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Authored by: Umberto Quattrocchi

CRC World Dictionary of Grasses

Print publication date:  April  2006
Online publication date:  April  2006

Print ISBN: 9780849313035
eBook ISBN: 9781420003222
Adobe ISBN:

10.1201/9781420003222.ch3

 

Abstract

Cabrera Lag. = Axonopus P. Beauv.

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C

Cabrera Lag. = Axonopus P. Beauv.

Panicoideae, Paniceae, Paspalinae, type Cabrera chrysoblepharis Lag., see Species Plantarum 1: 55. 1753, Systema Naturae, Editio Decima 846, 855, 1359. 1759, Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 12, 154. 1812, Genera et species plantarum 5. 1816, Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint Pétersbourg. Sixième Série. Sciences Mathématiques, Physiques et Naturelles. Seconde Partie: Sciences Naturelles 3,1(2-3): 193, 195. 1834, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 37. 1855 [1853], Flora Brasiliensis 2(2): 113. 1877 and Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 12: 142. 1908, Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 24: 132, 134. 1911, Advancing Frontiers of Plant Sciences 5: 1-186. 1963, Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 26(98): 13-23. 2002, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 116-134. 2003.

Cabralea A. Juss., Meliaceae, named for the Portuguese explorer Pedro Alvares (Alvarez) Cabral (Cabrera), ca. 1467/68-ca. 1526, navigator, in 1500 sailed from Lisbon for the East Indies, landed at Mozambique, claimed Brazil for Portugal.

Calamagrostis Adanson = Achaeta Fourn., Amagris Raf., Ancistrochloa Honda, Anisachne Keng, Aniselytron Merr., Athernotus Dulac, Aulacolepis Ettingsh. (Pinaceae), Aulacolepis Hack., Chamaecalamus Meyen, Cinnagrostis Griseb., Deyeuxia Clarion ex P. Beauv., Lechlera Steud., Neoaulacolepis Rauschert, Pteropodium Steud., Sclerodeyeuxia (Stapf) Pilg., Stilpnophleum Nevski, Stylagrostis Mez

A reedy grass, from the Greek kalamos “reed” and agrostis, agrostidos “grass, weed, couch grass.”

About 230-270 species, temperate regions. Pooideae, Poodae, Aveneae, or Pooideae, Poodae, Agrostidinae, perennial, bunchgrass, leafy, unbranched, herbaceous, erect or ascending, rhizomatous or stoloniferous or caespitose or decumbent, tufted, flimsy to robust and glabrous, sometimes reedlike, auricles absent, ligule an unfringed membrane, long and linear leaf blades, plants bisexual with narrowly paniculate inflorescence, dense or lax panicle open or contracted, bisexual spikelets compressed, plumose rachilla extended beyond the single floret, spikelets 1-flowered and narrow-lanceolate, spikelets breaking up above the persistent glumes, hermaphrodite florets, awned or unawned, awns straight or sharply bent or geniculate, 2 glumes more or less equal or subequal, lemma membranous to coriaceous, palea present, 2 free and glabrous membranous lodicules, stamens 3, ovary glabrous without the apical appendage, 2 plumose stigmas, cleistogamous or chasmogamous, native pasture species, can be invasive, some species valuable sand binder, marshland fen, wet woodland, coastal sand, in shade or in open habitats, páramos, punas, hybridization, a difficult genus often included in Deyeuxia, species polymorphic, type Calamagrostis lanceolata Roth, see Familles des plantes. 31, 530. Paris 1763, Tentamen Florae Germanicae 1: 34. 1788, Ess. Agrostogr. 43-44, 160. 1812, Principes Fondamentaux de Somiologie 27. 1814, Observations sur les Graminées de la Flore Belgique 126. 1824, Conspectus Regni Vegetabilis 50. 1828, Reise um die Erde 1: 456. 1834, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 2: 414. 1841, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 101. 1854, Flore de Département des Hautes-Pyrénées 74. 1867, Abhandlungen der Königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen 19: 256-257, t. 2, f. 7. 1874, Mexicanas Plantas 2: 109. 1886, Sitzungsberichte der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Wien. Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftlichen Classe. Abteilung 1 102: 135, 147. 1893 and Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 3(42-43): 241-244. 1906 [1907], Philippine Journal of Science 5(4): 328-330. 1910, Botanisches Archiv 1(1): 20. 1922, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 246: 169 1925, Journal of Japanese Botany 12: 18. 1936, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 74: 19. 1947, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 48(4): 117-118, f. 2. 1958, Grasses of Burma ...395, 397. 1960, Feddes Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 63(3): 229-251. 1960, Darwin-iana 19(2-4): 404-412. 1975 [Z.E. Rúgolo de Agrasar, Novedades en el género Deyeuxia Clarion (Gramineae)], Botanical Magazine 89: 99-114. 1976 [Chromosome numbers of the genus Calamagrostis in Japan.], Darwiniana 21(2-4): 417-453. 1978, Taxon 31(3): 561. 1982, Turun yliopiston julkaisuja - Annales Universitatis Turkuensis, Sarja A II, Biologia-Geographica 3: 1-12. 1982 [also Ann. Univ. Fenn. Abo., A 3: 1-12. 1982], American Journal of Botany 71: 285-293. 1984, Parodiana 4(1): 73-95. 1986, Acta Facultatis Rerum Naturalium Universitatis Come-nianae, Botanica 33: 51-55. 1986, Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 73: 294-295. 1988, Willdenowia 18: 243-252. 1988, Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 74: 1671-1673. 1989, Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 76: 1331-1332. 1991, Cytologia 56: 437-452. 1991 [Cytogenetic studies on some Kashmir grasses. VIII tribe Agrostideae, Festuceae and Paniceae.], Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 78(4): 36-47. 1993, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 240-241. 1994, Xenia Villavicencio, Revision der Gattung Deyeuxia in Bolivien: eine taxonomisch-anatomische studie... 1-304. Berlin 1995, Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 51-52. 1995, Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 81(5): 98-101. 1996, Flora Mediterranea 8: 251-262. 1998, Opera Botanica 137: 1-42. 1999, Am. J. Bot. 86: 1-16, 17-31. 1999, Am. J. Bot. 87: 591-596. 2000, Am. J. Bot. 88: 1058-1064, 1065-1070, 1863-1867. 2001, Am. J. Bot. 89: 346-351, 642-654. 2002, Am. J. Bot. 90: 85-92, 270-277, 364-369. 2003, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 191-227. 2003, Am. J. Bot. 91: 1147-1153, 1333-1344, 2004-2012, 2013-2021. 2004, Am. J. Bot. 92: 422-431. 2005, Ecography 28(1): 37-48. Feb 2005, Molecular Plant Pathology 6(2): 99-111. Mar 2005, Oikos 109(1): 187-195. Apr 2005, Oikos 109(2): 239-254. Apr 2005, Erwin B. Adema, Johan Van de Koppel, Harro A. J Meijer and Ab P. Grootjans, “Enhanced nitrogen loss may explain alternative stable states in dune slack succession.” Oikos 109(2): 374-386. Apr 2005, Global Change Biology 11(4): 564-574. Apr 2005, The Professional Geographer 57(2): 185-197. May 2005, Global Change Biology 11(6): 869-880. June 2005, Conservation Biology 19(3): 955-962. June 2005.

Species

C . sp.

in English: reed grass

C. alba (J. Presl) Steud. (Calamagrostis alba subsp. tricholemma Roseng., B.R. Arrill. & Izag.; Calamagrostis armata (Döll) Parodi; Calamagrostis armata var. subcontracta (Döll) Parodi; Calamagrostis montevidensis Nees var. armata Döll; Calamagrostis montevidensis var. subcontracta Döll; Deyeuxia alba J. Presl; Deyeuxia alba subsp. alba; Deyeuxia armata (Döll) Parodi).

Southern America, Uruguay, Argentina, Brazil. Perennial, lemma glabrous, palatable, useful for erosion control, common on sandy fields, see Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 248. 1830, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 249. 1840, Flora Brasiliensis 2(3): 55. 1878, Revista Argentina de Agronomía 16(2): 68-70. 1949, Revista Argentina de Agronomía 20(1): 14. 1953, Gramíneas Uruguayas 26-27, f. 4. 1970.

C. alba (J. Presl) Steud. subsp. tricholemma Roseng., B.R. Arrill. & Izag.

Uruguay, Brazil. Perennial, silky lemma, see Gramíneas Uruguayas 26-27, f. 4. 1970.

C. amoena (Pilg.) Pilg. (Calamagrostis filifolia (Wedd.) Henrard, nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis filifolia Merr.; Calamagrostis filifolia (Wedd.) Pilg, nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis filifolia Merr.; Calamagrostis trichophylla Pilg.; Deyeuxia amoena Pilg.; Deyeuxia filifolia Wedd.).

South America, Philippines. See Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 178. 1875, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 27(1-2): 28. 1899 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 42: 60, 67. 1908, Mededeelingen van’s Rijks-Herbarium 40: 61. 1921.

C. amoena (Pilg.) Pilg. var. amoena Southern America.

C. amoena (Pilg.) Pilg. var. festucoides (Wedd.) Soreng (Deyeuxia festucoides Wedd.; Deyeuxia filifolia var. festucoides (Wedd.) Rúgolo & X. Villavicencio)

Southern America. See Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 178, 179. 1875 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 193. 2003.

C. ampliflora Tovar

Peru. See Memorias del Museo de Historia Natural “Javier Prado” 11: 16. 1960.

C. angustifolia Kom. (Calamagrostis purpurea subsp. angustifolia (Kom.) Vorosch.; Deyeuxia angustifolia (Kom.) Y.L. Chang, nom. illeg., non Deyeuxia angustifolia Vickery)

Russia. See Gram. Unifl. Sesquifl. 219. 1824.

C. arundinacea (L.) Roth (Agrostis arundinacea L.; Agrostis arundinacea J. Presl, nom. illeg., non Agrostis arundinacea L.; Arundo montana Gaudin; Arundo sylvatica Schrad.; Calamagrostis haenkeana Hitchc.; Calamagrostis parviflora Rupr.; Calamagrostis pyramidalis Host; Calamagrostis sylvatica (Schrad.) DC.; Cinna agrostoidea P. Beauv.; Deyeuxia arundinacea P. Beauv.; Deyeuxia arundinacea (L.) Jansen, nom. illeg., non Deyeuxia arundinacea Phil.; Deyeuxia montana P. Beauv.; Deyeuxia pyramidalis (Host) Veldkamp; Deyeuxia sylvatica (Schrad.) Kunth; Deyeuxia sylvatica (Schrad.) Vasey, nom. illeg., non Deyeuxia sylvatica (Schrad.) Kunth).

Asia Minor; Europe. Perennial bunchgrass, vigorous, tufted, unbranched and glabrous, erect and slender to stout, creeping and short rhizomes, leaves linear and scabrous, inflorescence a contracted panicle, awn geniculate and stout, useful for erosion control, usually in open meadows, open habitats, rocky range, slopes, see Species Plantarum 1: 61. 1753, Tentamen Florae Germanicae 2(1): 89. 1789, Flora Germanica 1: 218, t. 4, f. 7. 1806, Alpina 3: 19. 1808, Icones et Descriptiones Graminum Austriacorum 4: 28, t. 49. 1809, Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 44, 147, 160, pl. 15, f. 11. 1812, Flore Française. Troisième Édition 5(6): 253. 1815, Révision des Graminées 1: 77. 1829, Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 238. 1830, Beiträge zur Pflanzenkunde des Russischen Reiches 4: 36. 1845, The Grasses of the United States 28. 1883 and Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 24: 185, 371. 1927, Acta Botanica Neerlandica 1(3): 470-471. 1952, Blumea 37(1): 230. 1992, Taxon 49(2): 243. 2000.

C. arundinacea (L.) Roth var. sciuroides (Franch. & Sav.) Hack. (Calamagrostis sciuroides Franch. & Sav.)

Asia. See Enumeratio plantarum in Japonia sponte crescentium. 2: 600. Paris [1873] 1875-1879, Bulletin de l’Her-bier Boissier 7(9): 652. 1899.

C. aurea (Munro ex Wedd.) Hack. ex Sodiro (Calamagrostis ligulata (Kunth) Hitchc.; Calamagrostis longigluma Pilg.; Deyeuxia aurea Munro ex Wedd.; Stylagrostis longigluma (Pilg.) Mez)

Ecuador. Páramos, see Nova Genera et Species Plantarum 1: 145. 1815 [1816], Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 176 (perhaps 156), 179. 1875, Anales de la Universidad Central del Ecuador 3(25): 481. 1889 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 42: 71. 1908, Botanisches Archiv 1(1): 20. 1922, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 24(8) 372. 1927.

C. avenoides (Hook.f.) Cockayne (Agrostis avenoides Hook.f.; Deyeuxia avenoides (Hook.f.) J. Buch.)

New Zealand. Useful for erosion control, see Handbook of the New Zealand Flora 330. 1864, Indigenous Grasses of New Zealand 11. 1880 and L. Cockayne (1855-1934), New Zealand Department of Lands Report Botanical Survey Tongariro National Park 35. Wellington 1908 (Survey of the Tongariro National Park [Dept. of Lands N.Z., C.-11, 1908]. Botanical reports to the New Zealand Department of Lands. 1907-1929).

in English: mountain oat grass

C. bogotensis (Pilg.) Pilg. (Calamagrostis nuda (Pilg.) Pilg.; Deyeuxia bogotensis Pilg.; Deyeuxia nuda Pilg.)

Southern America. Páramos, see Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 25: 712. 1898, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 27(1-2): 29. 1899 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 42: 60. 1908.

C. bolanderi Thurber (Calamagrostis varia Bol. ex Thurb.; Deyeuxia bolanderi (Thurb.) Vasey; Deyeuxia bolanderi (Thurb.) Scribn.)

U.S., California. Swamps, see Geological Survey of California, Botany 2: 280. 1880, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 10: 8. 1883, The Grasses of the United States 28. 1883.

in English: Bolander’s reed grass

C. boliviensis Hack. (Calamagrostis heterophylla (Wedd.) Pilg.; Deyeuxia boliviensis (Hack.) X. Villavicencio; Deyeuxia heterophylla Wedd.)

Southern America. See Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 177. 1875 and Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 6: 156. 1908, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 42: 64. 1908.

C. boyacensis Swallen & García-Barr. (Calamagrostis weberbaueri Tovar)

Colombia, Boyaca. See Caldasia 2(8): 302, f. D. 1943, Publicaciones del Museo de Historia Natural “Javier Prado.” Serie B. Botánica 32: 3. 1984.

C. brachytricha Steud. (Arundo sylvatica Schrad.; Calamagrostis arundinacea subsp. brachytricha (Steud.) Tzvelev; Calamagrostis arundinacea var. brachytricha (Steud.) Hack.; Calamagrostis brevipila Steud. ex Miq.; Deyeuxia arundinacea var. brachytricha (Steud.) P.C. Kuo & S.L. Lu; Deyeuxia brachytricha (Steud.) Chang; Deyeuxia brachytricha (Steud.) Veldkamp; Deyeuxia sylvatica (Schrad.) Kunth; Deyeuxia sylvatica (Schrad.) Vasey, nom. illeg., non Deyeuxia sylvatica (Schrad.) Kunth; Deyeuxia sylvatica var. brachytricha (Steud.) Rendle)

China, Japan, Russia. See Tentamen Florae Germanicae 2(1): 89. 1789, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 189. 1854, Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier 7(9): 652. 1899 and S. Liu (1897-1975), Claves plantarum Chinae Boreali-orientalis 492. [Beijing] 1959 [Index of Latin plant names: pp. 623-655], The Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 27(2): 220. 1984 [1985], Journal of Japanese Botany 76: 231-236, f. 1a-d, f. 2, f. 3. 2001.

C. breviaristata (Wedd.) Pilg. (Calamagrostis variegata (Phil.) Kuntze; Deyeuxia breviaristata Wedd.; Deyeuxia mutica Wedd.; Deyeuxia variegata Phil.)

Southern America. See Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 177, 179-180. 1875, Verzeichniss der von Friedrich Philippi auf der Hochebene der Provinzen Antofagasta und Tarapacá gesammelten Pflanzen 83. 1891, Revisio Generum Plantarum 3: 345. 1898 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 42: 66. 1908.

C. brevifolia (J. Presl) Steud. (Deyeuxia brevifolia J. Presl)

Southern America. See Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 248. 1830, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 249. 1840.

C. brevifolia (J. Presl) Steud. var. brevifolia

Southern America.

C. brevifolia (J. Presl) Steud. var. expansa (Rúgolo & X. Villavicencio) Soreng (Deyeuxia brevifolia var. expansa Rúgolo & X. Villavicencio)

Southern America, Bolivia. See Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 31(1-2): 125. 1995, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 194. 2003.

C. breweri Thurb. (Calamagrostis lemmonii Kearney; Deyeuxia breweri (Thurb.) Vasey)

North America, U.S., California. See Geological Survey of California, Botany 2: 280-281. 1880, The Grasses of the United States 28. 1883, Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 11: 16-17. 1898.

C. cabrerae Parodi (Deyeuxia cabrerae (Parodi) Parodi) (named for the Argentine botanist Angel Lulio Cabrera, 1908-1999)

Southern America, Argentina. See Revista Argentina de Agronomía 15(1): 59, f. 3. 1948, Revista Argentina de Agronomía 20(1): 14. 1953.

C. cabrerae Parodi var. aristulata (Rúgolo & X. Villavicencio) Soreng (Deyeuxia cabrerae var. aristulata Rúgolo & X. Villavicencio)

Southern America. See Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 31(1-2): 126, f. 1. 1995, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 195. 2003.

C. cabrerae Parodi var. cabrerae

Southern America.

C. cabrerae Parodi var. maxima (Rúgolo) Soreng (Deyeuxia cabrerae var. maxima Rúgolo)

Southern America. See Parodiana 4(1): 106, f. 3a-e. 1986, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 195. 2003.

C. cabrerae Parodi var. trichopoda (Parodi ex Rúgolo) Soreng (Deyeuxia cabrerae var. trichopoda Parodi ex Rúgolo)

Southern America. See Parodiana 4(1): 107, f. 3f-k. 1986, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 195. 2003.

C. cainii Hitchc. (for the American botanist Stanley Adair Cain, 1902-1995, botanical collector (1920-1937 Southern Appalachian Mts., Smokey Mts., Indiana, Tennessee), author of “Dale J. Hagenah (1908-1971): an outstanding Michigan botanist.” Michigan Bot. 11: 60-66. 1972, Foundations of Plant Geography. New York 1971. See J.H. Barn-hart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 1: 297. 1965; J. Ewan, editor, A Short History of Botany in the United States. 119, 121, 122, 128, 130. 1969; Stanley A. Cain and G.M. de Oliveira Castro, Manual of Vegetation Analysis New York 1959.

America. See Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 24(11): 480. 1934.

C. calderillensis Pilg. (Deyeuxia calderillensis (Pilg.) Rúgolo)

America, Bolivia. See Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 42: 72. 1908, Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 30(1-2): 112. 1994.

C. canadensis (Michx.) P. Beauv. (Arundo agrostoides Pursh; Arundo canadensis Michx.; Arundo cinnoides Muhl.; Arundo conoides Eaton; Arundo fissa Willd. ex Steud.; Calamagrostis agrostoides (Pursh) Pursh ex Spreng.; Calamagrostis alaskana Kearney; Calamagrostis anomala Suksd.; Calamagrostis atropurpurea Nash; Calamagrostis blanda Beal; Calamagrostis canadensis var. campestris Kearney; Calamagrostis canadensis var. pallida Stebbins; Calamagrostis canadensis var. robusta Vasey ex Rothr.; Calamagrostis cinnoides (Muhl.) W.P.C. Barton; Calamagrostis columbiensis Nutt. ex A. Gray; Calamagrostis hirtigluma Steud.; Calamagrostis langsdorfii var. acuminata (Vasey ex Shear & Rydb.) Litw.; Calamagrostis mexicana Nutt.; Calamagrostis michauxii Trin. ex Steud.; Calamagrostis oregonensis Buckley; Calamagrostis pallida C. Mueller; Calamagrostis pallida Vasey & Scribn. ex Vasey, nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis pallida C. Mueller; Calamagrostis scribneri Beal; Calamagrostis scribneri Beal var. imberbis Stebbins; Cinna purshii Kunth; Deyeuxia canadensis (Michx.) Munro ex Hook.)

Northern America, Canada, U.S. Perennial bunchgrass, vigorous, densely clumped, leafy stems, rhizomatous, inflorescence erect, panicles of small spikelets, long hairs on florets, forage, fodder, usually on disturbed sites, harsh environments, tundra locations, open prairies, wooded hillsides, borders of marshes, see Flora Boreali-Americana 1: 73. 1803, Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 15, 152, 157. 1812, Flora Americae Septentrionalis; or, ... 1: 86. 1814, Descriptio uberior Graminum 187. 1817, The Genera of North American Plants 1: 46. 1818, Manual of the Flora of the Northern States and Canada edition 2 147. 1818, W.P.C. Barton (1786-1856), Compendium Florae Philadelphicae (containing a description of the indigenous and naturalized plants found within a circuit of 10 miles around Philadelphia) 1: 45. 1818, Gram. Unifl. Sesquifl. 225, t. 4, f. 10. 1824, Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 1: 252. 1825, Révision des Graminées 1: 67. 1829, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 144. 1840, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 188. 1854, Annales Botanicae Systematicae 6: 986. 1861, Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 23: 345. 1861, Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 14: 92, 334. 1862, Report Upon United States Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian, in Charge of First Lieut. Geo. M. Wheeler ... vol. vi — Botany 6: 285. 1878 [1879], Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 3(1): 79. 1892, Grasses of North America for Farmers and Students 2: 343, 349. 1896, Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 5: 26. 1897, Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 11: 31-32. 1898 and Bulletin of the New York Botanical Garden 2(6): 153-154. 1901, Allgemeine Botanische Zeitschrift für Systematik, Floristik, Pflanzengeographie 12(3): 43. 1906, Rhodora 32: 45-46. 1930, MacDonald S. E. V. J. Lieffers, “Population variation, outcrossing, and colonization of disturbed areas by Calamagrostis canadensis — evidence from allozyme analysis.” American Journal of Botany 78: 1123. 1991, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 192. 2003.

in English: bluejoint, bluejoint reedgrass, Canada reedgrass, Canada bluejoint

C. canadensis (Michx.) P. Beauv. var. canadensis (Calamagrostis anomala Suksdorf; Calamagrostis atropurpurea Nash; Calamagrostis blanda Beal; Calamagrostis canadensis subsp. canadensis; Calamagrostis canadensis var. campestris Kearney; Calamagrostis canadensis var. dubia (Scribn. & Tweedy) Vasey; Calamagrostis canadensis var. pallida (Vasey & Scribn.) Stebbins; Calamagrostis canadensis var. robusta Vasey; Calamagrostis canadensis var. typica Stebbins; Calamagrostis dubia Bunge; Calamagrostis dubia (Scribn. & Tweedy) Scribn. ex Vasey, nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis dubia Bunge; Calamagrostis expansa (Munro ex Hillebr.) A.S. Hitchc. var. robusta (Vasey) Stebbins; Calamagrostis inexpansa var. cuprea Kearney; Calamagrostis inexpansa var. robusta (Vasey) Stebbins; Calamagrostis langsdorfii var. acuminata (Vasey ex Shear & Rydb.) Litw.; Calamagrostis langsdorfii var. scribneri (Beal) Jones; Calamagrostis pallida C. Mueller; Calamagrostis pallida Vasey & Scribn. ex Vasey, nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis pallida C. Mueller; Calamagrostis scribneri Beal; Calamagrostis scribneri var. scribneri; Cinna purshii Kunth; Deyeuxia dubia Scribn. & Tweedy)

Northern America. Perennial, in shallow water, marshy places, open prairies, see Gram. Unifl. Sesquifl. 225, t. 4, f. 10. 1824, Révision des Graminées 1: 67. 1829, North American Gramineae and Cyperaceae 1: 20. 1834, A.A. von Bunge (1803-1890), Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Flora Russlands und der Steppen Central-Asiens ... St. Petersburg 1852, Annales Botanicae Systematicae 6: 986. 1861, Report Upon United States Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian, in Charge of First Lieut. Geo. M. Wheeler ... vol. vi Botany 6: 285. 1878 [1879], Botanical Gazette 11: 174. 1886, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 3(1): 79-80. 1892, Grasses of North America for Farmers and Students 2: 343, 349. 1896, Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 5: 26. 1897, Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 11: 31, 37. 1898 and Bulletin of the New York Botanical Garden 2(6): 153-154. 1901, Contributii Botanice Universitatea “Babes-Bolyai” 14: 9. Cluj-Napoca 1912, Allgemeine Botanische Zeitschrift für Systematik, Floristik, Pflanzengeographie 12(3): 43. 1906, Rhodora 32: 45. 1930.

in English: bluejoint, bluejoint reedgrass, Canada reedgrass, Canada bluejoint

C. canadensis (Michx.) P. Beauv. var. imberbis (Stebbins) C.L. Hitchc. (Calamagrostis anomala Suksd.; Calamagrostis scribneri var. imberbis Stebbins)

Northern America. Perennial, see Allgemeine Botanische Zeitschrift für Systematik, Floristik, Pflanzengeographie 12(3): 43. 1906, Rhodora 32: 46. 1930, Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest 1: 524. 1969.

in English: bluejoint, bluejoint reedgrass

C. canadensis (Michx.) P. Beauv. var. langsdorfii (Link) Inman (Agrostis groenlandica Steud.; Arundo langsdorfii Link; Calamagrostis baicalensis Litv.; Calamagrostis canadensis subsp. langsdorfii (Link) Hultén; Calamagrostis canadensis var. lactea (Beal) C.L. Hitchc.; Calamagrostis canadensis var. scabra (J. Presl) A.S. Hitchc.; Calamagrostis columbiensis Nutt. ex A. Gray; Calamagrostis confusa V.N. Vassil.; Calamagrostis fusca Kom.; Calamagrostis halleriana var. langdorfii (Link) Hack.; Calamagrostis hirtigluma Steud.; Calamagrostis x lactea Beal (pro sp.); Calamagrostis langsdorfii (Link) Trin.; Calamagrostis nubila Louis-Marie; Calamagrostis purpurea subsp. langsdorffii (Link) Tzvelev; Calamagrostis scabra J. Presl; Calamagrostis sitkensis Trin. ex Ledeb.; Calamagrostis unilateralis Petrov; Calamagrostis yendoana Honda; Deyeuxia groenlandica Munro ex Hook.f.; Deyeuxia langsdorfii (Link) Kunth; Deyeuxia preslii Kunth)

Northern America. Perennial, see Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 15, 152, 157. 1812, Enumeratio Plantarum Horti Regii Berolinensis Altera 1: 74. 1821, Gram. Unifl. Sesquifl. 225, t. 4, f. 10. 1824, Révision des Graminées 1: 77. 1829, Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 234. 1830, Enumeratio Plantarum Omnium Hucusque Cognitarum 1: 243-244. 1833, Flora Rossica 4(13): 433. 1852, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 175, 188. 1854, Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 23: 345. 1862, Nuovo Giornale Botanico Italiano 25: 99. 1893 and Rhodora 24: 143. 1922, Botanical Magazine (Tokyo) 41: 635. 1927, Flora Iakutiae 1: 201. 1930, American Journal of Botany 21(3): 135. 1934, Acta Universitatis Lundensis, n.s. 38(1): 161-163. 1942, Rhodora 46: 296, pl. 836, f. 1-4. 1944, Novosti Sist. Vyss. Rast. 1965: 34. 1965.

in English: bluejoint, bluejoint reedgrass

C. canadensis (Michx.) P. Beauv. var. macouniana (Vasey) Stebbins (Calamagrostis macouniana (Vasey) Vasey; Deyeuxia macouniana Vasey)

Northern America. Perennial, see Botanical Gazette (London) 10: 297. 1885, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 3(1): 81. 1892 and Rhodora 32: 41. 1930.

in English: bluejoint, Macoun’s reedgrass, bluejoint reedgrass

C. canescens (Weber ex F.H. Wigg.) Roth (Arundo calamagrostis L.; Arundo canescens Weber ex F.H. Wigg.; Arundo canescens F.H. Wigg.; Calamagrostis canescens (Wigg.) Roth; Calamagrostis lanceolata Roth; Calamagrostis lanceolata Stokes, nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis lanceolata Roth; Calamagrostis lanceolata Aitch., nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis lanceolata Roth; Calamagrostis lanceolata Trin. ex Steud., nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis lanceolata Roth; Calamagrostis lanceolata var. somalensis Chiov.; Calamagrostis lithuanica Besser)

Russia, Siberia; Europe. Perennial, loosely tufted, rhizomatous, leaves linear, loose and narrow panicle, spikelets purplish, glumes lanceolate, lemma hyaline and shortly awned at the tip, ornamental, useful for erosion control, see Species Plantarum 82. 1753, Primitiae florae holsaticae. Quas prae-side D. Ioh. Christiano Kerstens ... publice defendet auctor Fridericus Henricus Wiggers. Kiliae [Kiel], litteris M.F. Bartschii Acad. Typogr. 1780 [D. Ioh. Christianus Kerstens, praeses. Fridericus Henricus Wiggers, respondent.], Tentamen Florae Germanicae 1: 34. 1788, Tentamen Florae Germanicae 2(1): 93. 1789, An Arrangement of British Plants, third edition 2: 122. 1796, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 250. 1840, Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 18: 107. 1880 and Watsonia 20: 51-60. 1994.

in English: purple smallreed

C. canescens (Weber ex F.H. Wigg.) Roth subsp. canescens

Russia, Siberia; Europe. Perennial.

