTR).
  • Madre de Dios Peruvians apply heated mashed bulbs to ray stings and infected wounds (MD2).
  • Peruvians consider the rhizome decoction antidotal, febrifugal, respiratory, sudorific, and tonic (EGG).
  • Tikuna use crushed fruits to induce labor (DAV).

Downsides:

Bolivians consider the plant toxic to grazing cattle (DLZ).

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