C. canescens (Weber ex F.H. Wigg.) Roth subsp. vilnensis

(Besser) H. Scholz (Calamagrostis vilnensis Besser ex Schult. & Schult.f.; Calamagrostis x vilnensis Besser)

Germany and Baltic Region, Europe. Perennial.

C. capillaris Nees ex Steud. (Agrostis capillaris L.; Agrostis longiberbis Hack. ex L.B. Sm.)

Brazil. Panicle with flexuous branches, common in damp places, see Species Plantarum 1: 62. 1753, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 249. 1840, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 188. 1854 and Phytologia 22(2): 88, f. 1-3. 1971.

C. carchiensis Laegaard

Ecuador. Páramos, see Novon 8(1): 23-25, f. 1A. 1988.

C. cephalantha Pilg. (Calamagrostis lagurus (Wedd.) Pilg., nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis lagurus (L.) Koeler; Deyeuxia curta var. longearistata Türpe; Deyeuxia lagurus Wedd.)

South America, Bolivia, Peru. Open fields, see Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 176 [or 156?] 179-180. 1875 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 42: 61. 1908, Contribuciones a la Flora de Bolivia 1: 74. 1910, Lilloa 31: 115, f, 1. 1962.

C. chaseae Luces

Venezuela. See Boletín de la Sociedad Venezolana de Ciencias Naturales 15(80): 6-8, f. 4. 1953.

C. chrysantha (J. Presl) Steud. (Calamagrostis chrysostachya (E. Desv.) Kuntze; Calamagrostis chrysostachya (E. Desv.) V.N. Vassil., nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis chrysostachya (E. Desv.) Kuntze; Calamagrostis mutica Steud. ex Lechler; Calamagrostis nitida Hack.; Deyeuxia chrysantha J. Presl; Deyeuxia chrysostachya E. Desv.; Deyeuxia leiopoda Wedd.; Deyeuxia phalaroides Wedd.; Stylagrostis chrysantha (J. Presl) Mez; Stylagrostis chrysostachya (E. Desv.) Mez; Stylagrostis leiopoda (Wedd.) Mez; Stylagrostis phalaroides (Wedd.) Mez)

America. See Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 247. 1830, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 250. 1840, Flora Chilena 6: 323, t. 78, f. 2. 1854, Berberides Americae Australis 56. 1857, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 177, 180. 1875, Revisio Generum Plantarum 3: 344. 1898 and Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 10(243-247): 168. 1911, Botanisches Archiv 1(1): 20. 1922, Feddes Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 63: 243. 1961.

C. chrysantha (J. Presl) Steud. var. chrysantha (Deyeuxia chrysantha var. chrysantha)

America. See Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 247. 1830.

C. chrysantha (J. Presl) Steud. var. phalaroides (Wedd.) Soreng (Deyeuxia chrysantha var. phalaroides (Wedd.) X. Villavicencio; Deyeuxia phalaroides Wedd.; Stylagrostis phalaroides (Wedd.) Mez)

America. See Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 177, 180. 1875 and Botanisches Archiv 1(1): 20. 1922, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 198. 2003.

C. chrysostachya (E. Desv.) Kuntze (Calamagrostis chrysantha (J. Presl) Steud.; Calamagrostis chrysostachya (E. Desv.) V.N. Vassil., nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis chrysostachya (E. Desv.) Kuntze; Deyeuxia chrysostachya E. Desv.; Stylagrostis chrysostachya (E. Desv.) Mez)

South America. See Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 250. 1840, Flora Chilena 6: 323, t. 78, f. 2. 1854, Revisio Generum Plantarum 3: 344. 1898 and Botanisches Archiv 1(1): 20. 1922, Feddes Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 63: 243. 1961.

C. cleefii Escalona

South America, Colombia. Páramos, see Phytologia 31: 324-325. 1975, Phytologia 32: 312-314, 417. 1975, Phytologia 38: 12. 1977, Brittonia 30: 43. 1978, Phytologia 47: 122-123. 1980, A.M. Cleef, The Vegetation of the Páramos of the Colombian Cordillera Oriental. Vaduz 1981 [Dissertationes botanicae, Band 61.], Caldasia 13: 691. 1983, Phytologia 65(5): 339, f. 1. 1988, Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 51: 76. 1993, Revista Acad. Colomb. Ci. Exact. 19: 253. 1994, Novon 5: 384. 1995, Revista Acad. Columb. Ci. Exact. 23(88): 332. 1999.

C. coahuilensis P.M. Peterson, Soreng & Valdés-Reyna

America, Mexico. See Sida 21(1): 312, 314, f. 1. 2004.

C. coarctata (Torr.) Eaton (Agrostis glauca Muhl.; Arundo canadensis Nutt. ex Steud.; Arundo cinnoides Muhl.; Arundo coarctata (Kunth) Poir.; Arundo coarctata Torr., nom. illeg., non Arundo coarctata (Kunth) Poir.; Calamagrostis cinnoides W. Bart.; Calamagrostis cinnoides (Muhl.) W.P.C. Barton; Calamagrostis coarctata Torrey ex Eaton; Calamagrostis coarctata (Kunth) Steud., nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis coarctata Torr. ex Eaton; Calamagrostis nuttalliana Steud.; Deyeuxia coarctata Kunth; Deyeuxia nuttalliana (Steud.) Vasey)

Northern America, U.S., Canada. Perennial, see Catalogus Plantarum Americae Septentrionalis 13. 1813, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum 1: 143. 1815 [1816], Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique Suppl. 4: 704. 1816, Descriptio uberior Graminum 76. 1817, Compendium Florae Philadelphicae 1: 45. 1818, A Flora of the Northern and Middle Sections of the United States 1: 94. 1823, A Manual of Botany for the Northern States 144. 1829, Nomenclator Botanicus edition 2 1: 144, 250-251. 1840, The Grasses of the United States 28. 1883.

in English: Arctic reedgrass

C. compacta (Munro ex Hook.f.) Hack. ex Paulsen (Calamagrostis compacta (Munro) Hack.; Calamagrostis holciformis Jaub. & Spach; Deyeuxia compacta Munro ex Hook.f.; Deyeuxia holciformis (Jaub. & Spach) Bor)

Asia, Afghanistan, Iran, northwest Himalaya. Panicle compact, see Illustrationes Plantarum Orientalium 4: 61, t. 340. 1851, The Flora of British India 7(22): 267. 1897 [1896], Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening i Kjøbenhavn 55: 167. 1903, Grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan ... 397-398. 1960.

C. cordechii Govaerts (Calamagrostis ciliata Nees ex Steud.; Deyeuxia ciliata Rúgolo & X. Villavicencio)

South America, Bolivia. See Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 193. 1855 [1854] and Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 31(1-2): 126, f. 2. 1995.

C. cordechii Govaerts var. cordechii (Deyeuxia ciliata var. ciliata)

South America.

C. cordechii Govaerts var. glabrescens (Rúgolo & X. Villavicencio) Soreng (Deyeuxia ciliata var. glabrescens Rúgolo & X. Villavicencio)

Southern America, Bolivia. See Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 31(1-2): 128, f. 3. 1995, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 199. 2003.

C. crispa (Rúgolo & X. Villavicencio) Govaerts (Deyeuxia crispa Rúgolo & X. Villavicencio)

America, Argentina. See Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 31(1-2): 128, f. 4. 1995, World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1): 10. 1999.

C. cryptolopha (Wedd.) Hitchc. (Deyeuxia cryptolopha Wedd.)

America. See Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 176 (156?), 179. 1875 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 24(8): 374. 1927.

C. curta (Wedd.) Hitchc. (Deyeuxia curta Wedd.)

America. See Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 176 (156?), 179. 1875 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 24(8): 376. 1927.

C. curtoides (Rúgolo & X. Villavicencio) Govaerts (Deyeuxia curtoides Rúgolo & X. Villavicencio)

America. See Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 31(1-2): 132, f. 5. 1995, World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1): 10. 1999.

C. curvula (Wedd.) Pilg. (Calamagrostis tenuifolia (Phil.) R.E. Fr.; Calamagrostis variegata (Phil.) Kuntze; Deyeuxia curvula Wedd.; Deyeuxia tenuifolia Phil.; Deyeuxia variegata Phil.)

South America. See Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 178-179. 1875, Verzeichniss der von Friedrich Philippi auf der Hochebene der Provinzen Antofagasta und Tarapacá gesammelten Pflanzen 83. 1891, Revisio Generum Plantarum 3: 345. 1898 and Nova Acta Regiae Societatis Scientiarum Upsaliensis IV. 1: 177. 1905, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 42: 60. 1908.

C. cuzcoensis Tovar

South America, Peru. See Publicaciones del Museo de Historia Natural “Javier Prado.” Serie B. Botánica 33: 11. 1985.

C. densiflora (J. Presl) Steud. (Calamagrostis densiflora (Blytt) Müll. Hal. ex Walp., nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis densiflora (J. Presl) Steud.; Deyeuxia densiflora J. Presl)

America. See Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 247. 1830, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 250. 1840, Norsk Flora 140. 1847, Annales Botanicae Systematicae 6: 986. Leipzig 1861 [W.G. Walpers, editor].

C. deschampsioides Trin. (Calamagrostis bracteolata V.N. Vassil.; Calamagrostis deschampsiiformis C.E. Hubb.; Calamagrostis deschampsioides subsp. macrantha Piper ex Scribn. & Merr.; Calamagrostis deschampsioides var. churchilliana Polunin ex Scoggan; Calamagrostis deschampsioides var. macrantha (Piper ex Scribn. & Merr.) Tzvelev; Calamagrostis festuciformis V.N. Vassil.; Calamagrostis macrantha (Piper ex Scribn. & Merr.) V. Vassil.; Calamagrostis miyabei Honda; Deyeuxia deschampsioides (Trin.) Scribn.)

Canada, Russia, Bering, Alaska. See Species Graminum 3: t. 354. 1836, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 10: 8. 1883 and, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 13(3): 59. 1910, Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture of the Hokkaido University 26: 142. 1931, Feddes Repertorium 68: 233. 1963, Zlaki SSSR 306. 1976, The Flora of Canada 2: 256. 1978, Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Botany 8: 386. 1981.

C. deserticola (Phil.) Phil. (Deyeuxia deserticola Phil.)

South America, Chile. See Florula Atacamensis seu Enumeratio ... 55. 1860, Anales de la Universidad de Chile 94: 21. 1896.

C. deserticola (Phil.) Phil. var. breviaristata (Rúgolo & X. Villavicencio) Soreng (Deyeuxia deserticola var. breviaristata Rúgolo & X. Villavicencio)

Southern America, Bolivia. See Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 31(1-2): 134, f. 6. 1995, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 200. 2003.

C. deserticola (Phil.) Phil. var. deserticola (Deyeuxia deserticola var. deserticola)

South America.

C. diemii (Rúgolo) Soreng (Deyeuxia diemii Rúgolo) (for José Diem, 1899-1986, author of “Pteridófitas nuevas del Parque Nacional de Nahuel-Huapi (Argentina).” Darwiniana 12: 67-74. 1960, Flora del Parque Nacional de NahuelHuapí (tomo i). Helechos y las demás criptógamas vascu-lares. 1943; see J. Diem and Juana S. de Lichtenstein (1909-2000), “Las Himenofiláceas del área argentino-chilena del sud.” Darwiniana 11: 611-760. 1959; Darwiniana 39(3-4): 354. 2001.

Argentina. See Darwiniana 19(2-4): 404, f. 1. 1975, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 200. 2003.

C. divaricata P.M. Peterson & Soreng

Mexico. See Sida 21(1): 315, f. 3. 2004.

C. divergens Swallen

Colombia. See Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 29(6): 262-263. 1948 [1949].

C. ecuadoriensis Laegaard

Ecuador. Páramos, see Novon 8(1): 25-26, f. 1B. 1988.

C. effusa (Kunth) Steud. (Arundo effusa (Kunth) Poir., nom. illeg., non Arundo effusa C.C. Gmel.; Calamagrostis areantha (Pilg.) Pilg.; Calamagrostis funckii Steud.; Deyeuxia araeantha Pilg.; Deyeuxia areantha Pilg.; Deyeuxia effusa Kunth; Deyeuxia funckii Steud. ex Wedd.)

Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador. See Nova Genera et Species Plantarum 1: 146, t. 46. 1815 [1816], Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique Suppl. 4: 706. 1816, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 250. 1840, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 192. 1854, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 178. 1875, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 25(5): 711. 1898 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 42: 60. 1908.

C. eminens (J. Presl) Steud. (Agrostis eminens (J. Presl) Griseb.; Calamagrostis elegans (Wedd.) Henrard; Calamagrostis eminens var. grisebachiana Kuntze; Calamagrostis eminens var. sordida Kuntze; Calamagrostis eminens var. tunariensis Kuntze; Calamagrostis robusta (Phil.) Phil., nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis robusta (Blytt) Müll. Hal.; Deyeuxia arundina Phil. ex Durand & Hook.f.; Deyeuxia arundinacea Philippi; Deyeuxia elegans Wedd.; Deyeuxia eminens J. Presl; Deyeuxia polystachya Wedd.; Deyeuxia robusta Phil.; Stylagrostis elegans (Wedd.) Mez; Stylagrostis eminens (J. Presl) Mez; Stylagrostis polystachya (Wedd.) Mez; Stylagrostis robusta (Phil.) Mez)

Chile, Bolivia, Peru. See Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 250. 1830, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 250. 1840, Florula Atacamensis seu Enumeratio ... 54. 1860, Abhandlungen der Königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen 19: 254. 1874, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 177, 179-180. 1875, Verzeichniss der von Friedrich Philippi auf der Hochebene der Provinzen Antofagasta und Tarapacá gesammelten Pflanzen 84. 1891, Anales de la Universidad de Chile 94: 19. 1896, Revisio Generum Plantarum 3: 344. 1898 and Index Kewensis suppl. 1: 132. 1906, Mededeelingen van’s Rijks-Herbarium 40: 61. 1921, Botanisches Archiv 1(1): 20. 1922.

C. eminens (J. Presl) Steud. var. discreta (Rúgolo & X. Villavicencio) Soreng (Deyeuxia eminens var. discreta Rúgolo & X. Villavicencio; Deyeuxia leiopoda var. discreta Wedd.)

South America, Peru. See Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 177, 180. 1875 and Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 31(1-2): 135. 1995, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 201. 2003.

C. eminens (J. Presl) Steud. var. eminens (Calamagrostis eminens f. eminens; Deyeuxia eminens f. eminens; Deyeuxia eminens var. eminens)

America.

C. eminens (J. Presl) Steud. var. fulva (Griseb.) Soreng (Agrostis fulva Griseb.; Calamagrostis eminens f. brevipila Hack.; Calamagrostis fulva (Griseb.) Kuntze; Calamagrostis grata Phil.; Calamagrostis robusta (Phil.) Phil., nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis robusta (Blytt) Müll. Hal.; Deyeuxia eminens f. brevipila (Hack.) Türpe; Deyeuxia eminens var. fulva (Griseb.) Rúgolo; Deyeuxia fulva (Griseb.) Parodi; Deyeuxia robusta Phil.; Stylagrostis robusta (Phil.) Mez)

South America, Chile, Argentina. See Florula Atacamensis seu Enumeratio ... 54. 1860, Abhandlungen der Königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen 24: 294. 1879, Anales de la Universidad de Chile 94: 19, 22. 1896, Revisio Generum Plantarum 3(3): 344. 1898 and Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires 21: 99. 1911, Botanisches Archiv 1(1): 20. 1922, Revista Argentina de Agronomía 20: 14. 1953, Lilloa 31: 118. 1962, Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 30(1-2): 112. 1994, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 201. 2003.

C. emodensis Griseb.

India, Sikkim, Himalayas. Tall, sea-green foliage, leaf blades broad and flat, stiff leaves, sheaths purplish, inflorescence silky and shining, broad panicle, spikelets closely set, see Nachrichten von der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen. Mathematisch-physikalische Klasse 80. 1868 and Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening i Kjøbenhavn 55: 167. 1903.

C. epigejos (L.) Roth (Agrostis epigeios (L.) Raspail; Arundo epigejos L.; Arundo stricta Gilib.; Calamagrostis arenicola Fernald; Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth; Calamagrostis epigeios var. epigeios; Calamagrostis epigejos f. laevis Meinsh.; Calamagrostis epigejos subsp. macro-lepis (Litv.) Tzvelev; Calamagrostis epigejos var. georgica (K. Koch) Ledeb.; Calamagrostis georgica K. Koch; Calamagrostis glomerata Boiss. & Buhse; Calamagrostis koibalensis Reverd.; Calamagrostis lenkoranensis Steud.; Calamagrostis macrolepis Litv.)

Eurasia, Africa. Perennial bunchgrass, robust, coarse, stout, tufted, more or less strongly rhizomatous with creeping rhizomes, sod-forming, leaf blade stiffly harsh and tapering to a fine tip, inflorescence dense flowered, erect panicles lanceolate to linear-oblong, branched inflorescence, glumes subulate, lemma with a ring of white callus hairs, awn middorsal, ornamental, weedy, useful for erosion control and as cover for disturbed areas, usually in wet upland grasslands, wet bottomlands, open grasslands, waste areas, disturbed areas, clearings, upland forests, along roadsides, shallow soils, grass steppe, mountain steppe, sandy places along river, see Species Plantarum 1: 81. 1753, Tentamen Florae Germanicae 1: 34. 1788, Exercitia Phytologica 2: 542. 1792, Annales des Sciences Naturelles (Paris) 5: 449. 1825, Linnaea 21(4): 387. 1848, Flora Rossica 4(13): 433. 1852, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 188. 1854, Mémoires de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou 12: 229. 1860 and Rhodora 30: 203. 1928, Canadian Journal of Botany 67: 3205-3218. 1989.

in English: bush grass, wood smallreed

C. epigejos (L.) Roth subsp. epigejos (Calamagrostis epigeios var. epigeios)

South Africa, Temperate Europe and Asia.

C. epigejos (L.) Roth subsp. glomerata (Boiss. & Buhse) Tzvelev (Calamagrostis arenicola Fernald; Calamagrostis epigejos var. georgica (K. Koch) Ledeb.; Calamagrostis georgica K. Koch; Calamagrostis glomerata Boiss. & Buhse)

South Africa. See Linnaea 21(4): 387. 1848, Flora Rossica 4(13): 433. 1852, Mémoires de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou 12: 229. 1860 and Rhodora 30: 203. 1928, Novosti Sist. Vyss. Rast. 1965: 41. 1965.

C. epigejos (L.) Roth subsp. macrolepis (Litv.) Tzvelev (Calamagrostis gigantea (Roshev.) Roshev.; Calamagrostis karataviensis P.A. Smirn.; Calamagrostis macrolepis Litv.)

Asia, China; Eurasia, Siberia. Perennial, wet areas, sandy alluvial soils, see Bulletin de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou 49(1): 91. 1940.

C. epigejos (L.) Roth var. capensis Stapf

South Africa. Perennial, robust, erect, tufted, leaf blades tough, rhizomatous with creeping rhizomes, dense inflorescence, narrow panicle linear-oblong, spikelets linear-oblong or slightly gaping, florets hairy, glumes rounded at the base, upland grasslands and upland forest, see Flora Capensis 7: 551. 1899.

in English: reed grass, saltpangrass

in South Africa: soutpangras

C. erectifolia Hitchc. (Calamagrostis orizabae (Rupr. ex E. Fourn.) Beal; Deyeuxia orizabae Rupr. ex E. Fourn.)

Mexico. See Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 24: 181. 1877, Grasses of North America for Farmers and Students 2: 340. 1896 and North American Flora 17(7): 507. 1937.

C. eriantha (Kunth) Steud. (Arundo eriantha (Kunth) Poir.; Calamagrostis schiedeana (Rupr. ex E. Fourn.) Hitchc.; Calamagrostis schiedeana Rupr. ex Steud.; Deyeuxia eriantha Kunth; Deyeuxia schiedeana Rupr. ex E. Fourn.; Deyeuxia schiedeana Rupr.)

America. See Nova Genera et Species Plantarum 1: 145. 1815 [1816], Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique Suppl. 4: 705. 1816, Bulletin de l’Académie Royale des Sciences et Belles-lettres de Bruxelles 9(2): 233. 1842, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 190, 193. 1854, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 24: 181. 1877, Mexicanas Plantas 2: 105. 1886 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 17(3): 321. 1913.

C. fibrovaginata Laegaard (Arundo coarctata (Kunth) Poir.; Calamagrostis coarctata Torr. ex Eaton; Calamagrostis coarctata (Kunth) Steud., nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis coarctata Torr. ex Eaton; Deyeuxia coarctata Kunth)

Southern America, Ecuador, Colombia. See Nova Genera et Species Plantarum 1: 143. 1815 [1816], Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique Suppl. 4: 704. 1816, A Manual of Botany for the Northern States 144. 1829, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 250. 1840 and Novon 8(1): 29. 1998.

C. fiebrigii Pilg. (Deyeuxia fiebrigii (Pilg.) Rúgolo; Deyeuxia nardifolia var. elatior Türpe)

Bolivia, Argentina. See Anales del Museo Nacional de Chile. Primera Sección — Zoolojía 8: 83. 1891 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 42: 68. 1908, Lilloa 31: 128, f. 8. 1962, Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 30(1-2): 113. 1994.

C. foliosa Kearney (Calamagrostis longifolia Hook.; Calamagrostis sylvatica var. longifolia Vasey)

U.S., California. See Icones et Descriptiones Graminum Austriacorum 4: t. 48. 1809, Flora Boreali-Americana 2: 241. 1840, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 3(1): 83. 1892, Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 11: 17-18. 1898.

in English: leafy reed grass

C. fulgida Laegaard

Ecuador. See Novon 8(1): 26, f. 1C. 1988.

C. fuscata (J. Presl) Steud. (Deyeuxia fuscata J. Presl)

Peru. See Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 249. 1830, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 250. 1840.

C. garhwalensis C.E. Hubb. & Bor (Calamagrostis garwalensis C.E. Hubb. & Bor)

India, Uttar Pradesh. Alpine grass, on rocky places, see Indian Forester 68: 355. 1942.

C. gayana (Steud.) Soreng (Aira gayana Steud.; Calamagrostis erythrostachya (E. Desv.) Hack.; Calamagrostis stipitata Hitchc.; Deyeuxia erythrostachya E. Desv.; Stylagrostis erythrostachya (E. Desv.) Mez)

Chile. Along riverbanks, see Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 220. 1854, Flora Chilena 6: 324, t. 78, f. 1. 1854 and Botanisches Archiv 1(1): 20. 1922, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 20(15): 382. 1930, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 203. 2003.

C. gayana (Steud.) Soreng var. gayana (Deyeuxia erythrostachya var. erythrostachya)

South America.

C. gayana (Steud.) Soreng var. neuquenensis (Rúgolo) Soreng (Deyeuxia erythrostachya var. neuquenensis Rúgolo)

South America. See Darwiniana 19(2-4): 410, f. 3. 1975, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 203. 2003.

C. glacialis (Wedd.) Hitchc. (Deyeuxia glacialis Wedd.)

Bolivia. See Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 178, 179. 1875 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 24(8): 375. 1927.

C. guamanensis Escalona

Ecuador, Andes. Loosely tufted, páramos, see Phytologia 65(5): 340, f. 2. 1988.

C. guatemalensis Hitchc.

Guatemala. See Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 40: 82. 1927.

C. hackelii Lillo (Calamagrostis capitata Hack.; Deyeuxia hackelii (Lillo) Parodi)

Argentina. See Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires 21: 100, t. 4, f. A. 1-5. 1911, Revista Argentina de Agronomía 20: 14. 1953.

C. haenkeana Hitchc. (Agrostis arundinacea J. Presl, nom. illeg., non Agrostis arundinacea L.; Arundo neglecta Ehrh.; Calamagrostis arundinacea (L.) Roth; Calamagrostis neglecta (Ehrh.) Gaertn.; Calamagrostis stricta (Timm) Koeler; Deyeuxia poaeoides (Steud.) Rúgolo)

South America, Peru. See Species Plantarum 1: 61. 1753, Tentamen Florae Germanicae 2(1): 89. 1789, Beiträge zur Naturkunde 6: 137. 1791, Oekonomisch-Technische Flora der Wetterau 1: 94. 1799, Saccardoa: Monographiae Mycologicae 105. 1802, Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 238. 1830, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 423. 1854 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 24(8): 371. 1927, Flora Patagónica 3: 361. 1978.

C. heterophylla (Wedd.) Pilg. (Calamagrostis boliviensis Hack.; Calamagrostis calvescens Pilg.; Calamagrostis heterophylla var. pubescens Pilg.; Calamagrostis heterophylla var. robustior Pilg.; Calamagrostis swallenii Tovar; Chaetotropis andina Ball; Deyeuxia boliviensis (Hack.) X. Villavicencio; Deyeuxia heterophylla Wedd.; Deyeuxia swallenii (Tovar) Rúgolo; Muhlenbergia rupestris Steud. ex Lechler)

South America, Peru. See Berberides Americae Australis 56. 1857, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 177. 1875, Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 22: 58. 1885 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 42: 64-65. 1908, Memorias del Museo de Historia Natural “Javier Prado” 11: 66. 1960, Darwiniana 36(1-4): 168-169. 1998.

C. hieronymi Hack. (Deyeuxia hieronymi (Hack.) Türpe)

Argentina. See Österreichische Botanische Zeitschrift 52(3): 109. 1902, Lilloa 31: 122. 1962.

C. hirta (Sodiro) Laegaard (Calamagrostis brevipaleata Swallen; Deyeuxia brevipaleata Rúgolo; Deyeuxia hirta Sodiro)

Ecuador. See Revista del Colégio Nacional Vicente Rocafuerte 12: 64, 75. 1930, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 29(6): 259-260. 1948 [1949], Novon 8(1): 29-30. 1988.

C. howellii Vasey (Deyeuxia howellii (Vasey) Vasey)

North America, U.S. See Botanical Gazette 6: 271. 1881.

C. hyperborea Lange (Calamagrostis neglecta (Ehrh.) Gaertn.; Calamagrostis neglecta subsp. inexpansa (A. Gray) Tzvelev; Calamagrostis neglecta var. hyperborea (Lange) M.E. Jones; Calamagrostis stricta subsp. inexpansa (A. Gray) C.W. Greene; Calamagrostis stricta subsp. stricta; Deyeuxia hyperborea (Lange) Lunell)

Northern America, U.S., Alaska, Greenland. Perennial, rare, found in wet places, see Oekonomisch-Technische Flora der Wetterau 1: 94. 1799, North American Gramineae and Cyperaceae 1: 20. 1834, J.M.C. Lange (1818-1898), Conspectus Florae Groenlandicae 160. Kjøbenhavn 1880-1887, Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 11: 39-41. 1898 and Contributions to Western Botany 14: 9. 1912, American Midland Naturalist 4: 218. 1915, Zlaki SSSR 310. 1976, American Journal of Botany 71: 286. 1984.

C. insperata Swallen (Calamagrostis porteri Gray subsp. insperata (Swallen) C.W. Greene; Deyeuxia porteri (A. Gray) Vasey). Named for the American botanist Thomas Conrad Porter, 1822-1901, clergyman, professor of botany and zoology, his works include Die Verfasser des Heidelberger Katechismus (1863) and Flora of Pennsylvania edited with the addition of analytical keys by John Kunkel Small (1869-1938). Boston 1903 (with John Merle Coulter, 1851-1928) wrote Synopsis of the Flora of Colorado. Washington 1874; see J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 3: 101. 1965; T.W. Bossert, Biographical dictionary of botanists represented in the Hunt Institute portrait collection. 315. 1972; S. Lenley et al., Catalog of the manuscript and archival collections and index to the correspondence of John Torrey. Library of the New York Botanical Garden. 334. 1973; E.M. Tucker, Catalogue of the library of the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. 1917-1933; J. Ewan, editor, A Short History of Botany in the United States. 92. 1969; J.W. Harshberger, The Botanists of Philadelphia and Their Work. 236-243. 1899; J.W. von Goethe, Hermann and Dorothea. Translated by Thomas Conrad Porter. 1854; Johann Jacob Hottinger, The Life and Times of U. Zwingli. Translated from the German by Thomas Conrad Porter. Harrisburg 1856; Joseph William Blankinship, “A century of botanical exploration in Montana, 1805-1905: collectors, herbaria and bibliography.” in Montana Agric. Coll. Sci. Studies Bot. 1: 1-31. 1904; R. Zander, F. Encke, G. Buchheim and S. Seybold, Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen. 14. Aufl. 1993; Ida Kaplan Langman, A Selected Guide to the Literature on the Flowering Plants of Mexico. 592. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia 1964; Joseph Ewan, Rocky Mountain Naturalists. The University of Denver Press 1950.

Northern America, U.S. Perennial, found on wooded and dry hillsides, see Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 6: 79. 1862 and Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 25(9): 413. 1935, American Journal of Botany 71: 285. 1984.

in English: Porter’s reedgrass

C. intermedia (J. Presl) Steud. (Arundo stricta (Kunth) Poir., nom. illeg., non Arundo stricta Timm; Calamagrostis agapatea Steud. ex Lechler; Calamagrostis gracilis (Wedd.) Henrard, nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis gracilis Seenus; Calamagrostis gracilis (Wedd.) Pilg., nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis gracilis Seenus; Calamagrostis humboldtiana Steud.; Calamagrostis imberbis (Wedd.) Pilg.; Calamagrostis scaberula Swallen; Calamagrostis secunda (Pilg.) Pilg.; Calamagrostis stricta (Timm) Koeler; Deyeuxia gracilis Wedd.; Deyeuxia imberbis Wedd.; Deyeuxia intermedia J. Presl; Deyeuxia secunda Pilg.; Deyeuxia stricta Kunth)

South America, Ecuador. Páramos, see Saccardoa: Monographiae Mycologicae 105. 1802, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum 1: 146. 1815 [1816], Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique Suppl. 4: 706. 1816, Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 249. 1830, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 250. 1840, Berberides Americae Australis 56. 1857, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 179. 1875, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 25(5): 712. 1898 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 42: 60, 65, 71. 1908, Mededeelingen van’s Rijks-Herbarium 40: 61. 1921, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 29(6): 261. 1948 [1949].

C. involuta Swallen

Colombia. Páramos, see Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 29(6): 259. 1948 [1949].

C. jamesonii Steud. (Calamagrostis stuebelii (Pilg.) Pilg.; Deyeuxia jamesonii (Steud.) Munro ex Wedd.; Deyeuxia stuebelii Pilg.)

Ecuador. Páramos, see Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 191. 1854, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 176. 1875, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 25(5): 713. 1898 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 42: 60. 1908.

C. killipii Swallen

Colombia. Páramos, see Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 29(6): 257. 1948 [1949].

C. koelerioides Vasey (Calamagrostis densa Vasey; Calamagrostis koelerioides var. densa (Vasey) Beal; Calamagrostis vilfiformis Kearney)

America, U.S., California. See Botanical Gazette 16(5): 147. 1891, Grasses of North America for Farmers and Students 2: 345. 1896, Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 11: 20. 1898.

C. langsdorffii (Link) Trin. (also spelled langsdorfii ) (Arundo langsdorfii Link; Arundo confinis Willd.; Calamagrostis baicalensis Litv.; Calamagrostis canadensis subsp. langsdorffii (Link) Hultén; Calamagrostis canadensis var. langsdorfii (Link) Inman; Calamagrostis canadensis var. scabra (J. Presl) Hitchc.; Calamagrostis confinis (Willd.) P. Beauv.; Calamagrostis confusa V.N. Vassil.; Calamagrostis fusca Kom.; Calamagrostis purpurea (Trin.) Trin. subsp. langsdorfii (Link) Tzvelev; Calamagrostis unilateralis Petrov; Calamagrostis yendoana Honda; Deyeuxia langsdorfii (Link) Keng) (named for the German surgeon Georg Heinrich von Langsdorff, 1774-1852, explorer, naturalist, 1803-1806 Krusenstern Expedition (Adam Johann von Krusenstern, 1770-1846) in Brazil, plant collector, with Friedrich Ernst Ludwig von Fischer (1782-1854) published Plantes recueillies pendant le voyage des Russes autour du monde. Tubingue 1810, Bemerkungen auf einer Reise um die Welt in den Jahren 1803 bis 1807 ... Mit ... Kupfern, etc. Frankfurt am Mayn 1812, Bemerkungen über Brasilien. Heidelberg 1821 and Phantasmatum sive machinarum ad artis obstetriciae exercitia facientium vulgo Fantôme dictarum brevis historia. Dissertatione inaugurali delineata, etc. Gottingae [1797]. See J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 2: 343. 1965; R. Zander, F. Encke, G. Buchheim and S. Seybold, Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen. 14. Aufl. Stuttgart 1993; T.W. Bossert, Biographical dictionary of botanists represented in the Hunt Institute portrait collection. 227. 1972; H.N. Clokie, Account of the Herbaria of the Department of Botany in the University of Oxford. 197. Oxford 1964; A. Lasègue, Musée botanique de Benjamin Delessert. Paris 1845; Emil Bretschneider (1833-1901), History of European Botanical Discoveries in China. [Reprint of the original edition 1898] Leipzig 1981)

China, Siberia, Mongolia. Perennial, sandy and gravelly soils, alluvial gravel, see Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 15, 152, 157. 1812, Enumeratio Plantarum Horti Regii Berolinensis Altera 1: 74. 1821, De Graminibus unifloris et sesquifloris 219, 225, t. 4, f. 10. Petropoli 1824 and Rhodora 24: 143. 1922, Botanical Magazine (Tokyo) 41: 635. 1927, Flora Iakutiae 1: 201. 1930, American Journal of Botany 21(3): 135. 1934, Acta Universitatis Lundensis, n.s. 38(1): 161-163. 1942, Novosti Sist. Vyss. Rast. 1965: 34. 1965.

C. lapponica (Wahlenb.) Hartman (Arundo confinis Willd.; Arundo lapponica Wahlenb.; Calamagrostis alaskana Kearney; Calamagrostis confinis (Willd.) P. Beauv.; Calamagrostis confinis (Willd.) Nutt.; Calamagrostis gorodkovii V.N. Vassil.; Calamagrostis lancea Ohwi; Calamagrostis lancea Ohwi; Calamagrostis lapponica subsp. sibirica (Petrov) Tzvelev; Calamagrostis lapponica var. groenlandica Lange; Calamagrostis lapponica var. nearctica A.E. Porsild; Calamagrostis neglecta var. confinis (Willd.) Beal; Calamagrostis pseudolapponica V.N. Vassil.; Calamagrostis sibirica Petrov; Deyeuxia confinis (Willd.) Kunth; Deyeuxia lapponica (Wahlenb.) Kunth)

Alaska, Russia, Siberia, Finland. See Oekonomisch-Technische Flora der Wetterau 1: 94. 1799, Enumeratio Plantarum Omnium Hucusque Cognitarum 127. 1809, Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 15, 152, 157. 1812, Flora Lapponica 27. pl. 1. 1812, The Genera of North American Plants 1: 47. 1818, Genera Graminum 5. 1819, Révision des Graminées 1: 76. 1829, Conspectus Florae Groenlandicae 296. 1887, Grasses of North America for Farmers and Students 2: 353. 1896, Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 11: 32. 1898 and Flora Iakutiae 1: 203, f 68. 1930, Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 2: 162. 1933, Sargentia: Continuation of the Contributions from the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University 4: 10-11. Jamaica Plain, MA 1943, Feddes Repertorium 68: 226-227. 1963, Novosti Sist. Vyss. Rast. 1965: 31. 1965, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 192. 2003.

C. leiophylla (Wedd.) Hitchc. (Calamagrostis tolucensis var. laxiflora Kuntze; Deyeuxia leiophylla Wedd.; Deyeuxia picta Wedd.)

South America, Bolivia. See Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 251. 1840, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 177, 180. 1875, Revisio Generum Plantarum 3: 345. 1898 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 24(8): 367. 1927.

C. leonardii Chase

Southern America, West Indies. Red clay, open habitats, see Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 17: 72, f. 1. 1927.

C. ligulata (Kunth) Hitchc. (Arundo ligulata (Kunth) Poir.; Calamagrostis aurea (Munro ex Wedd.) Hack. ex Sodiro; Calamagrostis longigluma Pilg.; Calamagrostis podophora Pilg.; Deyeuxia aurea Munro ex Wedd.; Deyeuxia ligulata Kunth; Deyeuxia podophora (Pilg.) Sodiro; Stylagrostis longigluma (Pilg.) Mez)

South America, Peru, Ecuador. See Nova Genera et Species Plantarum 1: 145. 1815 [1816], Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique Suppl. 4: 706. 1816, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 176, 179. 1875, Anales de la Universidad Central del Ecuador 3(25): 481. 1889 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 42: 66, 71. 1908, Botanisches Archiv 1(1): 20. 1922, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 24(8) 372. 1927, Revista del Colégio Nacional Vicente Rocafuerte 12: 79. 1930.

C. llanganatensis Laegaard

Ecuador, Cordillera de los Llanganates. See Novon 8(1): 26-27, f. 1D. 1988.

C. longearistata (Wedd.) Hack. ex Sodiro (Calamagrostis beyrichiana Nees ex Döll; Calamagrostis longearistata f. pilosa Kämpf; Calamagrostis longearistata var. minor Kämpf; Calamagrostis longiaristata (Wedd.) Hack.; Calamagrostis montevidensis Nees; Calamagrostis montevidensis var. linearis Hack.; Calamagrostis rupestris Trin.; Deyeuxia beyrichiana (Nees ex Döll) Sodiro; Deyeuxia longearistata Wedd.; Deyeuxia rupestris (Trin.) Rúgolo)

Southern America, Colombia to Uruguay. Perennial, with straight awns, found in damp places, sandy soils, see De Graminibus Paniceis 28. 1826, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 176. 1875, Flora Brasiliensis 2(3): 53, t. 16. 1878, Anales de la Universidad Central del Ecuador 3(25): 481. 1889 and Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 6: 156. 1908, Anuário Técnico do Instituto de Pesquisas ZootécnicasFrancisco Osorio” 2: 610, 613. 1974 [1975].

C. macbridei Tovar

Peru. See Memorias del Museo de Historia Natural “Javier Prado” 11: 62. 1960.

C. macilenta (Griseb.) Litv. (Calamagrostis varia var. macilenta Griseb.; Deyeuxia macilenta (Griseb.) Keng)

Europe. See Flora Rossica 4(13): 427. 1852 and Claves Generum et Specierum Graminearum Primarum Sinicarum Appendice Nomenclatione Systematica 204. 1957.

C. macrophylla (Pilg.) Pilg. (Deyeuxia macrophylla Pilg.)

South America, Ecuador. See Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 25(5): 711-712. 1898 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 42: 60. 1908.

C. malamalensis Hack. (Deyeuxia malamalensis (Hack.) Parodi)

Argentina. See Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires 13: 478. 1906, Revista Argentina de Agronomía 20: 14. 1953.

C. mandoniana (Wedd.) Wedd. (Calamagrostis mandoniana (Wedd.) Pilg.; Deyeuxia mandoniana Wedd.)

South America, Bolivia. See Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 179, 180. 1875 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 42: 71. 1908, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 49: 183. 1913.

C. menhoferi Govaerts (Calamagrostis hirsuta V.N. Vassil.; Calamagrostis manshurica (V. Vassil.) Baranov & Skvortzov; Deyeuxia hirsuta Rúgolo & X. Villavicencio)

South America, Bolivia. See Quarterly Journal of the Taiwan Museum 18: 221. 1965, Masao Kitagawa (b. 1909), Neo-Lineamenta Florae Manshuricae: or enumeration of the spontaneous vascular plants hitherto known from Manchuria (northeastern China) together with their synonymy and distribution. 75. 1979 [Flora et vegetatio mundi herausgegeben von Reinhold Tüxen; Band IV.], Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 31(1-2): 136, f. 7. 1995, World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1): 11. 1999.

C. minima (Pilg.) Tovar (Calamagrostis vicunarum var. minima Pilg.; Deyeuxia minima (Pilg.) Rúgolo)

South America, Peru. Open areas, see Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 42: 62-63. 1908, Memorias del Museo de Historia Natural “Javier Prado” 11: 53. 1960.

C. mollis Pilg. (Deyeuxia mollis (Pilg.) Sodiro)

South America, Ecuador. See Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 42: 61. 1908, Revista del Colégio Nacional Vicente Rocafuerte 12: 80. 1930.

C. montanensis (Scribn.) Scribn. (Calamagrostis montanensis (Scribn.) Beal, nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis montanensis (Scribn.) Scribn.; Calamagrostis montanensis Scribn. ex Vasey; Calamagrostis neglecta var. candidula Kearney; Deyeuxia montanensis Scribn.)

North America, U.S., Canada. Open prairies, moist places, see Oekonomisch-Technische Flora der Wetterau 1: 94. 1799, Proceedings of the Society for the Promotion of Agricultural Science 6. 1883, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 3(1): 82. 1892, Grasses of North America, second edition, 2: 342. 1896, Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 11: 35-36. 1898.

C. muiriana B.L. Wilson & Sami Gray

North America, U.S., California. See Madroño 49(3): 174-175, f. 3, f. 4. 2002.

C. mulleri Luces

South America, Venezuela. See Abhandlungen der Königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen 19: 252-253. 1874 and Boletín de la Sociedad Venezolana de Ciencias Naturales 15(80): 9-11, f. 5. 1953.

C. nagarum (Bor) G. Singh (Deyeuxia nagarum Bor)

India, Naga Hills. Straggling, see Indian Forest Records: Botany 1: 69. 1938, Taxon 33(1): 94. 1984.

C. nardifolia (Griseb.) Hack. (Agrostis canescens Griseb., nom. illeg., non Agrostis canescens (L.) Salisb.; Agrostis nardifolia Griseb.; Deyeuxia nardifolia (Griseb.) Phil.; Deyeuxia trisetoides Phil.)

Argentina. See Abhandlungen der Königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen 19: 252-253. 1874, Verzeichniss der von Friedrich Philippi auf der Hochebene der Provinzen Antofagasta und Tarapacá gesammelten Pflanzen 83. Leipzig 1891 [also in Anales del Museo Nacional de Chile. Primera Sección — Zoolojía 8: 83. 1891, with the title Catalogus praevius plantarum in itinere ad Tarapaca a Friderico Philippi lectarum.] and Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires 13: 480. 1906.

C. neglecta (Ehrh.) Gaertn. (Agrostis arundinacea J. Presl, nom. illeg., non Agrostis arundinacea L.; Arundo neglecta Ehrh.; Arundo stricta Timm; Calamagrostis ameghinoi (Speg.) Macloskie; Calamagrostis ameghinoi (Speg.) Hauman, nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis ameghinoi (Speg.) Macloskie; Calamagrostis arundinacea (L.) Roth; Calamagrostis freticola (Speg.) Macloskie; Calamagrostis fuegiana Speg.; Calamagrostis haenkeana Hitchc.; Calamagrostis hookeri (Syme) Druce; Calamagrostis hyperborea Lange; Calamagrostis kolgujewensis Gand.; Calamagrostis laxiflora Kearney, nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis laxiflora Phil.; Calamagrostis lucida Scribn.; Calamagrostis magellanica Phil.; Calamagrostis micrantha Kearney; Calamagrostis neglecta var. gracilis Scribn. ex Kearney; Calamagrostis neglecta var. micrantha (Kearney) Stebbins; Calamagrostis ochotensis V. Vassil.; Calamagrostis poaeoides Steud.; Calamagrostis robertii A.E. Porsild; Calamagrostis stricta (Timm) Koeler; Calamagrostis stricta var. hookeri Syme; Deyeuxia ameghinoi Speg.; Deyeuxia borealis Macoun; Deyeuxia freticola Speg.; Deyeuxia hookeri (Syme) Druce; Deyeuxia neglecta (Ehrh.) Kunth; Deyeuxia neglecta var. brevifolia Vasey; Deyeuxia neglecta var. gracilis Scribn.; Deyeuxia poaeoides (Steud.) Rúgolo; Deyeuxia vancouverensis Vasey)

South America. See Tentamen Florae Germanicae 2(1): 89. 1789, Beiträge zur Naturkunde 6: 137. 1791, OekonomischTechnische Flora der Wetterau 1: 94. 1799, Saccardoa: Monographiae Mycologicae 105. 1802, Révision des Graminées 1: 76. 1829, Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 238. 1830, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 423. 1854, English Botany, the third edition 11: 56. 1873, Botanical Gazette 11: 175. 1886, Catalogue of Canadian Plants 2(4): 206-207. 1888, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 15(2): 48. 1888, Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires 5: 85, 87. 1896, Anales de la Universidad de Chile 94: 18, 20. 1896, Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 11: 34-36. 1898 and Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 30: 8. 1901, Anales Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires 7: 190. 1902, Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, Volume viii, 1 [2], Botany 8(1,5,1): 193-194. 1904, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 56: 533. 1909, Anales Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires 29: 57. 1917, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 24(8): 371. 1927, Botanical Exchange Club of the British Isles. Report 8: 140. 1926-1927, Rhodora 32: 55. 1930, George Claridge Druce (1850-1932), The Comital Flora of the British Isles 352. Arbroath, Scot. 1932 [Flora Comitalis Britannicae], Nature Canada 4: 5. 1974 [1975], Darwiniana 21: 443. 1978, Flora Patagónica 3: 361. 1978.

C. neglecta (Ehrh.) Gaertn. subsp. inexpansa (A. Gray) Tzvelev (Calamagrostis aculeolata (Hack.) Ohwi; Calamagrostis americana (Vasey) Scribn.; Calamagrostis breviseta var. lacustris Kearney; Calamagrostis californica Kearney; Calamagrostis canadensis var. arcta Stebbins; Calamagrostis chordorrhiza A.E. Porsild; Calamagrostis crassiglumis Thurb.; Calamagrostis elongata (Kearney) Rydb.; Calamagrostis expansa Rickett & Gilly; Calamagrostis fernaldii Louis-Marie; Calamagrostis hyperborea Lange; Calamagrostis hyperborea var. americana (Vasey) Kearney; Calamagrostis hyperborea var. elongata Kearney; Calamagrostis hyperborea var. hyperborea; Calamagrostis hyperborea var. stenodes Kearney; Calamagrostis inexpansa A. Gray; Calamagrostis inexpansa var. barbulata Kearney; Calamagrostis inexpansa var. brevior (Vasey) Stebbins; Calamagrostis inexpansa var. inexpansa; Calamagrostis inexpansa var. novae-angliae Stebbins; Calamagrostis inexpansa var. robusta (Vasey) Stebbins; Calamagrostis labradorica Kearney; Calamagrostis lacustris (Kearney) Nash; Calamagrostis lapponica var. brevipilis Stebbins; Calamagrostis neglecta var. crassiglumis (Thurb.) Beal; Calamagrostis neglecta var. hyperborea (Lange) M.E. Jones; Calamagrostis neglecta var. inexpansa (A. Gray) M.E. Jones; Calamagrostis pickeringii var. debilis (Kearney) Fernald & Wiegand; Calamagrostis pickeringii var. lacustris (Kearney) Hitchc.; Calamagrostis robusta (Vasey) Vasey; Calamagrostis stricta subsp. inexpansa (A. Gray) C.W. Greene; Calamagrostis stricta var. aculeolata Hack.; Calamagrostis stricta var. brevior Vasey; Calamagrostis stricta var. robusta Vasey; Calamagrostis wyomingensis Gand.; Deyeuxia americana (Vasey) Lunell; Deyeuxia crassiglumis (Thurb.) Vasey; Deyeuxia elongata (Kearney) Lunell; Deyeuxia glomerata Vasey ex Macoun; Deyeuxia hyperborea (Lange) Lunell; Deyeuxia hyperborea var. elongata (Kearney) Lunell; Deyeuxia hyperborea var. stenodes (Kearney) Lunell; Deyeuxia neglecta var. americana Vasey; Deyeuxia neglecta var. robusta Vasey)

America. Swamps, woods, meadows, boggy places, see Genera Graminum 5. 1819, North American Gramineae and Cyperaceae 1: 20. 1834, Report Upon United States Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian, in Charge of First Lieut. Geo. M. Wheeler... vol. vi — Botany 6: 285. 1878 [1879], Geological Survey of California, Botany 2: 281. 1880, The Grasses of the United States 28. 1883, Catalogue of Canadian Plants 2(4): 206. 1888, Botanical Gazette 16: 288. 1891, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 3(1): 82. 1892, Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 5: 41. 1894, Grasses of North America for Farmers and Students 2: 353. 1896, Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 5: 27. 1897, Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 11: 25-26, 37-41. 1898, Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier 7(9): 652. 1899 and Rhodora 8(95): 210. 1906, Contributions to Western Botany 14: 9. 1912, An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States 1: 208. 1913, Rhodora 15(175): 135. 1913, American Midland Naturalist 4: 218. 1915, Flora of the Rocky Mountains 1060. 1917, American Midland Naturalist 5: 233. 1918, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 66(7): 299. 1919 [1920], Rhodora 32: 45, 48, 50-51, 56. 1930, Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 2: 278. 1933, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 69: 464. 1942, Sargentia: Continuation of the Contributions from the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University 4: 9-10. 1943, Rhodora 46: 290, pl. 836, f. 4. 1944, Zlaki SSSR 310. 1976, American Journal of Botany 71: 286. 1984.

C. neglecta (Ehrh.) Gaertn. subsp. neglecta (Arundo neglecta Ehrh.; Arundo stricta Timm; Calamagrostis jacutensis Petrov; Calamagrostis kolgujewensis Gand.; Calamagrostis laxiflora Kearney, nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis laxiflora Phil.; Calamagrostis lucida Scribn.; Calamagrostis micrantha Kearney; Calamagrostis micrantha var. micrantha; Calamagrostis micrantha var. sierrae M.E. Jones; Calamagrostis neglecta subsp. aculeolata (Hack.) T. Koyama; Calamagrostis neglecta subsp. micrantha (Kearney) Tzvelev; Calamagrostis neglecta subsp. stricta (Timm) Tzvelev; Calamagrostis neglecta var. gracilis Scribn. ex Kearney; Calamagrostis neglecta var. micrantha (Kearney) Stebbins; Calamagrostis neglecta var. neglecta; Calamagrostis neglecta var. poaeoides (Steud.) Hack.; Calamagrostis neglecta var. stricta (Timm) Griseb.; Calamagrostis neglecta var. wrightii Kearney; Calamagrostis ochotensis V. Vassil.; Calamagrostis poaeoides Steud.; Calamagrostis praerupta V. Vassil.; Calamagrostis reverdattoi Golub; Calamagrostis stricta var. aculeolata Hack.; Calamagrostis stricta var. stricta; Deyeuxia micrantha (Kearney) L. Liou; Deyeuxia neglecta var. brevifolia Vasey; Deyeuxia neglecta var. gracilis Scribn.; Deyeuxia poaeoides (Steud.) Rúgolo)

Europe, America. Meadows, under trees, see Beiträge zur Naturkunde 6: 137. 1791, Saccardoa: Monographiae Mycologicae 105. 1802, Flora Rossica 4(13): 429. 1852, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 423. 1854, Botanical Gazette 11: 175. 1886, Catalogue of Canadian Plants 2(4): 206. 1888, Anales de la Universidad de Chile 94: 18. 1896, Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 11: 34-36. 1898, Bulletin de l’Herbier Bois-sier 7(9): 652. 1899 and Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 30: 8. 1901, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 56: 533. 1909, Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires 21: 103. 1911, Contributions to Western Botany 14: 9. 1912, Flora Iakutiae 1: 214, f 23. 1930, Rhodora 32: 55. 1930, Feddes Repertorium 68: 236. 1963, Novosti Sist. Vyss. Rast. 1965: 29-30. 1965, Flora Patagónica 3: 361. 1978, Grasses of Japan and its Neighboring Regions 496. 1987, Vascular Plants of the Hengduan Mountains 2: 2239. 1994.

C. neglecta (Ehrh.) Gaertn. var. borealis (Laest.) Kearney (Arundo groenlandica Schrank; Calamagrostis borealis Laest.; Calamagrostis stricta subsp. groenlandica (Schrank) Á. Löve)

Europe. See Denkschriften der Bayer[ischen]. Botanischen Gesellschaft in Regensburg 1: 8. 1818, C.P. Laestadius (1835-1920), Bidrag till kännedomen om växtligheten i Torneå Lappmark. Diss. Uppsala 1860, Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 11: 35. 1898 and Taxon 19: 299. 1970.

C. nepalensis Nees ex Steud. (Calamagrostis pseudophragmites (Haller f.) Koeler)

Asia. See Archiv für die Botanik 1: 11. 1797, Descriptio uberior Graminum 106. 1803, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 193. 1854.

C. nitidula Pilg. (Calamagrostis nitidula var. elata Pilg.; Calamagrostis nitidula var. macrantha Pilg.; Calamagrostis rigida (Kunth) Trin. ex Steud.; Deyeuxia nitidula (Pilg.) Rúgolo; Deyeuxia rigida Kunth)

Peru, Bolivia. Stony sites, see Nova Genera et Species Plantarum 1: 144. 1815 [1816], Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 251. 1840 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 42: 69-70. 1908.

C. nutkaensis (J. Presl & C. Presl) Steud. (Calamagrostis albescens Buckley ex A. Gray; Calamagrostis albicans Buckley; Calamagrostis aleutica Trin.; Calamagrostis aleutica var. patens Kearney; Calamagrostis nutkaensis (J. Presl) J. Presl ex Steud.; Calamagrostis pallida Nutt. ex A. Gray, nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis pallida C. Mueller; Deyeuxia aleutica (Trin.) Munro ex Hook.; Deyeuxia breviaristata Vasey, nom. illeg., non Deyeuxia breviaristata Wedd.; Deyeuxia columbiana Macoun; Deyeuxia nutkaensis J. Presl)

Northern America, Alaska, U.S. Perennial, see Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 250. 1830, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 190. 1854, Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 23: 345. 1862, Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 14: 92, 334. 1862, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 15(2): 48. 1888, Catalogue of Canadian Plants 2(4): 207. 1888, Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 11: 20. 1898.

C. ophitidis (J. Howell) Nygren (Calamagrostis purpurascens var. ophitidis J.T. Howell) (from the Latin ophitis, idis and ophites, ae “snake-stone, a kind of marble spotted like a snake, serpentine-stone”; Plinius: “...ophites serpentinum maculis similis unde et nomen accepit...”)

U.S., California. See Botanical Appendix to Captain Frank-lin’s Narrative 731. 1823 and Leaflets of Western Botany 4(10): 246-247. 1946, Hereditas; genetiskt arkiv. 40: 388. 1954.

in English: serpentine reed grass

C. orbignyana (Wedd.) Wedd. ex Pilg. (Calamagrostis nematophylla (Wedd.) Pilg.; Calamagrostis orbignyana (Wedd.) Hitchc., nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis orbignyana (Wedd.) Wedd. ex Pilg.; Deyeuxia nematophylla Wedd.; Deyeuxia orbignyana Wedd.) (named for the French (b. Loire-Atlantique) naturalist Alcide Dessalines d’Orbigny, 1802-1857 (d. near Sant-Denis), traveler, zoologist, palaeontologist, explorer, 1826-1834 in South America, palm collector, studied in Paris under Pierre-Louis-Antoine Cordier (1777-1861), professor of paleontology at the Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris, among his numerous writings are Voyage dans l’Amerique méridionale. Paris, Strasbourg 1834[-1847], Tableau méthodique de la classe des Céphalopodes. Paris 1826 and Paléontologie française. Description zoologique et géologique de tous les animaux mollusques et rayonnés fossiles de France. Paris 1840-1856. See P. Fischer, “Notice sur la vie et sur les travaux d’Alcide d’Orbigny.” Bulletin de la Société géologique de France. sér. 3. 6: 434-453. Paris 1878; A. Gaudry, “Alcide d’Orbigny, ses voyages et ses travaux.” Revue des Deux Mondes. Paris 1859; A. Lasègue, Musée botanique de Benjamin Delessert. Paris 1845; B. Glass et al., editors, Forerunners of Darwin: 1745-1859. Baltimore 1959; August Weberbauer (1871-1948), Die Pflanzenwelt der peruanischen Andes in ihren Grundzügen dargestellt. 8-9. Leipzig 1911; Claudio Urbano B. Pinheiro and Michael J. Balick, Brazilian Palms. Notes on Their Uses and Vernacular Names, compiled and translated from Pio Corrêa’s “Dicionário das Plantas Úteis do Brasil e das Exóticas Cultivadas, with updated nomenclature and added illustrations” in Contributions from the New York Botanical Garden. vol. 17: 39-40. 1987; Heinz Tobien, in D.S.B. 10: 221-222. 1981; F. Boerner and G. Kunkel, Taschenwörterbuch der botanischen Pflanzennamen. 4. Aufl. 143. Berlin & Hamburg 1989; H. Genaust, Etymologisches Wörterbuch der botanischen Pflanzennamen. 440. 1996; R. Zander, F. Encke, G. Buchheim and S. Seybold, Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen. 14. Aufl. 407, 785f. Stuttgart 1993; G. Christian Wittstein, Etymologisch-botanisches Handwörterbuch. 636. Ansbach 1852; Stafleu and Cowan, Taxonomic literature. 3: 842-844. 1981)

America. See Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 178-180. 1875 and Botanische Jahrbücher für System-atik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 42: 70. 1908, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 49: 184. 1912, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 24(8): 378. 1927.

C. orizabae (Rupr. ex E. Fourn.) Beal (Achaeta plumosa E. Fourn.; Achaeta plumosa E. Fourn. ex Hemsl.; Calamagrostis erecta Beal; Calamagrostis erectifolia Hitchc.; Calamagrostis orizabae Steud.; Calamagrostis plumosa Spreng.; Calamagrostis plumosa (E. Fourn.) Scribn. ex Beal, nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis plumosa Spreng.; Deyeuxia orizabae Rupr. ex E. Fourn.; Deyeuxia orizabae Rupr.)

North America, Mexico. See Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 1: 253. 1825 [1824], Bulletin de l’Académie Royale des Sciences et Belles-lettres de Bruxelles 9(2): 233. 1842, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 193. 1854, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 24: 181. 1877, Biologia Centrali-Americana; ... Botany ... 3: 553. 1885, Mexicanas Plantas 2: 105, 109. 1886, Grasses of North America for Farmers and Students 2: 340. 1896 and North American Flora 17(7): 507. 1937.

C. ovata (J. Presl) Steud. (Calamagrostis pflanzii Pilg.; Calamagrostis pflanzii var. major Pilg.; Deyeuxia anthoxanthum Wedd.; Deyeuxia capitata Wedd.; Deyeuxia nivalis Wedd.; Deyeuxia ovata J. Presl; Stylagrostis nivalis (Wedd.) Mez; Stylagrostis ovata (J. Presl) Mez)

America, Bolivia, Peru. See Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 246. 1830, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 251. 1840, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 176, 179-180. 1875 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 49: 184. 1912, Botanisches Archiv 1(1): 20. 1922.

C. ovata (J. Presl) Steud. var. nivalis (Wedd.) Soreng (Calamagrostis nivalis (Wedd.) Hack. ex Buchtien; Deyeuxia nivalis Wedd.; Deyeuxia ovata var. nivalis (Wedd.) X. Villavicencio; Stylagrostis nivalis (Wedd.) Mez)

America. See Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 176, 180. 1875 and Contribuciones a la Flora de Bolivia 1: 75. 1910, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 213. 2003.

C. ovata (J. Presl) Steud. var. ovata (Calamagrostis pflanzii var. major Pilg.; Calamagrostis pflanzii var. pflanzii; Deyeuxia ovata J. Presl; Deyeuxia ovata var. ovata; Stylagrostis ovata (J. Presl) Mez)

America. See Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 246. 1830 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 49: 184. 1912, Botanisches Archiv 1(1): 20. 1922.

C. parsana (Bor) Dogan (Agrostis parsana (Bor) Beetle; Deyeuxia parsana Bor)

Iran. Rhizomatous, leaves mainly basal, usually in wet areas, see Kew Bulletin 1948: 42. 1948, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 76: 290. 1949, Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh 40(1): 86. 1982.

C. patagonica (Speg.) Macloskie (Deyeuxia patagonica Speg.)

South America, Argentina. See Anales Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires 7: 191. 1902, Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, Volume viii, 1 [2], Botany 8(1,5,1): 195-196. 1904.

C. perplexa Scribn. (Calamagrostis nemoralis Phil.; Calamagrostis nemoralis Kearney, nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis nemoralis Phil.; Calamagrostis porteri var. perplexa (Scribn.) R.T. Clausen)

America. See Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 6: 79. 1862, Anales de la Universidad de Chile 94: 18. 1896, Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 11: 26. 1898 and Circular, Division of Agrostology, United States Department of Agriculture 30: 7. 1901, Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station Memoir 291: 11. Ithaca, New York 1949 [also Memoir, Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station].

C. pickeringii A. Gray (Calamagrostis breviseta (A. Gray) Scribn.; Calamagrostis breviseta var. debilis Kearney; Calamagrostis pickeringii f. vivipara Louis-Marie; Calamagrostis pickeringii var. debilis (Kearney) Fernald and Wiegand; Calamagrostis sylvatica var. breviseta A. Gray; Deyeuxia pickeringii (A. Gray) Vasey)

North America, Savannah, wet sites. See A Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States 582. 1848, A Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States. second edition 547. 1856, The Grasses of the United States 28. 1883, Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 5: 41. 1894, Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 11: 25. 1898 and Rhodora 15(175): 135. 1913, Rhodora 46: 296. 1944.

C. pickeringii A. Gray f. pickeringii (Calamagrostis pick-eringii var. pickeringii)

America.

C. pickeringii A. Gray f. vivipara Louis-Marie

Canada. See Rhodora 46: 296. 1944.

C. pinetorum Swallen

Guatemala. Slopes, dry areas, see Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 29(9): 406. 1950.

C. pisinna Swallen

Venezuela. Páramos, see Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 29(6): 257-258. 1948 [1949].

C. pittieri Hack.

South America. See Österreichische Botanische Zeitschrift 52(3): 108. 1902.

C. planifolia (Kunth) Trin. ex Steud. (Arundo planifolia (Kunth) Poir.; Deyeuxia planifolia Kunth)

America. See Nova Genera et Species Plantarum 1: 145. 1815 [1816], Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique Suppl. 4: 707. 1816, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 251. 1840.

C. podophora Pilg. (Calamagrostis ligulata (Kunth) Hitchc.; Deyeuxia ligulata Kunth; Deyeuxia podophora (Pilg.) Sodiro)

Peru. See Nova Genera et Species Plantarum 1: 145. 1815 [1816] and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 42: 66. 1908, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 24(8) 372. 1927, Revista del Colégio Nacional Vicente Rocafuerte 12: 79. 1930.

C. polygama (Griseb.) Parodi (Calamagrostis lilloi Hack.; Calamagrostis lilloi f. grandiflora Hack.; Calamagrostis lilloi f. lilloi; Cinnagrostis polygama Griseb.; Deyeuxia polygama (Griseb.) Parodi)

South America, Argentina. See Abhandlungen der Königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen 19: 257, t. 2, f. 7. 1874, A.H.R. Grisebach (1814-1879), Plantae lorentzianae. Göttingen 1874 and Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires 13: 477. 1906, Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires 21: 102. 1911, Physis. Revista de la Sociedad Argentina de Ciencias Naturales 9: 13, 41. 1928, Revista Argentina de Agronomía 20: 14. 1953.

C. polygama (Griseb.) Parodi subsp. filifolia (Rúgolo & X. Villavicencio) Soreng (Deyeuxia polygama subsp. filifolia Rúgolo & X. Villavicencio)

South America, Bolivia. See Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 31(1-2): 139, f. 8. 1995, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 215. 2003.

C. polygama (Griseb.) Parodi subsp. polygama (Deyeuxia polygama subsp. polygama)

America.

C. porteri A. Gray (Deyeuxia porteri (A. Gray) Vasey)

America, U.S. See Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 6: 79. 1862, The Grasses of the United States 28. 1883 and Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station Memoir 291: 11. 1949.

C. porteri A. Gray subsp. insperata (Swallen) C.W. Greene (Calamagrostis insperata Swallen)

U.S. See Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 25(9): 413. 1935, American Journal of Botany 71: 285. 1984, Esselman E.J., L. Jianqiang, D.J. Crawford, J.L. Windus, A.D. Wolfe, “Clonal diversity in the rare Calamgrostis porteri subsp. insperata (Poaceae): comparative results for allozymes and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers.” Molecular Ecology 8: 443. 1999.

C. porteri A. Gray subsp. porteri

U.S.

C. preslii (Kunth) Hitchc. (Agrostis caespitosa J. Presl, nom. illeg., non Agrostis caespitosa (L.) Salisb.; Agrostis preslii Kunth; Bromidium caespitosum Nees & Meyen; Bromidium hygrometricum var. caespitosum (Nees & Meyen) Kuntze; Calamagrostis caespitosa Scribn., nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis caespitosa (Hochst. ex Seub.) Steud.)

America, Peru. See Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 25. 1796, Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 237. 1830, Enumeratio Plantarum Omnium Hucusque Cognitarum 1: 225. 1833, Gramineae 23-24. 1841, Nova Acta Phys.-Med. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 19(Suppl. 1): 155-156. 1843, Revisio Generum Plantarum 3(3): 343. 1898, Annual Report of the Missouri Botanical Garden 10: 37. 1899 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 24(8) 370. 1927.

C. pringlei Scribner ex Beal (Calamagrostis guatemalensis Hitchc.; Deyeuxia pringlei Soreng; Deyeuxia pringlei Scribn. ex Beal)

Mexico. See Grasses of North America for Farmers and Students 2: 345. 1896.

C. pseudophragmites (Haller f.) Koeler (Arundo laxa (Host) Wahlenb.; Arundo littorea Schrad.; Arundo pseudophragmites Haller f.; Calamagrostis glauca (M.Bieb.) Trin.; Calamagrostis glauca Trin. ex Hohen.; Calamagrostis lanceolata Aitch., nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis lanceolata Roth; Calamagrostis laxa Host; Calamagrostis littorea DC.; Calamagrostis littorea (Schrad.) DC.; Calamagrostis littorea (Schrad.) P. Beauv.; Calamagrostis nepalensis Nees ex Steud.; Calamagrostis onoei Franch. & Sav.; Calamagrostis pseudophragmites (Haller f.) Koeler subsp. dubia (Bunge) Tzvelev)

Asia, China, Japan. Perennial, rhizomatous, coarse foliage, useful for erosion control, common in disturbed sites, wet areas along rivers, pine woods, along roadsides, see Archiv für die Botanik 1: 11. 1797, Descriptio uberior Graminum 106. 1803, Flora Germanica 1: 212, pl. 4, f. 2. 1806, Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 15. 1812, Bulletin de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou 14. 1837, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 193. 1854, Enumeratio Plantarum in Japonia Sponte Crescentium ... 2: 598. 1879, Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 18: 107. 1880.

C. pseudophragmites (Haller f.) Koeler subsp. pseudo-phragmites

Europe, Asia. Perennial, rhizomatous, useful for erosion control.

C. pubescens (Pilg.) Pilg. (Deyeuxia pubescens Pilg.)

South America, Colombia. See Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 25(5): 712. 1898 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 42: 60. 1908.

C. pungens Tovar

Peru. See Memorias del Museo de Historia Natural “Javier Prado” 11: 61. 1960.

C. purpurascens R. Br. (Arundo purpurascens (R. Br.) Schult.; Avena sesquiflora (Trin.) Griseb.; Calamagrostis arctica Vasey; Calamagrostis arundinacea f. purpurascens (R. Br.) Gelert; Calamagrostis arundinacea var. purpurascens (R. Br.) Porsild; Calamagrostis caespitosa V. Vassil., nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis caespitosa (Hochst. ex Seub.) Steud.; Calamagrostis lepageana Louis-Marie; Calamagrostis purpurascens subsp. arctica (Vasey) Hultén; Calamagrostis purpurascens var. arctica (Vasey) Kearney; Calamagrostis purpurascens var. ophitidis J.T. Howell; Calamagrostis purpurascens var. vaseyi (Beal) M.E. Jones; Calamagrostis sesquiflora (Trin.) Kawano; Calamagrostis sesquiflora (Trin.) Tzvelev; Calamagrostis sylvatica var. americana Vasey; Calamagrostis sylvatica var. purpurascens Thurb. ex Vasey; Calamagrostis vaseyi Beal; Calamagrostis wiluica Litv. ex V. Petrov; Calamagrostis yukonensis Nash; Deschampsia congestiformis W.E. Booth; Deyeuxia purpurascens (R. Br.) Kunth; Deyeuxia robusta Phil.; Trisetum sesquiflorum Trin.)

North America, U.S., Canada. Open habitats, dry soils, see Tentamen Florae Germanicae 2(1): 89. 1789, Icones et Descriptiones Graminum Austriacorum 4: t. 48. 1809, Botanical Appendix to Captain Franklin’s Narrative 731. 1823, Mantissa 3: 603. 1827, Révision des Graminées 1: 77. 1829, Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint Pétersbourg. Sixième Série. Sciences Mathématiques, Physiques et Naturelles. Seconde Partie: Sciences Naturelles 4,2(1): 14. 1836, Flora Rossica 4(13): 419. 1852, Florula Atacamensis seu Enumeratio ... 54. 1860, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 3(1): 83. 1892, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Division of Botany. Bulletin 13(2): t. 55. 1893, Grasses of North America for Farmers and Students 2: 344. 1896, Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 11: 19. 1898 and Bulletin of the New York Botanical Garden 2(6): 154-155. 1901, Carl E. Hansen Ostenfeld (1873-1931), Flora arctica containing descriptions of the flowering plants and ferns, found in the Arctic regions, with their distribution in these countries ... Edited by C.H. Ostenfeld ... Pt. I. Copenhagen, Det Nordiske Forlag, 1902. [Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae and Monocotyledones, by O. Gelert and C.H. Ostenfeld.], Meddelelser om Grønland 47: 261. 1910, Contributions to Western Botany 14: 9. 1912, Flora Iakutiae 1: 193, f 63. 1930, Acta Universitatis Lundensis, n.s. 38(1): 170-171. 1942, Rhodora 45(538): 414. 1943, Rhodora 46: 303. 1944, Leaflets of Western Botany 4(10): 246-247. 1946, Flora Arctica URSS 2: 74. 1964, Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 21: 80. 1965.

C. purpurascens R. Br. var. laricina Louis-Marie (Calamagrostis laricina (Louis-Marie) Louis-Marie; Calamagrostis poluninii T.J. Sørensen; Calamagrostis purpurascens f. compacta Louis-Marie; Calamagrostis purpurascens f. laricina Louis-Marie)

North America, Canada. See Revue d’Oka, agronomie, médicine, vétérinaire de l’institut agricole 20: 153. 1946, Nature Canada 85: 70. 1958, Fl. Canada 2: 258. 1978.

C. purpurascens R. Br. var. purpurascens (Calamagrostis caespitosa V. Vassil., nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis caespitosa (Hochst. ex Seub.) Steud.; Calamagrostis maltei (Polunin) Á. Löve and D. Löve; Calamagrostis purpurascens subsp. maltei (Polunin) A.E. Porsild; Calamagrostis purpurascens subsp. purpurascens; Calamagrostis purpurascens var. maltei Polunin; Calamagrostis yukonensis Nash)

North America, Canada. Dry soils, see Bulletin of the New York Botanical Garden 2(6): 154-155. 1901, Bulletin of the National Museum of Canada 92: 51. 1940, Nature Canada 4: 5. 1974 [1975], Botaniska Notiser 128(4): 503. 1975 [1976].

C. purpurea (Trin.) Trin. (Arundo purpurea Trin.; Calamagrostis gracilis (Litv.) V. Vassil., nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis gracilis Seenus; Calamagrostis neglecta var. poaeoides (Steud.) Hack.; Calamagrostis notabilis Litv.; Calamagrostis poaeoides Steud.; Calamagrostis poaeoides V.N. Vassil., nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis poaeoides Steud.; Calamagrostis poplawskae Roshev.; Deyeuxia poaeoides (Steud.) Rúgolo)

Siberia, Russia, Finland. Perennial, on sandy soil, meadows, mountain steppe, margin of abandoned fields, see Neue Entdeckungen im ganzen Umfang der Pflanzenkunde 2: 52. 1821, Gram. Unifl. Sesquifl. 219. 1824 and Feddes Repertorium 68: 212, 219. 1963.

C. purpurea (Trin.) Trin. subsp. phragmitoides (Hartm.) Tzvelev (Calamagrostis elata Blytt; Calamagrostis flexuosa Rupr.; Calamagrostis phragmitoides Hartm.)

Russia, Siberia, Finland. Useful for erosion control.

C. purpurea (Trin.) Trin. subsp. pseudopurpurea (Gerstl. ex O.R. Heine) G.C.S. Clarke (Calamagrostis pseudopurpurea Gerstl. ex O.R. Heine; Calamagrostis pseudopurpurea Gerstl. ex Rauschert; Calamagrostis purpurea subsp. pseudopurpurea (Gerstl. ex Rauschert) G.C.S. Clarke; Calamagrostis rivalis (Torges) H. Scholz)

Europe, Germany. See Feddes Repertorium 83(4): 282. 1972, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 76: 361. 1978.

C. purpurea (Trin.) Trin. subsp. purpurea

Siberia, Russia.

C. ramonae Escalona

Venezuela. Páramos, see Phytologia 65(5): 342, f. 3. 1988.

C. rauhii Tovar (for the German botanist Werner Rauh, 1913-2000 (Heidelberg), explorer, collector, botanical writer, bryologist, and specialist on succulent plants and Bromeliaceae, traveler (Africa and South America, Madagascar), professor and former director of the Institute for Systematic Botany at the University of Heidelberg (Inst. für Systematische Botanik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität, Heidelberg, Germany) and the associated botanical garden, author of numerous books and articles pertaining to Succulent plants, he is commemorated in numerous specific and generic names, contributed to The Euphorbia Journal, among his writings are “The Didiereaceae.” Cact. Succ. J. Amer. 48: 75. 1976, “Uber einige interessante Sukkulenten aus Kenia.” Sukkulentenkunde. 7/8: 108-127. 1963, Kak-teen an ihren Standorten. Berlin & Hamburg 1979 and Succulent and Xerophytic Plants of Madagascar. Two volumes. Strawberry Press 1995-1998. See T.W. Bossert, Biographical dictionary of botanists represented in the Hunt Institute portrait collection. 325. 1972; The Euphorbia Journal. vol. 10: 225-226. 1996; Andrew Cowin, “The Hortus Palatinus: Heidelberg’s Eight Wonder of the World.” in Hortus. 24: 44-54. 1992; Gordon Douglas Rowley, A History of Succulent Plants. Strawberry Press, Mill Valley, California 1997; R. Zander, F. Encke, G. Buchheim and S. Seybold, Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen. 14. Aufl. Stuttgart 1993; Mary Gunn and Leslie E. Codd, Botanical Exploration of Southern Africa. 290. Cape Town 1981; Irving William Knobloch, compilation, “A preliminary verified list of plant collectors in Mexico.” Phytologia Memoirs. VI. 1983; Trop. Subtrop. Pflanzenwelt no. 10: 15, f. 8. 1974; Brittonia 34: 480. 1982; Trop. Subtrop. Pflanzenwelt 50: 19. 1984; J. Bromel. Soc. 35: 116(-117). 1985; Trop. Subtrop. Pflanzenwelt 60: 69. 1987; Trop. Subtrop. Pflanzenwelt 65: 19. 1988; Icon. Orchid. fasc. 3(2): t. 373. 1999; Kakteen Sukk. 51(Heft 11): 294. 2000; J. Bromel. Soc. 50(3): 122-124. 2000)

Peru. See Memorias del Museo de Historia Natural “Javier Prado” 11: 78. 1960.

C. recta (Kunth) Trin. ex Steud. (Arundo recta (Kunth) Poir.; Arundo stricta (Kunth) Poir., nom. illeg., non Arundo stricta Timm; Calamagrostis humboldtiana Steud.; Calamagrostis naiguatensis Swallen; Calamagrostis pal-lens (J. Presl) Steud.; Calamagrostis stricta (Timm) Koeler; Deyeuxia pallens J. Presl; Deyeuxia recta Kunth; Deyeuxia stricta Kunth; Deyeuxia sulcata Wedd.)

South America, Ecuador, Venezuela. See Saccardoa: Monographiae Mycologicae 105. 1802, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum 1: 144-146. 1815 [1816], Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique Suppl. 4: 706. 1816, Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 249. 1830, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 250-251. 1840, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 178, 180. 1875 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 29(6): 262. 1948 [1949].

C. reitzii Swallen (named for Padre Raulino Reitz, 1919-1990, Jesuit)

Brazil. See Sellowia 7: 11. 1956.

C. rigescens (J. Presl) Scribn. (Agrostis bromidioides Griseb.; Agrostis chamaecalamus Trin.; Agrostis rigescens J. Presl; Agrostis jamesoniana Steud.; Bromidium brevifolium Nees & Meyen; Bromidium hygrometricum var. rigescens (J. Presl) Kuntze; Bromidium hygrometricum var. spectabilis (Nees & Meyen) Kuntze; Bromidium rigescens (J. Presl) Nees & Meyen; Bromidium rigescens var. brevifolium Nees; Bromidium rigescens var. rigescens; Bromidium spectabile Nees & Meyen; Bromidium spectabile var. nubigenum Nees; Bromidium spectabile var. spectabile; Calamagrostis bromidioides (Griseb.) Pilg.; Calamagrostis cajatambensis Pilg.; Calamagrostis imberbis (Wedd.) Pilg.; Chamaecalamus spectabilis Meyen ex Nees; Chamaecalamus spectabilis Meyen; Deyeuxia cajatambensis Pilg. ex Zuloaga & al.; Deyeuxia imberbis Wedd.; Deyeuxia phalaroides Wedd.; Deyeuxia rigescens (J. Presl) Türpe; Stylagrostis phalaroides (Wedd.) Mez)

Southern America, Argentina, Peru. See Revisio Generum Plantarum 3: 342. 1808, Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 237. 1830, Reise um die Erde 1: 456. 1834, Gramineae 23-25. 1841, Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint Pétersbourg. Sixième Série. Sciences Mathématiques, Physiques et Naturelles. Seconde Partie: Sciences Naturelles 6,4(3-4): 365. 1841, Nova Acta Phys.-Med. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 19(Suppl. 1): 23, 155, 156-157. 1843, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 163. 1854, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 177, 180. 1875, Abhandlungen der Königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen 24: 293. 1879, Revisio Generum Plantarum 3(3): 343. 1898, Annual Report of the Missouri Botanical Garden 10: 37. 1899 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 42(1): 64-65. 1908, Botanisches Archiv 1(1): 20. 1922, Feddes Repertorium 45: 4. 1938, Lilloa 31: 134. 1962, Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 47: 49. 1994.

C. rigida (Kunth) Trin. ex Steud. (Agrostis antoniana Griseb.; Arundo rigida (Kunth) Poir.; Calamagrostis antoniana (Griseb.) Steud. ex Hitchc.; Calamagrostis antoniana (Griseb.) D.M. Moore, nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis antoniana (Griseb.) Steud. ex Hitchc.; Calamagrostis antoniana Steud. ex Lechler; Calamagrostis crassifolia Hack. ex Sodiro; Calamagrostis gracilis (Wedd.) Henrard, nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis gracilis Seenus; Calamagrostis gracilis (Wedd.) Pilg., nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis gracilis Seenus; Calamagrostis gusindei Pilg. ex Skottsb.; Calamagrostis gusindei Pilg.; Calamagrostis nitidula Pilg.; Calamagrostis nitidula var. elata Pilg.; Calamagrostis nitidula var. macrantha Pilg.; Calamagrostis sandiensis Pilg.; Deyeuxia antoniana (Griseb.) Parodi; Deyeuxia crassifolia Sodiro; Deyeuxia gracilis Wedd.; Deyeuxia gusindei (Pilg.) Parodi; Deyeuxia nitidula (Pilg.) Rúgolo; Deyeuxia rigida Kunth) (for Martin Gusinde, 1886-1969, botanist and botanical collector in Chile, author of Der Peyote Kult, Entstehung und Verbreitung, in Festschrift zum 50 jahrigen Bestandsjubilaum des Missionhauses St. Gabriel WienModling, no.8, St. Gabriel Studien, pp. 401-499. 1939, “Descripción de una nueva especie chilena del género Myrceugenia.” Anales Univ. Chile 140: 307-312. 1917 and “Plantas medicinales que los indios araucanos recomiendan.” Anthropos 31: 55-873. 1936; see American Anthropologist, XLII, 667-669. 1940)

Ecuador, Peru, Chile. Páramos, stony places, see Nova Genera et Species Plantarum 1: 144. 1815 [1816], Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique Suppl. 4: 705. 1816, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 251. 1840, Berberides Americae Australis 56. 1857, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 179. 1875, Symbolae ad Floram Argentinam 293. 1879, Anales de la Universidad Central del Ecuador 3(25): 481. 1889 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 42: 68-71. 1908, Mededeelingen van’s Rijks-Herbarium 40: 61. 1921, Acta Horti Gothoburgensis 2: 29, 36. 1926, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 24(8): 378. 1927, Revista del Colégio Nacional Vicente Rocafuerte 12: 64, 73. 1930, Revista Argentina de Agronomía 20: 14. 1953, Flora of Tierra del Fuego 310. 1983.

C. rosea (Griseb.) Hack. (Agrostis rosea Griseb.; Calamagrostis rosea f. typica Hack.; Calamagrostis rosea var. viridula Hack.; Deyeuxia colorata Beetle; Deyeuxia rosea Bor; Deyeuxia rosea (Griseb.) Türpe, nom. illeg., non Deyeuxia rosea Bor)

South America. See Abhandlungen der Königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen 19: 253-254. 1874 and Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires 11: 109. 1904, Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires 13: 480. 1906, Arkiv för Botanik utgivet av K. Svenska Vetenskapsakademien 8: 40. 1908, Kew Bulletin 9(3): 498. 1954, Lilloa 31: 122. 1962, Rhodora 66: 277. 1964.

C. rubescens Buckley (Calamagrostis aleutica Trin.; Calamagrostis aleutica var. angusta Vasey; Calamagrostis angusta (Vasey) Kearney; Calamagrostis cusickii (Vasey) Vasey; Calamagrostis fasciculata Kearney; Calamagrostis luxurians (Kearney) Rydb.; Calamagrostis subflexuosa Kearney; Calamagrostis suksdorfii (Scribn.) Scribn.; Calamagrostis suksdorfii var. luxurians Kearney; Calamagrostis suksdorfii var. suksdorfii; Deyeuxia aleutica (Trin.) Munro ex Hook.; Deyeuxia cusickii Vasey; Deyeuxia rube-scens (Buckley) Vasey; Deyeuxia suksdorfii Scribn.) (for the American botanist William Conklin Cusick, 1842-1922, Oregon plant collector; see John Hendley Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 1: 407. Boston 1965; E.M. Tucker, Catalogue of the library of the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. 1917-1933)

Northern America, U.S., Canada (British Columbia), Pacific Northwest. Perennial, slender, tufted, usually reddish at the base, leaves erect, leaf sheaths smooth but slightly hairy, spikelets 1-floreted, flowers borne in a narrow cluster, with creeping rhizomes, native pasture species, leaves used to weave socks and mocassin insoles, in British Columbia the leaves used in the preparation of “Indian icecream,” moist montane forests, plains, open areas, dry sagebrush flats, see Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 14: 92. 1862, Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 23: 345. 1862, The Grasses of the United States 28. 1883, Botanical Gazette 10: 244. 1885, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 15(1): 9, pl. C, f. 1-9. 1888, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 3(1): 80-82. 1892, Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 11: 21-25, f. 1. 1898 and Flora of the Rocky Mountains 1060. 1917.

in English: pine grass, timbergrass

C. rupestris Trin. (Calamagrostis beyrichiana Nees ex Döll; Calamagrostis longearistata (Wedd.) Hack. ex Sodiro; Calamagrostis longearistata f. pilosa Kämpf; Calamagrostis longearistata var. longearistata; Calamagrostis longearistata var. minor Kämpf; Calamagrostis montevidensis var. linearis Hack.; Deyeuxia beyrichiana (Nees ex Döll) Sodiro; Deyeuxia heterophylla var. elatior Wedd.; Deyeuxia longearistata Wedd.; Deyeuxia rupestris (Trin.) Rúgolo)

Brazil, Bolivia. See De Graminibus Paniceis 28. 1826, Flora Brasiliensis seu Enumeratio Plantarum 2: 401. 1829, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 176, 180. 1875, Flora Brasiliensis 2(3): 53, t. 16. 1878, Anales de la Universidad Central del Ecuador 3(25): 481. 1889 and Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 6: 156. 1908, Revista del Colégio Nacional Vicente Rocafuerte 12: 79. 1930, Anuário Técnico do Instituto de Pesquisas ZootécnicasFrancisco Osorio” 2: 610, 613. 1974 [1975].

C. scaberula Swallen (Calamagrostis intermedia (J. Presl) Steud.; Deyeuxia intermedia J. Presl)

Ecuador. Páramos, see Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 249. 1830, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 250. 1840 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 29(6): 261. 1948 [1949].

C. scabriflora Swallen

Venezuela. Swampy places, moist meadows, see Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 29(6): 260-261. 1948 [1949].

C. sclerantha Hack. (Calamagrostis spiciformis Hack.; Deyeuxia sclerantha (Hack.) Rúgolo; Deyeuxia spiciformis (Hack.) Türpe)

Argentina. See Österreichische Botanische Zeitschrift 52(3): 108. 1902, Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires 13: 481. 1906, Lilloa 31: 138. 1962.

C. scopulorum M.E. Jones (Calamagrostis scopulorum var. bakeri Stebbins; Calamagrostis scopulorum var. lucidula Kearney; Calamagrostis scopulorum var. scopulorum) (Latin scopulus, i, “a rock, cliff, ” Greek skopelos “peak, promontory”)

North America, U.S. See Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Series 2, 5: 722. 1895, Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 11: 33. 1898 and Rhodora 32: 47. 1930.

C. secunda (Pilg.) Pilg. (Calamagrostis humboldtiana Steud.; Calamagrostis stricta (Timm) Koeler; Deyeuxia secunda Pilg.; Deyeuxia stricta Kunth)

South America, Ecuador. See Accardoa: Monographiae Mycologicae 105. 1802, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum 1: 146. 1815 [1816], Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 250. 1840, Botanische Jahrbücher für System-atik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 25(5): 712. 1898 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 42: 60. 1908.

C. sesquiflora (Trin.) Tzvelev (Avena sesquiflora (Trin.) Griseb.; Calamagrostis arctica Vasey; Calamagrostis purpurascens subsp. arctica (Vasey) Hultén; Calamagrostis purpurascens subsp. tasuensis Calder and Roy L. Taylor; Calamagrostis purpurascens var. arctica (Vasey) Kearney; Calamagrostis purpurascens var. tasuensis (Calder & Roy L. Taylor) B. Boivin; Calamagrostis purpurascens var. vaseyi (Beal) M.E. Jones; Calamagrostis sesquiflora (Trin.) Kawano; Calamagrostis sesquiflora subsp. urelytra (Hack.) Prob.; Calamagrostis urelytra Hack.; Calamagrostis vaseyi Beal; Trisetum bongardii Louis-Marie; Trisetum sesquiflorum Trin.) (after the German botanist August (Gustav) Heinrich von Bongard, 1786-1839, physician, traveler, explorer, botanical collector in Alaska, China, Russia, author of Observations sur la végétation de l’île de Sitcha. [Saint Pétersbourg, 1833. Mém. Acad. Pétersb. Sér. VI., ii.], Esquisse historique des travaux sur la botanique entrepris en Russie, etc. [Saint Pétersbourg, 1834.], Descriptiones plantarum novarum

Publisher Petropoli, 1839 [Mém. Acad. Pétersb. Sér. VI., v.]; see Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint Pétersbourg. Sixième Série. 4: 157-246. 1845; J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 1: 217. 1965; E.M. Tucker, Catalogue of the library of the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. 1917-1933).

North America. See Botanical Appendix to Captain Frank-lin’s Narrative 731. 1823, Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint Pétersbourg. Sixième Série. Sciences Mathématiques, Physiques et Naturelles. Seconde Partie: Sciences Naturelles 4,2(1): 14. 1836, Flora Rossica 4(13): 419. 1852, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Division of Botany. Bulletin 13(2): t. 55. 1893, Grasses of North America for Farmers and Students 2: 344. 1896, Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 11: 19. 1898, Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier 7(9): 653. 1899 and Contributions to Western Botany 14: 9. 1912, Rhodora 30(359): 220. 1928 [1929], Acta Universitatis Lundensis, n.s. 38(1): 170-171. 1942, Flora Arctica URSS 2: 74. 1964, Canadian Journal of Botany 43(11): 1388-1389. 1965, Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 21: 80. 1965, Le Naturaliste Canadien 94(4): 521. 1967, Novosti Sist. Vyss. Rast. 15: 68. 1979.

C. setiflora (Wedd.) Pilg. (Calamagrostis coronalis Tovar; Deyeuxia setiflora Wedd.)

Bolivia, Peru. See Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 176, 180. 1875 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 42: 61. 1908, Publicaciones del Museo de Historia Natural “Javier Prado.” Serie B. Botánica 32: 6. 1984.

C. spicigera (J. Presl) Steud. (Deyeuxia obtusata Wedd.; Deyeuxia spicigera J. Presl; Deyeuxia subsimilis Wedd.)

South America, Bolivia. See Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 247. 1830, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 251. 1840, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 177-178, 180. 1875.

C. spicigera (J. Presl) Steud. var. cephalotes (Wedd.) Soreng (Deyeuxia cephalotes Wedd.; Deyeuxia spicigera var. cephalotes (Wedd.) Rúgolo)

Bolivia. See Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 178, 179. 1875 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 220. 2003.

C. spicigera (J. Presl) Steud. var. spicigera (Deyeuxia spicigera var. spicigera)

Bolivia. See Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 247. 1830.

C. spruceana (Wedd.) Hack. ex Sodiro (Deyeuxia spruceana Wedd.; Deyeuxia toluccensis Munro ex Wedd.)

Ecuador. See Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 178, 180. 1875.

C. srilankensis Davidse (Deyeuxia srilankensis (Davidse) Veldkamp)

Asia, Sri Lanka. Perennial, caespitose, geniculate at the base, erect, sheaths acuminate, ligule toothed, spreading panicles, lanceolate spikelets, stamens 3, related to Calamagrostis zenkeri (Trin.) Davidse, growing in montane grassland, see Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint Pétersbourg. Sixième Série. Sciences Mathématiques, Physiques et Naturelles 2: 363. 1841, Fl. Br. India 7: 265. 1896 and Handb. Fl. Ceylon 5: 265. 1900, Kew Bulletin 9: 441, 456. 1954, Fl. Ceylon 8: 107-108. 1994, Blumea 41(2): 410. 1996.

C. staintonii (Bor) G. Singh (Deyeuxia nepalensis Bor) (for Adam Stainton, author of Forests of Nepal, London 1972, with Oleg Polunin wrote Flowers of the Himalaya, Delhi 1988)

India, Uttar Pradesh; Nepal. Grows on sandy soil, near water, at high altitudes, see Kew Bulletin 12(3): 411. 1958, Taxon 33(1): 94. 1984, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 53(1): 4. 2002.

C. steyermarkii Swallen

Ecuador. Páramos, see Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 29(6): 258-259. 1948 [1949].

C. stoliczkai Hook.f. (Calamagrostis tibetica (Bor) G. Singh; Calamagrostis tibetica (Bor) Keng f., nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis tibetica (Bor) G. Singh; Deyeuxia tibet-ica Bor)

India, Sikkim; Tibet. Alpine grass, see The Flora of British India 7(22): 262. 1897 [1896] and Kew Bulletin 4(1): 66. 1949, Bulletin of Botanical Research 4(3): 196. 1984, Taxon 33(1): 95. 1984, Journal of Cytology and Genetics 21: 155. 1986, Journal of Cytology and Genetics 24: 164-166. 1989, Cytologia 56: 437-452. 1991.

C. stricta (Timm) Koeler (Agrostis arundinacea J. Presl, nom. illeg., non Agrostis arundinacea L.; Arundo lapponica Wahl.; Arundo neglecta Ehrh.; Arundo stricta Timm; Calamagrostis ameghinoi (Speg.) Macloskie; Calamagrostis ameghinoi (Speg.) Hauman, nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis ameghinoi (Speg.) Macloskie; Calamagrostis arundinacea (L.) Roth; Calamagrostis freticola (Speg.) Macloskie; Calamagrostis fuegiana Speg.; Calamagrostis haenkeana Hitchc.; Calamagrostis hookeri (Syme) Druce; Calamagrostis magellanica Phil.; Calamagrostis neglecta (Ehrh.) Gaertn.; Calamagrostis neglecta auct.; Calamagrostis neglecta subsp. neglecta; Calamagrostis neglecta subsp. stricta (Timm) Tzvelev; Calamagrostis neglecta var. poaeoides (Steud.) Hack.; Calamagrostis neglecta var. stricta (Timm) Griseb.; Calamagrostis poaeoides Steud.; Calamagrostis robertii A.E. Porsild; Calamagrostis stricta var. hookeri Syme; Deyeuxia ameghinoi Speg.; Deyeuxia freticola Speg.; Deyeuxia hookeri (Syme) Druce; Deyeuxia neglecta (Ehrh.) Kunth; Deyeuxia poaeoides (Steud.) Rúgolo)

Europe; South America, Chile. Perennial, see Tentamen Florae Germanicae 2(1): 89. 1789, Beiträge zur Naturkunde 6: 137. 1791, Oekonomisch-Technische Flora der Wetterau 1: 94. 1799, Saccardoa: Monographiae Mycologicae 105. 1802, Révision des Graminées 1: 76. 1829, Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 238. 1830, Flora Rossica 4(13): 429. 1852, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 423. 1854, English Botany, the third edition 11: 56. 1873, Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires 5: 85, 87. 1896, Anales de la Universidad de Chile 94: 20. 1896 and Anales Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires 7: 190. 1902, Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, Volume viii, 1 [2], Botany 8(1,5,1): 193-194. 1904, Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires 21: 103. 1911, Anales Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires 29: 57. 1917, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 24(8): 371. 1927, The Comital Flora of the British Isles 352. 1932, Novosti Sist. Vyss. Rast. 1965: 30. 1965, Nature Canada 4: 5. 1974 [1975], Darwiniana 21(2-4): 439. 1978, Flora Patagónica 3: 361. 1978, Watsonia 20: 51-60. 1994, Ulf Molau, Urban Nordenhäll and Bente Eriksen, “Onset of flowering and climate variability in an alpine landscape: a 10-year study from Swedish Lapland.” Am. J. Bot. 92: 422-431. 2005.

in English: slimstem reedgrass

C. stricta (Timm) Koeler subsp. inexpansa (A. Gray) C.W. Greene (Calamagrostis aculeolata (Hack.) Ohwi; Calamagrostis americana (Vasey) Scribn.; Calamagrostis breviseta var. lacustris Kearney; Calamagrostis californica Kearney; Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Beauv. var. arcta Steb-bins; Calamagrostis canadensis var. acuminata Vasey ex Shear & Rydb.; Calamagrostis chordorrhiza Porsild; Calamagrostis crassiglumis Thurb.; Calamagrostis elongata (Kearney) Rydb.; Calamagrostis expansa Rickett & Gilly, non (Munro ex Hillebr.) A.S. Hitchc.; Calamagrostis fernaldii Louis-Marie; Calamagrostis hyperborea Lange; Calamagrostis hyperborea Lange var. americana (Vasey) Kearney; Calamagrostis hyperborea var. elongata Kearney; Calamagrostis hyperborea var. hyperborea; Calamagrostis hyperborea var. stenodes Kearney; Calamagrostis inexpansa A. Gray; Calamagrostis inexpansa var. barbulata Kearney; Calamagrostis inexpansa var. brevior (Vasey) Stebbins; Calamagrostis inexpansa var. inexpansa; Calamagrostis inexpansa var. novae-angliae Stebbins; Calamagrostis inexpansa var. robusta (Vasey) Stebbins; Calamagrostis labradorica Kearney; Calamagrostis lacustris (Kearney) Nash; Calamagrostis lapponica var. brevipilis Stebbins; Calamagrostis neglecta subsp. inexpansa (A. Gray) Tzvelev; Calamagrostis neglecta var. crassiglumis (Thurb.) Beal; Calamagrostis neglecta var. hyperborea (Lange) M.E. Jones; Calamagrostis neglecta var. inexpansa (A. Gray) M.E. Jones; Calamagrostis pickeringii var. debilis (Kearney) Fernald & Wiegand; Calamagrostis pickeringii var. lacustris (Kearney) A.S. Hitchc.; Calamagrostis robertii Porsild; Calamagrostis robusta (Vasey) Vasey; Calamagrostis stricta var. aculeolata Hack.; Calamagrostis stricta var. brevior Vasey; Calamagrostis stricta var. lacustris (Kearney) C.W. Greene; Calamagrostis stricta var. robusta Vasey; Calamagrostis wyomingensis Gand.; Deyeuxia americana (Vasey) Lunell; Deyeuxia crassiglumis (Thurb.) Vasey; Deyeuxia elongata (Kearney) Lunell; Deyeuxia glomerata Vasey ex Macoun; Deyeuxia hyperborea (Lange) Lunell; Deyeuxia hyperborea var. elongata (Kearney) Lunell; Deyeuxia hyperborea var. stenodes (Kearney) Lunell; Deyeuxia neglecta var. americana Vasey; Deyeuxia neglecta var. robusta Vasey)

Northern America, Canada, U.S. Perennial, swamps, see Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 15, 152, 157. 1812, Genera Graminum 5. 1819, North American Gramineae and Cyperaceae 1: 20. 1834, Report Upon United States Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian, in Charge of First Lieut. Geo. M. Wheeler ... vol. vi—Botany 6: 285. 1878 [1879], Geological Survey of California, Botany 2: 281. 1880, The Grasses of the United States 28. 1883, Catalogue of Canadian Plants 2(4): 206. 1888, Botanical Gazette 16: 288. 1891, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 3(1): 82. 1892, Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 5: 41. 1894, Grasses of North America for Farmers and Students 2: 353. 1896, Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 5: 27. 1897, Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 11: 25-26, 37-41. 1898, Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier 7(9): 652. 1899 and Rhodora 8(95): 210. 1906, Contributions to Western Botany 14: 9. 1912, An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States 1: 208. 1913, Rhodora 15(175): 135. 1913, American Midland Naturalist 4: 218. 1915, Flora of the Rocky Mountains 1060. 1917, American Midland Naturalist 5: 233. 1918, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 66(7): 299. 1919 [1920], Rhodora 32: 45, 48, 50, 56. 1930, Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 2: 278. 1933, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 69: 464. 1942, Sargentia: Continuation of the Contributions from the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University 4: 9-10. 1943, Rhodora 46: 290, pl. 836, f. 4. 1944, Zlaki SSSR 310. 1976, American Journal of Botany 71: 286. 1984.

in English: Northern reedgrass

C. stricta (Timm) Koeler subsp. stricta (Arundo neglecta Ehrh.; Arundo stricta Timm; Calamagrostis hyperborea auct.; Calamagrostis jacutensis Petrov; Calamagrostis kolgujewensis Gand.; Calamagrostis laxiflora Kearney, nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis laxiflora Phil.; Calamagrostis lucida Scribn.; Calamagrostis micrantha Kearney; Calamagrostis micrantha var. micrantha; Calamagrostis micrantha var. sierrae M.E. Jones; Calamagrostis neglecta (Ehrh.) P.G. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb.; Calamagrostis neglecta (Ehrh.) Gaertn.; Calamagrostis neglecta subsp. aculeolata (Hack.) T. Koyama; Calamagrostis neglecta subsp. micrantha (Kearney) Tzvelev; Calamagrostis neglecta subsp. neglecta; Calamagrostis neglecta subsp. stricta (Timm) Tzvelev; Calamagrostis neglecta var. gracilis (Scribn.) Scribn.; Calamagrostis neglecta var. gracilis Scribn. ex Kearney; Calamagrostis neglecta var. micrantha (Kearney) Stebbins; Calamagrostis neglecta var. neglecta; Calamagrostis neglecta var. poaeoides (Steud.) Hack.; Calamagrostis neglecta var. stricta (Timm) Griseb.; Calamagrostis neglecta var. wrightii Kearney; Calamagrostis ochotensis V. Vassil.; Calamagrostis poaeoides Steud.; Calamagrostis praerupta V. Vassil.; Calamagrostis reverdattoi Golub; Calamagrostis stricta var. aculeolata Hack.; Calamagrostis stricta var. stricta; Deyeuxia borealis Macoun; Deyeuxia micrantha (Kearney) L. Liou; Deyeuxia neglecta (Ehrh.) Kunth; Deyeuxia neglecta var. brevifolia Vasey; Deyeuxia neglecta var. gracilis Scribn.; Deyeuxia poaeoides (Steud.) Rúgolo; Deyeuxia vancouverensis Vasey)

Northern America, Canada, U.S., Europe. Perennial, in meadows, under pines, see Beiträge zur Naturkunde 6: 137. 1791, Oekonomisch-Technische Flora der Wetterau 1: 94. 1799, Révision des Graminées 1: 76. 1829, Flora Rossica 4(13): 429. 1852, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 423. 1854, Botanical Gazette 11: 175. 1886, Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 11: 34, 36. 1898, Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier 7(9): 652. 1899 and Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 30: 8. 1901, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 56: 533. 1909, Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires 21: 103. 1911, Contributions to Western Botany 14: 9. 1912, Flora Iakutiae 1: 214, f 23. 1930, Rhodora 32: 55. 1930, Feddes Repertorium 68: 236. 1963, Novosti Sist. Vyss. Rast. 1965: 29-30. 1965, Flora Patagónica 3: 361. 1978, Grasses of Japan and its Neighboring Regions 496. 1987, Vascular Plants of the Hengduan Mountains 2: 2239. 1994.

in English: slimstem reedgrass

C. suka Speg. (Calamagrostis sukatschewii (Popl.) Roshev.; Deyeuxia suka (Speg.) Parodi)

Chile. See Anales Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires 5: 86, t. 4, f. 8. 1896 and Revista Argentina de Agronomía 20: 14. 1953, Darwiniana 21: 436. 1978.

C. tarmensis Pilg. (Calamagrostis rosea var. macrochaeta Hack.; Calamagrostis tarijensis Pilg.; Deyeuxia tarmensis (Pilg.) Sodiro; Deyeuxia tarmensis var. tarijensis (Pilg.) X. Villavicencio)

Bolivia, Peru. See Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires 11: 109. 1904, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 42: 70-71. 1908, Arkiv för Botanik utgivet av K. Svenska Vetenskapsakademien 8: 40. 1908, Revista del Colégio Nacional Vicente Rocafuerte 12: 81. 1930.

C. tarmensis Pilg. var. macrochaeta (Hack.) Soreng (Calamagrostis rosea var. macrochaeta Hack.; Calamagrostis tarijensis Pilg.; Deyeuxia tarmensis var. tarijensis (Pilg.) X. Villavicencio)

South America. See Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires 11: 109. 1904, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 42: 70-71. 1908, Arkiv för Botanik utgivet av K. Svenska Vetenskapsakademien 8: 40. 1908, Revista del Colégio Nacional Vice-nte Rocafuerte 12: 81. 1930, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 222. 2003.

C. tarmensis Pilg. var. tarmensis (Deyeuxia tarmensis var. tarmensis)

South America.

C. teretifolia Laegaard

Ecuador. See Novon 8(1): 27, f. 1E. 1988.

C. tolucensis (Kunth) Trin. ex Steud. (Agrostis cuspidata Willd. ex Steud.; Agrostis junciformis Willd. ex Steud.; Arundo cuspidata (Spreng.) Schult.; Arundo junciformis (Kunth) Poir.; Arundo tolucensis (Kunth) Poir.; Avena cuspidata Willd. ex Spreng.; Calamagrostis cuspidata Spreng.; Calamagrostis junciformis (Kunth) Steud.; Calamagrostis mcvaughei Sohns; Calamagrostis sesquitriflora Steud.; Deyeuxia junciformis Kunth; Deyeuxia tolucensis Kunth) (dedicated to the American botanist Rogers McVaugh, b. 1909, traveler, plant collector, lichenologist, and professor of botany, Curator Emeritus of University of Michigan Herbarium, 1977 Merit Award Winner of the Botanical Society of America, his writings include “Botanical exploration in Nueva Galicia from 1790 to the present time.” Contr. Univ. Mich. Herb. 9(3): 205-357. 1972, “Galeotti’s Botanical Work in Mexico: The Numbering of his Collections and a Brief Itinerary.” Contr. Univ. Mich. Herb. 11(5): 291-297. 1972, Flora Novo-Galiciana: A Descriptive Account of the Vascular Plants of Western Mexico. [vol. 5, 1987; vol. 12, 1984; vol. 13, 1993; vol. 14, 1983; vol. 15, 1989; vol. 17, 1992] general editor William R. Anderson, University of Michigan Herbarium), Edward Palmer, Plant Explorer of the American West. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman 1956 and “Compositarum Mexicanarum Pugillus.” Contr. Univ. Mich. Herb. 9(4): 361-484. 1972, with Stanley Adair Cain (1902-1955) and Dale J. Hagenah (1908-1971) wrote Farwelliana: an account of the life and botanical work of Oliver Atkins Farwell, 1867-1944. Cranbrook Institute of Science Bulletin 34. 1953. See J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 2: 433. Boston 1965; T.W. Bossert, Biographical dictionary of botanists represented in the Hunt Institute portrait collection. 261. 1972; S. Lenley et al., Catalog of the manuscript and archival collections and index to the correspondence of John Torrey. Library of the New York Botanical Garden. 278. 1973; Ida Kaplan Lang-man, A Selected Guide to the Literature on the Flowering Plants of Mexico. Philadelphia 1964; Irving William Kno-bloch, compilation, “A preliminary verified list of plant collectors in Mexico.” Phytologia Memoirs. VI. 1983; George Bentham, Plantae Hartwegianae (Plantas Hartwegianas imprimis Mexicanas adjectis nonnullis Grahamianis enumerat novasque describit). London 1839-1857. (Reprint, with new introduction by Rogers McVaugh.) 1970; Phytologia 79: 35. 1996; Rogers McVaugh, Botanical Results of the Sesse & Mocino Expedition (1787-1803). VII, A Guide to Relevant Scientific Names of Plants. Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, Pittsburgh (U.S.) Spring 2000)

Bolivia, Mexico. See Nova Genera et Species Plantarum 1: 143-144. 1815 [1816], Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique Suppl. 4: 705. 1816, Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 1: 252-253. 1825, Mantissa 3: 604. 1827, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 40-41, 251. 1840, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 190. 1854, Revisio Generum Plantarum 3: 345. 1898 and Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46: 382. 1956.

C. trichodonta (Wedd.) Soreng (Deyeuxia trichodonta Wedd.)

South America, Peru. See Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 176, 180. 1875 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 223. 2003.

C. tweedyi (Scribn.) Scribn. (Deyeuxia tweedyi Scribn.) (for Frank Tweedy, 1854-1937, botanical collector in Western U.S. and Virginia, in the Yellowstone area, Montana, and in the Pacific Northwest, 1893-1896 Colorado and Wyoming, topographic engineer, 1884-1915 with the U.S. Geological Service, 1886 wrote the first flora of Yellowstone; see J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 3: 411. 1965; E.M. Tucker, Catalogue of the library of the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. 1917-1933; N.L. Britton, “Contributions to Texas botany: Note on some plants collected by Mr. Frank Tweedy in Tom Greene Co., Texas.” Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences 9: 183-185. 1890; Richard Urquhart Goode (1858-1903) The Goode Diary: A Personal Journal of the Northern Trans-Continental Survey, 1883. C.W. Tazewell, editor. 1990)

America, U.S. See Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 10: 64. 1883, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 3(1): 83. 1892.

C. valida Sohns (Calamagrostis mcvaughei Sohns)

North America, Mexico. See Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46(12): 382, 385, f. 39-46, 47-55. 1956.

C. varia (Schrad.) Host (Arundo varia Schrad.; Calamagrostis montana Host; Calamagrostis sylvatica Host; Calamagrostis varia Bol. ex Thurb.; Calamagrostis varia Host; Deyeuxia varia (Schrad.) Kunth)

Europe. Useful for erosion control, see Flora Germanica 2: 128. 1806, Révision des Graminées 1: 76. 1829, Flora Rossica 4(13): 427. 1852, Geological Survey of California, Botany 2: 280. 1880 and International Organization of Plant Biosystematists Newsletter 24: 15-19. 1995.

C. varia (Schrad.) Host subsp. corsica (Hack.) Rouy (Calamagrostis varia subsp. corsica (Hack. ex Briq.) Gamisans; Calamagrostis varia var. corsica Hack. ex Briq.; Deyeuxia varia subsp. corsica (Hack. ex Briq.) Kerguélen)

Europe. See Candollea 29(1): 45. 1974, Lejeunia 75: 133. 1975.

C. varia (Schrad.) Host subsp. varia

Europe.

C. velutina (Nees & Meyen) Steud. (Calamagrostis chilensis (E. Desv.) R.E. Fr., nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis chilensis Phil.; Calamagrostis velutina (Nees & Meyen) Hauman, nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis velutina (Nees & Meyen) Steud.; Calamagrostis velutina var. breviculmis Hauman; Calamagrostis velutina var. velutina; Deyeuxia chilensis E. Desv.; Deyeuxia velutina Nees & Meyen)

South America. See Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 251. 1840, Gramineae 15-16. 1841, Nova Acta Phys.-Med. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 19(Suppl. 1): 147-148. 1843, Flora Chilena 6: 322. 1854 and Nova Acta Regiae Societatis Scientiarum Upsaliensis IV. 1(1): 176. 1905.

C. vicunarum (Wedd.) Pilg. (Calamagrostis pentapogon-odes Kuntze; Calamagrostis pulvinata Hack.; Calamagrostis spiciformis var. acutifolia Hack. ex Buchtien; Calamagrostis vicunarum var. abscondita Pilg.; Calamagrostis vicunarum var. elatior Pilg.; Calamagrostis vicunarum var. humilior Pilg.; Calamagrostis vicunarum var. major Pilg.; Calamagrostis vicunarum var. minima Pilg.; Calamagrostis vicunarum var. setulosa Pilg.; Calamagrostis vicunarum var. tenuifolia Pilg.; Calamagrostis vicunarum var. tenuior Pilg.; Calamagrostis vicunarum var. vicunarum; Deyeuxia minima (Pilg.) Rúgolo; Deyeuxia pulvinata (Hack.) Türpe; Deyeuxia vicunarum Wedd.; Deyeuxia vicunarum var. major Wedd.; Deyeuxia vicunarum var. tenuifolia Wedd.)

Argentina, Bolivia, Peru. See Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 177, 180. 1875, Revisio Generum Plantarum 3(2): 344. 1898 and Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires 13: 481. 1906, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 42: 62-63. 1908, Contribuciones a la Flora de Bolivia 1: 75. 1910, Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires 21: 104, t. 4, f. B. 1-4. 1911, Bot. Centralbl. 120: 548. 1912, Lilloa 31: 132. 1962.

C. villosa (Chaix.) Gmelin

Europe. See Acta Facultatis Rerum Naturalium Universitatis Comenianae, Botanica 34: 3-20. 1987, Adriana L. Carnelli, Marco Madella, Jean-Paul Theurillat and Brigitta Ammann, “Aluminum in the opal silica reticule of phytoliths: a new tool in palaeoecological studies.” Am. J. Bot. 89: 346-351. 2002.

C. violacea (Wedd.) Hack. ex Buchtien (Calamagrostis violacea (Wedd.) Hitchc.; Deyeuxia violacea Wedd.)

South America. See Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 22: 179. 1875 and Contribuciones a la Flora de Bolivia 1: 75. 1910, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 24(8): 377. 1927.

C. violacea (Wedd.) Hack. ex Buchtien var. puberula (Rúgolo & X. Villavicencio) Soreng

America.

C. violacea (Wedd.) Hack. ex Buchtien var. violacea

America.

C. viridiflavescens (Poir.) Steud. (Arundo viridiflavescens Poir.; Calamagrostis montevidensis Nees; Calamagrostis montevidensis var. ampliflora Döll; Calamagrostis splen-dens (Brongn. ex Duperrey) Steud.; Calamagrostis splen-dens (Brongn.) Steud.; Calamagrostis viridescens (Poir.) Steud.; Calamagrostis viridiflavescens var. montevidensis (Nees) Kämpf; Deyeuxia splendens Brongn. ex Duperrey; Deyeuxia splendens Brongn.; Deyeuxia viridiflavescens (Poir.) Kunth; Deyeuxia viridiflavescens var. montevidensis (Nees) Cabrera & Rúgolo; Donax viridiflavescens (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.)

South America, southern Brazil to Argentina. Perennial bunchgrass, erect, awns recurved and subapical, growing in moist sandy sites, see Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 6: 271. 1804, Systema Vegetabilium 2: 601. 1817, Révision des Graminées 1: 77. 1829, Voyage Autour du Monde 2: 23. 1829, Flora Brasiliensis seu Enumeratio Plantarum 2: 401. 1829, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 251. 1840, Flora Brasiliensis 2(3): 54. 1878 and Flora de la Provincia de Buenos Aires 4(2): 219. 1970, Anuário Técnico do Instituto de Pesquisas ZootécnicasFrancisco Osorio” 2: 625. 1974[1975].

C. viridiflavescens (Poir.) Steud. var. montevidensis (Nees) Kämpf (Calamagrostis montevidensis Nees; Calamagrostis montevidensis var. montevidensis; Calamagrostis splendens (Brongn.) Steud.; Deyeuxia flavescens Clarion ex Spreng.; Deyeuxia splendens Brongn. ex Duperrey; Deyeuxia splen-dens Brongn.; Deyeuxia viridiflavescens (Poir.) Kunth var. montevidensis (Nees) Cabrera & Rúgolo)

Southern America, Paraguay. Perennial, palatable, useful for erosion control, see Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 1: 254. 1825, Voyage Autour du Monde 2: 23. 1829, Flora Brasiliensis seu Enumeratio Plantarum 2: 401. 1829, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 251. 1840 and Flora de la Provincia de Buenos Aires 4(2): 219. 1970, Anuário Técnico do Instituto de Pesquisas ZootécnicasFrancisco Osorio” 2: 625. 1974[1975].

C. viridiflavescens (Poir.) Steud. var. viridiflavescens (Calamagrostis montevidensis var. ampliflora Döll; Deyeuxia viridiflavescens (Poir.) Kunth var. viridiflavescens)

Southern America. See Révision des Graminées 1: 77. 1829, Flora Brasiliensis 2(3): 54. 1878.

C. viridis (Phil.) Soreng (Calamagrostis nemoralis Phil.; Calamagrostis nemoralis Kuntze, nom. illeg., non Calamagrostis nemoralis Phil.; Deyeuxia nemoralis Phil. ex Kuntze; Deyeuxia viridis Phil.)

South America. See Linnaea 33(3-4): 288. 1865, Anales de la Universidad de Chile 94: 18. 1896, Revisio Generum Plantarum 3(3): 344. 1898 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 225. 2003.

C. vulcanica Swallen

Guatemala, Quezaltenango, Volcán Santa Maria. See Phytologia 4(7): 424. 1953.

C. youngii (Hook.f.) Petrie (Agrostis youngii Hook.f.; Calamagrostis youngii (Hook.f.) Skeels; Calamagrostis youngii var. petriei (Hack.) Petrie; Deyeuxia youngii (Hook.f.) J. Buchanan)

New Zealand. Found in dry hillsides, see Handbook of the New Zealand Flora 330. 1864, Indigenous Grasses of New Zealand 11. 1880 and Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 35: 380. 1903, Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 47: 57. 1915.

C. zenkeri (Trin.) Davidse (Agrostis zenkeri Trinius; Deyeuxia zenkeri (Trin.) Veldkamp)

Asia, India. See Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint Pétersbourg. Sixième Série. Sciences Mathématiques, Physiques et Naturelles 2: 363. 1841, Fl. Br. India 7: 265. 1896 and Handb. Fl. Ceylon 5: 265. 1900, Kew Bulletin 9: 441, 456. 1954, The Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 37(2): 219. 1984 [1985].

C. x acutiflora (Schrad.) Rchb. (Calamagrostis arundinacea (L.) Roth x Calamagrostis epigejos (L.) Roth) (Arundo acutiflora Schrad.; Calamagrostis acutiflora (Schrad.) DC.; Calamagrostis trinii Rupr.; Calamagrostis x acutiflora (Schrad.) DC.; Deyeuxia acutiflora (Schrad.) P. Beauv.)

Eurasia, Siberia, Europe. Ornamental, see Flora Germanica 1: 217. 1806, Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 44, 152, 160. 1812, Flore Française. Troisième Édition 5: 255. 1815, Beiträge zur Pflanzenkunde des Russischen Reiches 4: 36. 1845.

in English: feather reed grass

C. x lactea Suskd. ex Beal (Calamagrostis canadensis x Calamagrostis nutkaensis) (Calamagrostis canadensis var. lactea (Suksd. ex Beal) C.L. Hitchc.; Calamagrostis lactea Suksd. ex Beal; Calamagrostis langsdorfii var. lactea (Suksd. ex Beal) Kearney; Deyeuxia lactea (Suksd. ex Beal) Suksd. ex Beal; Deyeuxia lactea (Suksd. ex Beal) Suksd.)

America, U.S. See Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 15, 152, 157. 1812, Gram. Unifl. Sesquifl. 225, t. 4, f. 10. 1824, Grasses of North America for Farmers and Students 2: 346. 1896 [also Grasses of North America second edition 2: 346. 1896], Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 11: 28. 1898 and Deutsche Botanische Monatsschrift 19(6): 92. 1901, Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest 1: 524. 1969.

Calamina P. Beauv. = Apluda L.

Panicoideae, Andropogoneae, Ischaeminae, see Species Plantarum 1: 82. 1753, Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 128, 157. 1812 and Regnum Veg. 127: 20. 1993, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 68-69, 144. 2003.

x Calammophila Brand

Ammophila x Calamagrostis.

See Synopsis der Deutschen und Schweizer Flora edition 3, 3: 2715. 1907, Genera Graminum 374. 1986.

Calamochloa E. Fourn. = Calamochloe Rchb., Eufournia Reeder, Sohnsia Airy Shaw

Greek kalamos “reed” and chloe, chloa “grass, young grass.”

Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae, type Calamochloa filifolia E. Fourn., see Conspectus Regnum Vegetabilis ... Pars I. 1828, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 24: 177-178. 1877 and The Families of Flowering Plants 2: 199-229. 1934, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46: 109-112. 1956, American Journal of Botany 51: 453-463. 1964, Kew Bulletin 18(2): 272. 1965, Brittonia 19: 244. 1967, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 94: 1-17. 1967, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 41: 35, 117, 195. 2001.

Calamochloe Reichb. = Arundinella Raddi, Goldbachia DC. (Brassicaceae, alt. Cruciferae), Goldbachia Trin.

Greek kalamos “reed” and chloe, chloa “grass, young grass.”

Panicoideae, Arundinelleae, see Neue Entdeckungen im ganzen Umfang der Pflanzenkunde 2: 42, 81. 1820, Mémoires du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle 7: 242. 1821, Regni Vegetabilis Systema Naturale 2: 577. 1821, Agrostografia Brasiliensis 36-37, t. 1, f. 3. 1823, Conspectus Regni Vegetabilis 52. 1828 and Flora Mesoamericana 6: 377-378. 1994, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 81(4): 768-774. 1994, J.F. Veldkamp, “Name changes in Agrostis, Arundinella, Deyeuxia, Helictotrichon, Tripogon (Gramineae).” Blumea 41: 407-411. 1996, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 111-113. 2003.

x Calamophila O. Schwarz

Ammophila x Calamagrostis.

See Mitteilung der Thüringischen Botanischen Gesellschaft 1: 88. 1949, Genera Graminum 374. 1986.

Calamovilfa (A. Gray) Hack. = Calamovilfa (A. Gray) Hack. ex Scribn. & Southw.

From the Greek kalamos “reed” plus the genus Vilfa Adans.

About 4-5 species, North America, southwestern U.S. Chloridoideae, Eragrostideae, or Chloridoideae, Zoysieae, Sporobolinae, perennial, erect or slightly ascending, thick, solitary, herbaceous, coarse, caespitose, solid internodes, shortly rhizomatous, auricles absent, ligule a line of hairs, leaf blades filiform to linear and pointed, plants bisexual, panicle open or contracted, spikelets pedicellate and lanceolate, solitary spikelets laterally compressed and keeled, 1 floret per spikelet, 2 unequal glumes membranous and awnless, lemma 1-nerved and awnless, callus bearded, palea hairy, 2 free lodicules truncate, stamens 3, ovary glabrous, stigmas 2, used for reclamation and revegetation, found in sandy areas, marshy sites, open habitats, inland dunes, sandy prairies, edge of swamps, type Calamovilfa brevipilis (Torr.) Hack. ex Scribn. & Southw., see A Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States 582. 1848, True Grasses 113. 1890 and U.S.D.A. Bull. 772: 126. 1920, Brittonia 12: 71-77. 1960, J.W. Thieret, “Synopsis of the genus Calamovilfa (Gramineae).” Castanea [The Journal of the Southern Appalachian Botanical Society] 31(2): 145-152. 1966, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 94: 199-200. 1967, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 41: 35-36. 2001, Restoration Ecology 9(1): 60-70. Mar 2001, Jean-Michel Gagné and Gilles Houle, “Factors responsible for Honckenya peploides (Caryophyllaceae) and Leymus mollis (Poaceae) spatial segregation on subarctic coastal dunes.” Am. J. Bot. 89: 479-485. 2002, Feihai Yu, Ming Dong and Bertil Krüsi, “Clonal integration helps Psammochloa villosa survive sand burial in an inland dune.” New Phytologist 162(3): 697-704. June 2004.

Species

C. arcuata K.E. Rogers

North America. Perennial, herbaceous, erect, glabrous, tufted, may root at the nodes, forming dense colonies, leaf blades broad and tapering to a very fine tip, sheath margins free, ligule a short fringe of hairs, shortly rhizomatous, persistent bases of the foliage leaves, horizontal underground stems, open panicles, inflorescence branches erect and spreading, spikelets ventrally compressed, 2 glumes firm and unequal, glumes usually arcuate and acute, 4 to 8 fertile florets, lemmas arcuate and pubescent, paleas pubescent, 2 feathery stigmas, grows along streams and rivers, open rocky seasonally flowing streams, rocky stream bed, could be confused with switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) or purpletop (Tridens flavus), see Rhodora 72(789): 72-79, f. 1-2. 1970.

in English: Cumberland sand reed

C. brevipilis (Torr.) Scribn. (Ammophila brevipilis (Torr.) Benth. ex Vasey; Arundo brevipilis Torr.; Calamagrostis brevipilis (Torr.) L.C. Beck; Calamovilfa brevipilis var. brevipilis; Calamovilfa brevipilis var. calvipes Fernald; Calamovilfa brevipilis var. heterolepis Fernald; Calamovilfa brevipilis var. typica Fernald)

North America. Perennial, shortly rhizomatous, persistent bases of the foliage leaves, open panicles with ascending to spreading branches, straight and acute glumes, lemmas acuminate and pubescent, paleas pubescent, grows in moist to dry pine barrens, savannah, sandy swamps, bogs, swamp edges, see Icones et Descriptiones Graminum Austriacorum 4: 24. 1809, A Flora of the Northern and Middle Sections of the United States 1: 95. 1823, Botany of the Northern and Middle States 401. 1833, The Grasses of the United States 29. 1883 and Rhodora 41: 501-502, pl. 573, f. 1-2, 4. 1939.

in English: pine barren sand reed

C. curtissii (Vasey) Scribn. (Ammophila curtissii Vasey; Calamagrostis curtissii (Vasey) Vasey) (for the American botanist Allen Hiram Curtiss, 1845-1907, traveler, botanical collector, associated with USDA, 1881-1886 Texas and Arkansas, 1884-1899 Florida, Virginia and Georgia, 1902-1905 in West Indies, author of Catalogue of the phænogamous and vascular cryptogamous plants of Canada and the Northeastern portion of the United States, including Virginia and Kentucky on the South, and Missouri, Iowa and Minnesota on the West. Liberty, Va., 1873. See J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 1: 406. 1965; Ignatz Urban (1848-1931), editor, Symbolae Antillanae. 3: 35. Berlin 1902; Ignatz Urban, Geschichte des Königlichen Botanischen Museums zu Berlin-Dahlem (1815-1913). Nebst Aufzählung seiner Sammlungen. 1916; G. Murray, History of the collections contained in the Natural History Departments of the British Museum. 1: 142. London 1904; Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 20: 208-209. 1874)

North America. Rare, perennial, shortly rhizomatous, panicles contracted with erect branches, glumes straight, lemmas straight and pubescent, grows in moist flatwoods, in interdune swales, see Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 11: 7. 1884, Botanical Gazette 15: 269. 1890, Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 17: 199. 1899.

in English: Florida sand reed

C. gigantea (Nutt.) Scribn. & Merr. (Calamagrostis gigantea Nutt.; Toxeumia gigantea Nutt. ex Scribn. & Merr.)

Utah, Nebraska, Arizona, Texas. Perennial, tall, mostly solitary, ligule a ring of hairs, rhizomes elongate and scaly, panicle long exserted and open, panicle branches ascending to strongly divergent, spikelets flattened and 1-flowered, glumes unequal and straight, lemmas straight and pubescent, excellent sand binding, grows on sand dunes, sandy banks, prairies, riverbanks, flood plains, see Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, new series, 5: 143. 1837 and Circular, Division of Agrostology, United States Department of Agriculture 35: 2. 1901.

in English: giant sand reed, big sand reed

C. longifolia (Hook.) Scribn. (Ammophila longifolia (Hook.) Benth. ex Vasey; Athernotus longifolius (Hook.) Lunell; Calamagrostis longifolia Hook.; Calamovilfa longifolia (Hook.) Hack. ex Scribn. & Southw.; Vilfa rigida Buckley)

North America. Perennial, stout, smooth, mostly solitary, stiff leaf blades, ligule a dense ring of hairs, leaf sheaths crowded and overlapping, scaly rhizomes elongate and sharp-pointed, narrow loosely spreading panicle with branches ascending to strongly divergent, 1-flowered, crowded spikelets flattened and overlapping, glumes rigid and acuminate, lemmas and paleas glabrous, forage, food for horses, excellent sand binding, grows in sand or sandy soils, steppe, in clay soils, prairies, sand hills, see Flora Boreali-Americana 2: 241. 1840, Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 14: 89. 1862 and American Midland Naturalist 4: 218. 1915, Manual of the Grasses of the United States 844. 1950.

in English: prairie sand reed, sand reed grass

C. longifolia (Hook.) Scribn. var. longifolia

North America. Perennial, stout, glabrous, solitary, erect, ligule a fringe of hairs, leaf blades flat and involute, leaf sheaths round and pilose, auricles absent, coarse rhizomes scaly and branched, long panicle with ascending branches, spikelets 1-flowered, lemma glabrous, more or less resistant to trampling, tolerant of moderately saline soils, low forage value, food for ungulates, provides cover for small mammals and birds, palatability decreases with plant maturity, high silica content, an early colonizer in sand dunes, used for reclamation and revegetation, grows on sandy range sites, sand flats, slopes, dry valleys, deep sandy soils, stabilized blowouts, dry prairies, disturbed sand, dune depressions, stabilized dunes, sand hills, see Oecologia 49: 137-142. 1981.

in English: prairie sand reed, sand grass, sand reed grass

C. longifolia (Hook.) Scribn. var. magna Scribn. & Merr.

Eastern U.S., Great Lakes region. Perennial, leaf sheaths densely pubescent, panicle branches widely divergent, grows on sandy shorelines, on dunes and lakeshores, see Circular, Division of Agrostology, United States Department of Agriculture 35: 3. 1901.

Calanthera Hook. = Bouteloua Lag., Buchloe Engelm.

From the Greek kalos “beautiful” and anthera “anther.”

Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae, Boutelouinae, see Variedades de Ciencias, Literatura y Artes 2(4,21): 134, 141. 1805, Hooker’s Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany 8: 18. 1856, Plantas Hartwegianas Imprimis Mexicanas 347. 1857, Transactions of the Academy of Science of St. Louis 1: 432. 1859, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 763. 1891 and Phytologia 37(4): 317-407. 1977, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 293-295. 1994, Las Gramíneas de México 2: 1-344. 1987, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 41: 20-33. 2001.

Calderonella Soderstr. & H.F. Decker

Named for Cléofe E. Calderón (1940-1989), Panama botanist, botanical collector, bamboo taxonomist at the Smithsonian Institution. See C.E. Calderón & Thomas R. Soderstrom, “Las gramineas tropicales afines a Olyra L.” Atas do Simpósio sôbre a Biota Amazônica. Conselho de Pesquisas, Rio de Janeiro. 4 (Botânica): 67-76. 1967; C.E. Calderón & Thomas R. Soderstrom, “Morphological and anatomical considerations of the grass subfamily Bambusoideae based on the new genus Maclurolyra.” Smithsonian Contributions to Botany no.11. Washington 1973; Phytologia 46: 290-291. 1980; C.E. Calderón & Thomas R. Soderstrom, The Genera of Bambusoideae (Poaceae) of the American Continent: Keys and Comments. Washington, Smithsonian Institution Press 1980; Acta Amazonica 11: 307. 1981; Kew Bulletin 39: 180, 182. 1984; J. Bromel. Soc. 34: 213. 1984; Brittonia 37: 23-25. 1985; Amer. J. Bot. 74: 35. 1986; Bol. Mus. Para. Emilio Goeldi, ser. Bot. 7: 305. 1991; Novon 7: 302. 1997.

One species, Panama. Centothecoideae, Centotheceae, or Panicoideae, Centotheceae, perennial, very small, delicate, herbaceous, unarmed, almost stemless, caespitose, leaf blades lanceolate, ligule an unfringed membrane, leaves false petiolate, stoloniferous, plants bisexual, inflorescence a single raceme, spikelets solitary and pedicellate, 3- to 5-flowered, lowest floret female, 2 glumes acute, female lemma strongly gibbous, male florets lanceolate, palea present, 2 lodicules, 3 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, shade species, forest, possible that Calderonella and Zeugites may be congeneric, type Calderonella sylvatica Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, see Mat. Fl. Malay Pen. 3: 122. 1907, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60(2): 427-441. 1973, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 249-250. 1994, G.H. Rua, “Centothecoid grasses and the evolution of panicoid spikelets.” Plant Systematics and Evolution 240(1-4): 83-89. Sep 2003, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 144. 2003.

Species

C. sylvatica Soderstr. & H.F. Decker

Panama. See Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 60(2): 427-432, f. 2-3, 5. 1973

Callichloea Steud. = Elionurus Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd., Elionurus Kunth

From the Greek kalli “beautiful” and chloe, chloa “grass, young grass.”

Panicoideae, Andropogoneae, Rottboelliinae, see Species Plantarum. Editio quarta 4(2): 941-942. 1806, Mémoires du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle 2: 69. 1815 [1816], Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 257. 1840 and Taxon 47: 737. 1998, Taxon 49: 273. 2000, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 225-229. 2003.

Calochloa Kunze = Elionurus Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.

From the Greek kalos “beautiful” and chloe, chloa “grass, young grass.” Panicoideae, Andropogoneae, Rottboelliinae, see Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 225-229. 2003.

Calosteca Desv. = Briza L., Calotheca Desv.

From the Greek kalos “beautiful” and theke “a case.”

One species, South America. Pooideae, Poodae, Poeae, or Pooideae, Poeae, Brizinae, perennial, tufted, herbaceous, auricles absent, narrow leaf blades linear, ligule an unfringed membrane, plants bisexual, cleistogamous or chasmogamous, inflorescence paniculate, spikelets pedicel-late and laterally flattened, 2 glumes subequal, palea present, 2 free and membranous lodicules, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, often in Briza or in Calotheca, type Calosteca brizoides (Lam.) Desv., see Species Plantarum 1: 70-71. 1753, Tableau Encyclopédique et Méthodique ... Botanique 1: 193. 1791, Nouveau Bulletin des Sciences, publié par la Société Philomatique de Paris 2: 190. 1810 and Willdenowia Beiheft 8, 168 pp. 1975, Darwiniana 23(1): 279-309. 1981, Taxon 37: 434. 1988, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 229. 1994, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 146-151, 227-228. 2003.

Species

C. brizoides (Lam.) Desv. (Briza brizoides (Lam.) Kuntze; Briza elegans (P. Beauv.) Döll; Briza patula Phil.; Briza tandilensis Parodi; Bromus brizoides Lam.; Calotheca brizoides (Lam.) Desv.; Calotheca elegans P. Beauv.; Chascolytrum elegans E. Desv. ex P. Beauv.)

South America. See Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 86, 157, t. 17, f. 7. 1812, Flora Brasiliensis 2(3): 135. 1878, Anales de la Universidad de Chile 94: 163. 1896, Revisio Generum Plantarum 3(3): 341. 1898 and Revista de la Facultad de Agronomia y Veterinaria 3: 132, f. 4(1b). 5. 1920.

Calotheca Desv. = Briza L., Calosteca Desv.

Pooideae, Poodae, Poeae, or Pooideae, Poeae, Brizinae, often in Briza or in Calosteca, type Calotheca brizoides (Lam.) Desv., see Nouveau Bulletin des Sciences, publié par la Société Philomatique de Paris 2: 190. 1810, Anleitung zur Kenntniss der Gewächse 2(1): 167. 1817 and Darwiniana 23(1): 279-309. 1981, Taxon 37: 434. 1988, Cladistics 14: 287-296. 1998, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 146-151, 227-228. 2003.

Calotheca Desv. ex Spreng. = Aeluropus Trin.

Chloridoideae, Eragrostideae, see Species Plantarum 1: 66-71, 73-76. 1753, Nouveau Bulletin des Sciences, publié par la Société Philomatique de Paris 2: 190. 1810, Anleitung zur Kenntniss der Gewächse 2(1): 167. 1817, Fundamenta Agrostographiae. 143, t. 12. Viennae (Jan) 1820, Genera Plantarum Florae Germanicae iconibus et descriptionibus illustrata ... [1833-] 1835-1860, Traité des Graminées 134. 1854 and Grasses of Burma ... 379-381. 1960, Novosti Sist. Vyss. Rast. 1966: 25. 1966, Fitologija 39: 72-77. 1991, S. Khatoon & S.I. Ali, Chromosome Atlas of the Angiosperms of Pakistan. Karachi 1993 [University of Karachi, Department of Botany], Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 81(4): 784-791. 1994.

Calotheca P. Beauv. = Briza L., Calotheca Desv.

From the Greek kalos “beautiful” and theke “a case.”

Pooideae, Poodae, Poeae, or Pooideae, Poeae, Brizinae, see Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 85. 1812 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 146-151, 227-228. 2003.

Calotheria Steud. = Enneapogon Desv. ex P. Beauv.

From the Greek kalos “beautiful” and ather “barb, spine, chaff, prickle, awn.”

Pappophoreae, or Chloridoideae, Eragrostideae, Cotteinae, see Genera Plantarum 2: 787. 1791, Symbolae Botanicae, ... 3: 10, t. 51. 1794, Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 81, 161. 1812, Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint Pétersbourg. Sixième Série. Sciences Mathématiques, Physiques et Naturelles 1(1): 91. 1830, Émoires de la Société d’Agriculture, Sciences et Arts d’Angers 1: 202. 1831, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 199. 1854, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 2(2): 64. 1887 and U.S. Dept. Agric. Bull. 772: 83. 1920, Proc. Linn. Soc. 153: 52-91. 1941, Kew Bulletin 22: 393-401. 1968, E.K.Z. Kakudidi, M. Lazarides and J.A. Carnahan, “A revision of Enneapogon (Poaceae, Pappophoreae) in Australia.” Aust. Syst. Bot. 1(4): 325-353. 1989, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 41: 78. 2001.

Calycodon Nutt. = Muhlenbergia Schreb.

From the Greek kalyx, kalykos “calyx” and odous, odontos “a tooth.”

Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae, Muhlenbergiinae, type Calycodon montanum Nutt., see Genera Plantarum 44. 1789, Systema Naturae ... editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata 2: 171. 1791, Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 4: 23. 1848, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia ser. 2, 1: 186. 1848 and United States Department of Agriculture: Bulletin 772: 145, 147. 1920, Phytologia 79(1): 25-27. 1995, Y. Herrera-Arrieta, “A revision of the Muhlenbergia montana (Nutt.) Hitchc. complex (Poaceae: Chloridoideae).” Brittonia 50(1): 23-50. 1998, P.M. Peterson, “Systematics of the Muhlenbergiinae (Chloridoideae: Eragrostideae).” Grasses: Systematics and Evolution 195-212. 2000, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 41: 143-173. 2001.

Calyptochloa C.E. Hubb

From the Greek kalypto “to hide, cover” and chloe, chloa “grass, young grass”; see Charles Edward Hubbard (1900-1980), Hooker’s Icones Plantarum. Ser. 5. 3: t. 3210. 1933.

One species, Australia. Panicoideae, Panicodae, Paniceae, perennial, herbaceous, creeping, decumbent, mat-forming, hollow, auricles absent, ligule a fringe of hairs, plants bisexual, cleistogamous or chasmogamous, cleistogenes in upper axils, hidden cleistogenes in the leaf sheaths, inflorescence loosely racemose, 5-8 spikelets singly on a slender rachis, spikelets adaxial, 2 glumes very unequal, lower glume vestigial, upper glume stiffly pilose, upper lemma shortly awned, palea present, 2 free and fleshy lodicules, 3 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, suitable for mine site revegetation, grows in woodland shade, forest, woodland understorey, related to Cleistochloa and Alloteropsis, type Calyptochloa gracillima C.E. Hubbard, see Hook. Ic. Pl. 33: t. 3210, 1-3. 1933, C.S. Campbell, J.A. Quinn, G.P. Cheplick and T.J. Bell, “Cleistogamy in Grasses.” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 14: 411-441. 1983.

Species

C. gracillima C.E. Hubbard

Australia, Queensland.

Campeiostachys Drobow = Elymus L.

Pooideae, Triticodae, Triticeae, or Pooideae, Triticeae, Hordeinae, type Campeiostachys schrenkiana (Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) Drobow, see Species Plantarum 1: 83-84. 1753, Bulletin de la Classe Physico-Mathématique de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint Pétersbourg 3: 305. 1845 and Flora Uzbekistanica 1: 300, 540. 1941, Canad. J. Bot. 42: 554. 1964, Taxon 41: 562-563. 1992, Taxon 44: 611-612. 1995, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 279-307. 2003.

Campelia Kunth = Campelia Rich. (Commelinaceae), Deschampsia P. Beauv.

Pooideae, Poodae, Aveneae, or Pooideae, Poeae, Airinae, see Species Plantarum 2: 1028. 1753, Démonstrations Botaniques 46. 1808, Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 91, 149, 160. 1812, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum (quarto ed.) 1: 264. 1815 [1816], A Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States 605. 1848 and Flora Mesoamericana 6: 235. 1994, Plant Systematics and Evolution 205: 99-110. 1997, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 134: 495-512. 2000 [The Deschampsia cespitosa complex in central and northern Europe: a morphological analysis.], Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 245-256. 2003.

Campella Link = Deschampsia P. Beauv.

Pooideae, Poodae, Aveneae, or Pooideae, Poeae, Airinae, see Species Plantarum 1: 64-65. 1753, Species Plantarum 2: 1028. 1753, Démonstrations Botaniques 46. 1808, Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 91. 1812, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum (quarto ed.) 1: 264. 1815 [1816], Hortus Regius Botanicus Berolinensis 1: 122. 1827, A Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States 605. 1848, Flora Rossica 4(13): 420. 1852 and Botaniska Notiser 1953(3): 356. 1953, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 235. 1994, Plant Systematics and Evolution 205: 99-110. 1997, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 134: 495-512. 2000 [The Deschampsia cespitosa complex in central and northern Europe: a morphological analysis.], Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 245-256. 2003.

Campuloa Desv. = Ctenium Panz.

Perhaps from the Greek kampylos “curved” and chloa “grass, young grass.”

Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae, see Mémoires de la Société d’Agriculture, Sciences et Arts d’Angers 1: 167. 1813, Ideen zu einer künftigen Revision der Gattungen der Gräser. 38, 61. 1813, Denkschriften der Bayer[ischen]. Botanischen Gesellschaft in Regensburg 4: 311, t. 13, f. 1-2. 1813 [1814] and North American Flora 17(8): 579-638. 1939, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 290-291. 1994, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 41: 57-58. 2001.

Campulosus Desv. = Ctenium Panz.

Perhaps from the Greek kampylos “curved.”

Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae, type Campulosus gracilior Desv., see Nouveau Bulletin des Sciences, publié par la Société Philomatique de Paris 2: 189. 1810, Ideen zu einer künftigen Revision der Gattungen der Gräser. 38, 61. 1813, Denkschriften der Bayer[ischen]. Botanischen Gesellschaft in Regensburg 4: 311, t. 13, f. 1-2. 1813 [1814] and North American Flora 17(8): 579-638. 1939, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 290-291. 1994, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 41: 57-58. 2001.

Camusia Lorch = Acrachne Wight & Arn. ex Chiov.

For the French botanist Aimée Antoinette Camus, 1879-1965, among his works are Monographie des saules d’Europe. Paris 1904-1905 and Les Chataigniers. Paris 1929, with the French pharmacist and botanist Edmond Gustave Camus (1852-1915) (her father) wrote Classification des saules d’Europe et monographie des Saules de France. Paris 1904-1905, with E.G. Camus and Paul Bergon (1863-1912) wrote Monographie des orchidées de l’Europe, de l’Afrique septentrionale, de l’Asie mineure et des provinces russes transcaspiennes. Paris [1908]; see J.H. Barn-hart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 1: 305. 1965; T.W. Bossert, Biographical dictionary of botanists represented in the Hunt Institute portrait collection. 64. 1972; Ida Kaplan Langman, A Selected Guide to the Literature on the Flowering Plants of Mexico. 1964; Clyde F. Reed, Bibliography to Floras of Southeast Asia. 1969; F.N. Hepper and Fiona Neate, Plant Collectors in West Africa. 16. 1971; Elmer Drew Merrill, in Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 144: 58. 1937; Frans A. Stafleu and Erik A. Mennega, Taxonomic literature. Supplement III. 337-350. 1995.

Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae, or Chloridoideae, Eragrostideae, Eleusininae, type Camusia perrieri (A. Camus) Lorch, see Annuario del Reale Istituto Botanico di Roma 8(3): 361-362. 1908, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 75: 913. 1928, Bulletin of the Research Council of Israel, Section D, Botany 9: 155. 1961.

Camusiella Bosser = Setaria P. Beauv.

For the French botanist Aimée Antoinette Camus, 1879-1965.

About 2 species, Madagascar. Panicoideae, Panicodae, Paniceae, or Panicoideae, Paniceae, Setariinae, annual, caespitose, unarmed, solid, auricles absent, leaf blades pseudopetiolate, ligule fringed, plants bisexual, inflorescence a false spike, spikelets with involucres of bristles, 2 glumes unequal, palea present, fleshy lodicules, 3 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2-3 stigmas, sometimes referred to Setaria, see Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 51, 178. 1812 and Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 108: 158-163. 1961, Adansonia: recueil périodique d’observations botanique, n.s. 6: 105-112. 1966, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 569-593. 2003.

Species

C. fiherenensis Bosser

Madagascar.

C. vatkeana (K. Schum.) Bosser (Camusiella vatkeana subvar. violaceus Bosser; Camusiella vatkeana var. meridionalis Bosser; Camusiella vatkeana var. vatkeana; Setaria vatkeana K. Schum.) (for the German botanist Georg Carl Wilhelm Vatke, 1849-1889; see J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 3: 427. 1965; T.W. Bossert, Biographical dictionary of botanists represented in the Hunt Institute portrait collection. 415. 1972; W. Vatke, “Plantas in itinere africao ab J.M. Hildebrandt collectas determinare pergit.” Linnaea 43(7): 507-541. 1882)

Madagascar. See Abhandlungen herausgegeben vom Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereine zu Bremen 9: 402. 1887.

Canastra Morrone, Zuloaga, Davidse & Filgueira

Monotypic, Brazil, Minas Gerais. Panicoideae, Paniceae, Paspalinae, perennial, erect, caespitose, robust, tussocky, simple or branched, leaf sheaths overlapping, lower sheaths usually laciniate, ligules membranous ciliate, leaves rigid and involute, inflorescences terminal or axillary, spikelets dorsiventrally compressed, spikelets 2-flowered, lower and upper glume awned, upper glume as long as the spikelet, lower glume reduced and 1-nerved, lower flower present and staminate, upper flower bisexual, lodicules 2, stamens 3, stigmas plumose, found among rocks, sandy soils, type Canastra lanceolata (Filgueiras) Morrone, Zuloaga, Davidse & Filgueiras, related to Arthropogon, Altoparadisium, Homolepis and Achlaena, see Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, ser. 2, 39: 385-394. 1914, Bothalia 12: 65-109. 1976, Bothalia 12: 641-672. 1979, Bradea 3(36): 303-322. 1982, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 79: 770-818. 1992, Novon 11(4): 429-436. 2001, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 88: 351-372. 2001, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 144. 2003.

Species

C. lanceolata (Filgueiras) Morrone, Zuloaga, Davidse & Filgueiras (Arthropogon lanceolatus Filgueiras)

Brazil, Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra.

Candollea Steud. = Agrostis L., Candollea Baumg. (Ericaceae), Candollea Labill. (Stylidiaceae), Candollea Labill. (Dilleniaceae), Candollea Mirb. (Polypodiaceae), Candollea Raddi (Bryophyta)

Named after the Swiss botanist Augustin Pyramus de Candolle, 1778-1841, among his most valuable writings are Plantarum historia succulentarum. Paris 1798-1837, Catalogus plantarum horti botanici monspeliensis. Montpellier, Paris, Strasbourg 1813 and Plantes rares du Jardin de Genève. Genève, Paris 1825 [-1827]; see J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 1: 306. 1965; Jacques Julien Houtton de Labillardière (1755-1834), Novae Hollandiae plantarum specimen. 2: 33, t. 176. 1806; T.W. Bossert, Biographical dictionary of botanists represented in the Hunt Institute portrait collection. 64. 1972; Ida Kaplan Langman, A Selected Guide to the Literature on the Flowering Plants of Mexico. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia 1964; P.E. Pilet, in D.S.B. 3: 43-45. 1981; Stafleu and Cowan, Taxonomic literature. 1: 438-452. Utrecht 1976; Gordon Douglas Rowley, A History of Succulent Plants. 1997.

Pooideae, Poeae, Agrostidinae, see Species Plantarum 1: 61-63. 1753, Histoire Naturelle des Végétaux, Classés par Familles 3: 471 and 5: 89. 1803, Annales du muséum national d’histoire naturelle 6: 453. 1805, Novae Hollandiae Plantarum Specimen 2: 33. 1806, Giuseppe Raddi (1770-1829), Jungermannografia etrusca ... Modena 1818 [Mem. Soc. Mod. xviii.], Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 273. 1840 and J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 36: 168. 1946, Fl. Fenn. 5: 29. 1971, Taxon 41: 556. 1992, Taxon 44: 611-612. 1995, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 42-89. 2003.

Capillipedium Stapf = Filipedium Raizada & Jain

Latin capillus, i “the hair” and pes, pedis “foot,” referring to the spikelets, pedicels and base are ciliate, or alluding to the spikelets borne on capillary panicle branches.

Some 14 species, warm Old World, eastern Africa, tropical Asia, New Caledonia, Australia. Panicoideae, Andropogonodae, Andropogoneae, Andropogoninae, annual or perennial, erect and slender, sometimes decumbent or caespitose, rambling, usually scented or sometimes aromatic, tufted, stout, herbaceous, nodes bearded or hairy, auricles absent, ligule membranous and more or less fringed, leaves flat, plants bisexual, elongate inflorescence, a panicle open with capillary branchlets, racemes short on slender and glandular branches, panicle branches bearing short racemes of 1-8 sessile spikelets, terminal spikelets in triplets, sessile spikelets with 1 fertile floret and 1 sterile lemma, pedicellate spikelets flattened, short racemes often reduced to triads, glumes 2 more or less equal, upper glume boat-shaped or naviculate, lower glume 2-keeled, palea absent, free and fleshy lodicules present, stamens 3, ovary glabrous, stigmas 2, ornamental, weed species, essential oil with antibacterial efficacy, related to and hybrids with Bothriochloa Kuntze, found in open grassy places, type Capillipedium parviflorum (R. Br.) Stapf, see Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 11, 169. 1917, University of Queensland, Department of Biology, Papers 2(3): 1-62 (41-46). 1944, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 49: 682-683. 1951, Phytomorphology 7: 93-102. 1957, Boissiera. Mémoires du Conservatoire de Botanique et de l’Institut de Botanique Systématique de l’Université de Genève 9: 154. 1960, Grasses of Burma ... 110-113. 1960, Flora of New South Wales Gramineae 19(1): 37-39. 1961, American Journal of Botany 53(1): 94-98. 1966 [Morphology of the Compilospecies Bothriochloa intermedia.], Bot. Tidsskr. 67: 324-326. 1973, Journal of Cytology and Genetics 15: 51-57. 1980, Pharmazie 39(1): 64. 1984, Journal of Cytology and Genetics 25: 140-143. 1990, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 81(4): 775-783. 1994.

Species

C. sp.

in Thailand: yaa dokkhaa

C. annamense A. Camus (Capillipedium parviflorum var. annamense (A. Camus) Roberty)

Annam. See Bulletin du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle 31: 206. 1925.

in Thailand: yaa dokkhaa, ya dok kha

C. arachnoideum Henrard (Capillipedium arachnoideum subsp. arachnoideum; Capillipedium arachnoideum subsp. luzoniense Henrard)

Asia, Indonesia, Java. See Blumea 3(3): 458-459. 1940.

C. assimile (Steudel) A. Camus (Andropogon assimilis Steudel; Andropogon assimilis Steud. ex Zoll.; Andropogon glaucopsis Steud., nom. illeg., non Andropogon glaucopsis (Elliott) Steud.; Andropogon montanus Hack., nom. illeg., non Andropogon montanus Roxb.; Andropogon montanus var. glaucopsis (W. Watson) Hack.; Andropogon subrepens Steud.; Bothriochloa assimilis (Steud. ex Zoll.) Ohwi; Both-riochloa picta Ohwi; Capillipedium assimile (Steud. ex Zoll.) A. Camus; Capillipedium assimile var. assimile; Capillipedium assimile var. glaucophyllum (Henrard) Jansen; Capillipedium glaucopsis (Steud.) Stapf; Capillipedium glaucopsis (W. Watson) Stapf; Capillipedium subrepens (Steud.) Henrard; Chrysopogon glaucopsis W. Watson; Chrysopogon subrepens (Steud.) W. Watson; Dichanthium assimile (Steud. ex Zoll.) Deshp.)

Southeast Asia, India, Taiwan. Riverbanks, scrambling, branched, woody at base, leaves acuminate, fodder grass, see Systematisches Verzeichniss der im Indischen Archipel 58. 1854, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 397. 1854, Himalayan Districts of the Northwestern Provinces of India 10: 392. 1882, Monographiae Phanerogamarum 6: 490-491. 1889 and Fl. Gén. Indo-Chine 7: 314. 1922, Hooker’s Icones Plantarum 31(4): t. 3085. 1922, Blumea 3(3): 463. 1940, Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 11(3): 165, 167. 1942, Fascicles of Flora of India 15: 6. 1984.

in English: hard-stemmed golden beard

in Thailand: yaa yung, ya yung

C. filiculme (Hook.f.) Stapf (Andropogon filiculmis Hook.f.; Dichanthium filiculmi (Hook.f.) S.K. Jain & Deshp.)

India. Decumbent, trailing, climbing over bushes, grows in shady places, slopes, rocky sites, see Flora British India 7(21): 181. 1897 and Hooker’s Icones Plantarum 31(4): t. 3085. 1922, Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 20(1-4): 134. 1978[1979].

C. huegelii (Hack.) Stapf (Andropogon foetidus Hack. ex Lisboa; Andropogon huegelii Hack.; Andropogon huegelii var. foetidus Lisboa; Andropogon schmidii Hook.f.; Capillipedium foetidum (Lisboa) Raiz. & Jain; Capillipedium huegelii (Hack.) Blatt. & McCann; Capillipedium hugelii (Hack.) Stapf; Capillipedium parviflorum f. huegelii (Hack.) Roberty; Capillipedium schmidii (Hook.f.) Stapf; Dichanthium huegelii (Hack.) S.K. Jain & Deshp.) (named for the German-born Austrian plant collector and traveler Baron Karl Alexander Anselm von Hügel, 1794/1796-1870, soldier, horticulturist, 1830-1837 in Australasia, 1837-1849 in Vienna, 1849-1859 in Florence, 1860-1869 in Bruxelles, author of Der stille Ocean und die Spanischen Besitzungen im ostindischen Archipel. Wien 1860. See J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 2: 215. 1965; A. Lasègue, Musée botanique de Benjamin Delessert. Paris 1845; Isaac Henry Burkill, Chapters on the History of Botany in India. Delhi 1965; S.L. Endlicher et al. [Eduard Fenzl, George Bentham and Heinrich Wilhelm Schott], Enumeratio plantarum quas in Novae Hollandiae ... collegit C. de Hügel. Wien 1837 and Stirpium Australasicarum herbarii Hügeliani decades tres. Vindobonae 1838; R. Zander, F. Encke, G. Buchheim and S. Seybold, Hand-wörterbuch der Pflanzennamen. 14. Aufl. Stuttgart 1993; E.M. Tucker, Catalogue of the library of the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. 1917-1933)

India. Small value for grazing, nodes densely bearded, panicle contracted, see Fodder Grasses N. India 88. 1888, Monographiae Phanerogamarum 6: 492. 1889, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 6: 71. 1891, The Flora of British India 7(21): 180. 1897 [1896] and Hooker’s Icones Plantarum 31(4): t. 3085. 1922, J. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. 32: 420. 1928, Indian Forester 77: 752. 1951, Boissiera. 9: 154. 1960, Bulletin of the Botanical Department. 20(1-4): 135. 1978[1979].

C. kwashotensis (Hayata) C. Hsu (Andropogon kwashotensis Hayata; Bothriochloa kwashotensis (Hayata) Ohwi)

China, Taiwan. See Icones plantarum formosanarum nec non et contributiones ad floram formosanam. 7: 80-81, f. 47. 1918, Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 11(3): 168. 1942, Journal of Japanese Botany 37(9): 280. 1962.

C. longisetosum Bor

Asia, India. See Brittonia 16: 227. 1964.

in Thailand: yaa phom hom, ya phom hom

C. magdaleni Almeida (Dichanthium magdaleni (M.R. Almeida) S.K. Jain & Deshp.)

Karnataka, India. See J. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. 72(3): 813-814. 1975, Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 20(1-4): 135. 1978[1979].

C. nagense Almeida (Dichanthium nagense (Bor) Deshp.)

Naga Hills, India. See Brittonia 16: 228. 1964, Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 21(1-4): 198. 1979[1981].

C. parviflorum (R. Br.) Stapf (Anatherum parviflorum (R. Br.) Spreng.; Andropogon alternans J. Presl; Andropogon caerulescens (Gaudich.) Kunth; Andropogon capilliflorus Steud.; Andropogon micranthus Kunth; Andropogon micranthus var. quartinianus (A. Rich.) Hack.; Andropogon micranthus var. violascens (Trin.) Honda; Andropogon parviflorus Roxb.; Andropogon parviflorus (R. Br.) Domin, nom. illeg., non Andropogon parviflorus Roxb.; Andropogon parvispica Steud.; Andropogon quartinianus A. Rich.; Andropogon serratus Miq.; Andropogon violascens (Trin.) Nees ex Steud.; Bothriochloa parviflora (R. Br.) Ohwi; Bothriochloa parviflora f. violascens (Trin.) Ohwi; Bothriochloa pauciflora (R. Br.) Quart.; Chrysopogon alter-nans (J. Presl) Trin. ex Steud.; Chrysopogon parviflorus (R. Br.) Benth.; Chrysopogon parviflorus var. violascens (Trin.) Kitag.; Chrysopogon parvispicus (Steud.) W. Watson; Chrysopogon violascens Trin.; Dichanthium parviflorum (R. Br.) de Wet & Harlan; Dichanthium parviflorum (R. Br.) de Wet; Holcus caerulescens Gaudich.; Holcus parviflorus R. Br.; Rhaphis caerulescens (Gaudich.) Desv.; Rhaphis microstachya Nees ex Steud.; Rhaphis parviflora (R. Br.) Chase; Rhaphis villosula Nees ex Steud.; Sorghum parviflorum (R. Br.) P. Beauv.; Sorghum quartinianum (A. Rich.) Schweinf.; Sorghum quartinianum (A. Rich.) Asch.)

Asia temperate and tropical to Australia, East Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, China, Japan, Philippines, Queensland, New South Wales, Northern Territory. Perennial, variable, densely tufted, slender to robust, erect, hairy or glabrous, ligule short and with fringed margin, nodes bearded, sheath more or less glabrous, hairy panicles, racemes with 1 sessile and 2 pedicellate spikelets, spikelets purple and long awned, glumes more or less pubescent, pedicellate spikelets male, paleas absent, weed species, very hard and adaptable, ornamental when in flower, decorative aromatic panicles, low forage value, grows in woodland and on roadsides, wastelands, grasslands, upland grassland, slopes, see Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae 199. 1810, Essai d‘une Nouvelle Agrostographie 132, 165. 1812, Flora Indica; or Descriptions ... 1: 277. 1820, Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 1: 290. 1825, Révision des Graminées 1: 165, 618. 1829-1830, Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 342. 1830, Voyage autour de Monde éxécuté pendant les Années 1836 et 1837 sur la Corvette la Bonite ... Botanique 411, t. 27. 1830, Mémoires de la Société d‘Agriculture, Sciences et Arts d‘Angers 1: 173. 1831, Mémoires de l‘Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint Pétersbourg. Sixième Série. Sciences Mathématiques, Physiques et Naturelles 2(4): 319. 1832, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 359. 1840, London Journal of Botany 2: 411. 1843, Tentamen Florae Abyssinicae ... 2: 469. 1850, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 396-397. 1854, Annales Museum Botanicum Lugduno-Batavi 2: 290. 1866, Beitrag zur Flora Aethiopiens ... 306. Berlin 1867, Himalayan Districts of the North-western Provinces of India 392. 1882, Monogr. Phan. 6: 490. 1889 and Bibliotheca Botanica 85(2): 263. 1915, Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 169. 1917, Journal of the Faculty of Science: University of Tokyo, Botany 3: 345. 1930, Report of the Institute of Scientific Research, Manchoukuo 3(App. 1): 68. 1939, Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 11(3): 166. 1942, Journal of Taiwan Museum 10: 58. 1957, American Journal of Botany 53: 97. 1966.

in English: scented-top grass, scented-top, scented golden-beard

in Thailand: yaa phom hom, ya yung

C. parviflorum (R. Br.) Stapf subsp. capilliflorum Henrard (Andropogon capilliflorus Steud.)

China, Australia. See Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 397. 1854 and Blumea 3(3): 457. 1940.

C. parviflorum (R. Br.) Stapf var. parviflorum (Andropogon micranthus Kunth; Andropogon parviflorus Roxb.; Bothriochloa parviflora (R. Br.) Ohwi; Holcus parviflorus R. Br.)

China. See Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae 199. 1810, Flora Indica; or Descriptions ... 1: 277. 1820, Révision des Graminées 1: 165. 1829 and Blumea 3(3): 457. 1940, Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 11(3): 166. 1942.

C. parviflorum (R. Br.) Stapf var. spicigerum (Benth.) Roberty (Andropogon spicigerus (S.T. Blake) Reeder; Bothriochloa parviflora var. spicigera (Benth.) Ohwi; Capillipedium parviflorum var. spicigerum (Benth.) C.C. Hsu, nom. illeg., non Capillipedium parviflorum var. spicigerum (Benth.) Roberty; Capillipedium spicigerum S.T. Blake; Chrysopogon parviflorus var. spicigerus Benth.; Dichanthium parviflorum var. spicigerum (S.T. Blake) de Wet)

Taiwan. See Flora Australiensis: A Description ... 7: 538. 1878 and Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 11(3): 166. 1942, University of Queensland Papers: Department of Biology 2(3): 43. 1944, Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 29(4): 366. 1948, Boissiera 154, 155. 1960, Index to Grass Species 452. 1962, Taiwania 16(2): 309. 1971.

C. planipedicellatum Bor (Dichanthium planipedicellatum (Bor) S.K. Jain & Deshp.; Filipedium planipedicellatum (Bor) Raizada & Jain)

Asia, India. Awnless, see Kew Bulletin 1949: 222. 1949, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 49: 683. 1951, Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 20(1-4): 135. 1978[1979].

C. pteropechys (Clarke) Stapf (Andropogon pteropechys Clarke; Dichanthium pteropechys (C.B. Clarke) S.K. Jain & Deshp.)

Naga Hills, India. Nodes bearded, leaf sheaths stgriate, leaf blades acuminate, ligule ciliate, panicle branched, see J. Linn. Soc. (Botany) 25: 88, t. 38. 1899 and Hooker‘s Icones Plantarum 31(4): t. 3085. 1922, Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 20(1-4): 135. 1978[1979].

C. spicigerum S.T. Blake (Andropogon micranthus var. muelleri Hack.; Andropogon parviflorus var. spicigerus (Benth.) Domin; Andropogon spicigerus (S.T. Blake) Reeder; Chrysopogon parviflorus var. spicigerus Benth.; Dichanthium parviflorum var. spicigerum (S.T. Blake) de Wet) (Latin spica, ae “a point, spike, tuft” and gero, gessi, gestum “to bear, carry, to wear”)

Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Northern Territory. Perennial, tufted, stout, smooth and green leaves, hairy and purple to yellowish panicle, purple spikelets long awned, pedicellate spikelets sterile or male, low forage value, ornamental when in flower, scented panicles, sometimes weedy, woodland, similar to Capillipedium parviflorum (R. Br.) Stapf, see University of Queensland, Department of Biology, Papers 2(3): 43. 1944, Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 29(4): 366. 1948, Flora of New South Wales 19(1): 37-39 (38-39). 1961.

in English: scented-top grass

C. sulcatum Bor

Asia, India. See Botanisk Tidsskrift 67(4): 324. 1973.

C. venustum (Thwaites) Bor (Bothriochloa venusta (Thwaites) A. Camus; Hemisorghum venustum (Thwaites) Clayton; Vetiveria venusta (Thwaites) Willis)

Southeast Asia, India. See Enumeratio Plantarum Zeylaniae 136. 1864 and Annales de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon, sér. 2, 76: 165. 1931, Grasses of Burma ... 113. 1960, Kew Bulletin 27(3): 448. 1972.

Capriola Adans. = Cynodon Rich.

Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae, Chloridinae, type Capriola dactylon (L.) Kuntze, see Flora Mesoamericana 6: 291-292. 1994, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 41: 59-63. 2001.

Caryochloa Spreng. = Piptochaetium Presl

From the Greek karyon “a nut, any kind of nut” and chloe, chloa “grass.”

Pooideae, Stipeae, Stipinae, type Caryochloa montevidensis Spreng., see Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 4(2): 22, 30. 1827, Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 222, t. 37, f. 2. 1830 and Darwiniana 36(1-4): 107-157. 1998, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 495-504. 2003.

Caryochloa Trin. = Luziola Juss.

From the Greek karyon “a nut, any kind of nut” and chloe, chloa “grass.”

Ehrhartoideae, Oryzeae, Luziolinae, type Caryochloa brasiliensis Trin., see Genera Plantarum 33. 1789, Systema Naturae ... editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata 2: 637. 1791, De Graminibus Paniceis 54, 248. 1826, Die Natürli-chen Pflanzenfamilien 2(2): 40. 1887 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 39: 69-71. 2000.

Caryophyllea Opiz = Aira L.

From the Greek karyon “nut” and phyllon “leaf.”

Pooideae, Poeae, Airinae, see Species Plantarum 1: 63-66. 1753 and Boissiera. 13: 179-180. 1967, Taxon 41: 556. 1992, Opera Botanica 121: 159-172. 1993, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 235. 1994, Taxon 44: 611-612. 1995, Bothalia 26(1): 53-61. 1996, Thaiszia 9(1): 31-40. 1999, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 89-96. 2003.

Casiostega Galeotti = Opizia C. Presl

Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae, Boutelouinae, see The Genera of North American Plants 1: 65. 1818, Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 293, t. 41, f. 1-11. 1830, Bulletin de l‘Académie Royale des Sciences et Belles-lettres de Bruxelles 9: 232. 1842, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de Belgique 15: 470-471. 1876.

Castellia Tine

Dedicated to the Italian botanist Pietro Castelli, author of Exactissima descriptio rariorum quarundam plantarum, quae continentur Romae in horto Farnesiano: Tobia Aldino Cesenate auctore... Romae, typis Jacobi Mascardi, 1625, and Petri Castelli ... Hortus Messanensis. Messanae, typis viduae Ioannis Francisci Bianco, 1640; see Luigi Belloni, in D.S.B. 9: 62-66. 1981; Mariella Azzarello Di Misa, a cura di, Il Fondo Antico della Biblioteca dell‘Orto Botanico di Palermo. 65-66. Palermo 1988; Giuseppe M. Mira, Bibliografia Siciliana. 1: 195. Palermo 1881.

One species, Mediterranean, western Asia, Canary Islands. Pooideae, Poodae, Poeae, annual, herbaceous, tufted, erect or geniculately ascending, auricles absent or present, ligule an unfringed membrane, leaf blades linear, plants bisexual, inflorescence racemose or paniculate, racemes single or scattered, spikelets compressed laterally and more or less sessile, several-flowered, 2 glumes unequal more or less keeled, thin lemmas awnless and densely tuberculate, palea present, 2 free and membranous lodicules, stamens 3, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, open habitats, dry places, dry open places, confused with Lolium, type Castellia tuberculata Tineo, see Vincenzo (Vincentius) Tineo, 1791-1856, Plantarum rariorum Siciliae minus cognitarum ... 2: 17-18. Panormi 1846.

Species

C. tuberculosa (Moris) Bor (Castellia tuberculata Tineo; Catapodium tuberculosum Moris; Desmazeria tuberculosa (Moris) Batt. & Trab.; Desmazeria tuberculosa (Moris) Bonnet; Festuca tuberculata (Tineo) Benth.; Festuca tuber-culosa (Moris) Coss. & Dur.; Micropyrum tuberculosum (Moris) Pilg.; Nardurus tuberculosus (Moris) Hayek)

Asia, Europe, Greece, Italy. Annual, loosely tufted, stiff racemose inflorescence sparsely branched, a single raceme, spikelets distichous and many-flowered, glumes glabrous, scabrid-tuberculate lemmas thinly membranous, useful for erosion control, grows in bushland, rocky areas, crevices, see Exploration Scientifique de l‘Algérie 2: 189, t. 41. 1855, Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 19: 128. 1881, Flore d‘Alger 100. 1884 and Feddes Repertorium, Beiheft 30(3): 295. 1932, Indian Forester 74: 90. 1948, Engler‘s Botanische Jahrbucher 74: 576. 1949.

in French: catapodium tuberculé

in Morocco: mahadoun, ziouan

Catabrosa P. Beauv

Greek katabibrosko, katabibroskein “eat up, devour,” kato, kata “below, downward, down from” and broskein, brosko, bibrosko “to eat, to devour,” katabrosis “eating up, devouring,” used as fodder for cattle and goats or referring to the glumes.

About 2-3 species, north temperate, Chile. Pooideae, Poodae, Meliceae, or Pooideae, Poeae, Puccinelliinae, perennial, often prostrate, with creeping stolons or decum-bent, soft and fleshy, herbaceous, hollow, loosely tufted or sprawling, branching and rooting at the nodes in water, leaf sheaths glabrous, leaf blades linear and narrow, ligule an unfringed membrane, plants bisexual, inflorescence loosely paniculate, panicle open, spikelets 1- to 3-flowered, 2 glumes unequal toothed or erose, lower glume obtuse to truncate, lemmas membranous and keeled, floret callus glabrous, palea present, 2 free lodicules, 3 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, growing in aquatic habitats, in marshes, in mud, from sea level, shallow water, streams and seepage areas, streamsides, drainage ditches, open habitats, springs, related to Colpodium Trin., containing HCN-glucoside, type Catabrosa aquatica (L.) P. Beauv., see Essai d‘une nouvelle Agrostographie, ou nouveaux genres des Graminées. 97. Paris 1812, Fundamenta Agrostographiae 119, t. 7. 1820, Flora Orientalis 5: 578. 1884 and Darwin-iana 23(1): 179-188. 1981 [Catabrosa P. Beauv. y Phippsia R. Brown (Gramineae) en America del Sur.], R.R. Mill, “Eremopoa, Nephelochloa, Catabrosella, Colpodium, Hyalopoa, Catabrosa, Paracolpodium.” in P.H. Davis (editor), Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 486-501. 1985, American Journal of Botany 81(1): 119-126. 1994, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 228-230. 2003.

Species

C. aquatica (L.) P. Beauv. (Aira aquatica L.; Catabrosa aquatica subsp. pseudairoides (Herrm.) Tzvelev; Catabrosa aquatica var. uniflora S.F. Gray; Catapodium aquaticum Trin. ex Willk. & Lange; Colpodium aquaticum (L.) Trinius; Diarrhena aquatica (L.) Raspail; Festuca airoides (Koeler) Mutel, nom. illeg., non Festuca airoides Lam.; Festuca albifolia Reverd.; Festuca lenensis Drob. subsp. albifolia (Reverd.) Tzvelev; Glyceria airoides (Koeler) Reichb.; Glyceria airoides (Nutt.) Fries, nom. illeg., non Glyceria airoides (Koeler) Reichb.; Glyceria aquatica (L.) J. Presl & C. Presl; Glyceria catabrosa Klett & Richt.; Glyceria dulcis (Salisb.) Holmb.; Hydrochloa airoides (Koeler) Hartm.; Melica aquatica (L.) Loisel.; Molinia aquatica (L.) Wibel; Poa airoides Koeler; Poa aquatica L.; Poa dulcis Salisb.; Poa pseudairoides Herrm.)

North temperate. Species variable, creeping, leaf sheaths open, open inflorescence very lax, panicle pyramidal or oblong, glumes unequal to nearly equal, lemmas truncate and erose at the apex, palatable, weed species, grows in moist meadows and along lakeshores or stream banks, see Species Plantarum 1: 64, 66-70, 73-76. 1753, Prodromus stirpium in horto ad Chapel Allerton vigentium. 20. 1796, Primitiae Florae Werthemensis 116. 1799, Descriptio Graminum in Gallia et Germania 194. 1802, Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae 179. 1810, Mémoires de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou 3, t. 13. 1812, Essai d‘une Nouvelle Agrostographie 97, 135, 142, 149, 157, 160, 162, 165, pl. 19. 1812, Genera Graminum 5. 1819, Flora Cechica 25. 1819, A Natural Arrangement of British Plants 2: 133. 1821, Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Botanique 5: 447. 1825, Flora Gallica, edition 2, 1: 59. 1828, Flora der Phanerogamischen Gewächse der Umgegend von Leipzig 96. 1830, Mémoires de l‘Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint Pétersbourg. Sixième Série. Sciences Mathématiques, Physiques et Naturelles 1(4): 395. 1830, Flore Française 4: 115. 1837, Novitiae Florae Suecicae 3: Add. 176. 1843, Prodromus Florae Hispanicae 1: 77. 1861 and Botaniska Notiser 97. 1919, Arch. Soc. Zool.-Bot. Fenn. Vanamo 2: 100-106. 1947, Bot. Zurn. (Kiev) 56(9): 1254. 1971, Bot. Zhurn. SSSR 70(5): 698-700. 1985, Novosti Sist. Vyss. Rast. 1986: 29. 1986, Bot. Zhurn. SSSR 71: 1426-1427. 1986, Fl. Libya 145: 84. 1988, Acta Biologica Cracoviensia, Series Botanica 33: 37-38. 1991, Flora Mediterranea 5: 340-345. 1995, Opera Botanica 137: 1-42. 1999.

in English: waterhair, water hairgrass, brookgrass, whorl-grass, water whorlgrass, water whorl grass

C. aquatica (L.) P. Beauv. subsp. aquatica (Catabrosa aquatica var. aquatica; Catabrosa aquatica var. laurentiana Fernald; Catabrosa aquatica var. uniflora S.F. Gray)

North temperate. See A Natural Arrangement of British Plants 2: 133. 1821 and Rhodora 35(412): 137-140, pl. 242, f. 3-4. 1933.

C. sikkimensis Stapf ex Hook.f.

North temperate, India, Sikkim. Alpine grass, spreading, rooting at nodes, dwarf, leafy, leaf sheaths glabrous, ligules blunt, lax panicle, see The Flora of British India 7(22): 311. 1897 [1896].

C. werdermannii (Pilg.) Nicora & Rúgolo (Catabrosa latifolia Phil.; Panicularia latifolia (Phil.) Kuntze; Phippsia werdermannii Pilg.; Phippsia werdermannii f. major Pilg.; Phippsia werdermannii f. minor Pilg.; Phippsia werdermannii f. werdermannii)

South America. See Herbarium Pedemontanum 6: 235. 1836, Anales Mus. Nac. Santiago de Chile 1891: 85. 1891, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 783. 1891 and Notizblatt des Botanischen Gartens und Museums zu Berlin-Dahlem 10(97): 759-760. 1929, Darwiniana 23(1): 182. 1981.

Catabrosella (Tzvelev) Tzvelev = Colpodium Trin.

The diminutive of Catabrosa.

About 9 species, Himalaya, China. Pooideae, Poodae, Poeae, perennial, herbaceous, caespitose, auricles absent, narrow linear leaf blades, ligule an unfringed membrane, plants bisexual, open inflorescence paniculate, lax panicle, spikelets pedicellate and laterally flattened, 2 glumes unequal to very unequal, lemmas awnless, palea present, 2 membranous lodicules, 3 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, often in Colpodium, type Catabrosella humilis (Bieb.) Griseb., see Fundamenta Agrostographiae 119, t. 7. 1820 and Novosti Sist. Vyss. Rast. 1: 12. 1964, Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 50: 1320. 1965, N.L. Bor (1893-1972), Flora Iranica: Gramineae. Graz 1970, Zlaki SSSR 481. 1976, R.R. Mill, “Eremopoa, Nephelochloa, Catabrosella, Colpodium, Hyalopoa, Catabrosa, Paracolpodium.” in P.H. Davis (editor), Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 486-501. 1985, Nordic Journal of Botany 14(6): 601-607. 1994.

Species

C. araratica (Lipsky) Tzvelev (Catabrosa araratica Lipsky; Colpodium araraticum (Lipsky) Woronow ex Grossh.; Colpodium araraticum (Lipsky) Woronow; Colpodium fibrosum var. araraticum (Lipsky) Woronow ex B. Fedtsch.; Koeleria dominii Nábelek)

Eurasia, Turkey. See Flora Kavkaza 1: 112. 1928.

C. calvertii (Boiss.) Czerep. (Catabrosella humilis subsp. calvertii (Boiss.) Tzvelev; Catabrosella parviflora subsp. calvertii (Boiss.) E.B. Alexeev ex R.R. Mill; Catabrosella parviflora subsp. calvertii (Boiss.) E.B. Alexeev, nom. illeg., non Catabrosella parviflora subsp. calvertii (Boiss.) E.B. Alexeev ex R.R. Mill; Colpodium parviflorum subsp. calvertii (Boiss.) D. Heller; Colpodium calvertii Boiss.)

Eurasia. See Diagnoses plantarum orientalium novarum, ser. 2, 4: 133. 1859 and Novosti Sist. Vyss. Rast. 1966: 32. 1966.

C. fibrosa (Trautv.) Tzvelev (Colpodium fibrosum Trautv.)

Eurasia. See Novosti Sist. Vyss. Rast. 1966: 32. 1966.

C. gillettii (Bor) Tzvelev (Colpodium gillettii Bor)

Russia. See Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh 25: 64. 1963, Grasses of the Soviet Union 481. 1976.

C. himalaica (Hook.f.) Tzvelev (Catabrosa himalaica (Hook.f.) Stapf; Colpodium himalaicum (Hook.f.) Bor; Phippsia himalaica Hook.f.)

Asia. See The Flora of British India 7(22): 240, 311. 1897 [1896] and Grasses of Burma ... 529. 1960, Novosti Sist. Vyss. Rast. 1966: 32. 1966.

C. humilis (M. Bieb.) Tzvelev (Aira humilis M. Bieb.; Catabrosa humilis (M. Bieb.) Trin.; Colpodium humile (M. Bieb.) Griseb.; Glyceria humilis (M. Bieb.) Heynh.)

Asia Minor. See Flora Taurico-Caucasica 1: 57. 1808, Fundamenta Agrostographiae 136. 1820, Nomenclator Botanicus Hortensis 1: 361. 1840, Flora Rossica 4(13): 384. 1852 and Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 50: 1320. 1965.

C. leiantha (Hack.) Czerep. (Catabrosella variegata subsp. leiantha (Hack.) Tzvelev; Catabrosella variegata var. leiantha (Hack.) E.B. Alexeev ex R.R. Mill; Catabrosella variegata var. leiantha (Hack.) E.B. Alexeev, nom. illeg., non Catabrosella variegata var. leiantha (Hack.) E.B. Alexeev ex R.R. Mill; Colpodium leianthum Hack.; Colpodium variegatum var. leianthum (Hack.) Grossh.)

Eurasia, Russia. See Flora Rossica 4(13): 384. 1852 and Flora Kavkaza (edition 2) 1: 270. 1939, Novosti Sist. Vyss. Rast. 1966: 32. 1966, Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 496. 1985.

C. ornata (Nevski) Czopanov (Catabrosella humilis subsp. ornata (Nevski) Tzvelev; Colpodium ornatum Nevski)

Russia. See Flora URSS 2: 441, 757. 1934, Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 50: 1320. 1965.

C. parviflora (Boiss. & Buhse) E.B. Alexeev ex R.R. Mill (Catabrosa parviflora (Boiss. & Buhse) Boiss.; Catabrosella humilis subsp. parviflora (Boiss. & Buhse) Tzvelev; Catabrosella parviflora (Boiss. & Buhse) Czopanov ex E. Aleks., nom. illeg., non Catabrosella parviflora (Boiss. & Buhse) E.B. Alexeev ex R.R. Mill; Colpodium parviflorum Boiss. & Buhse)

Turkey, Eurasia. See Diagnoses plantarum orientalium novarum, ser. 2, 4: 133. 1859, Flora Orientalis 5: 578. 1884 and Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 50: 1320. 1965, Novosti Sist. Vyss. Rast. 1966: 32. 1966, Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 496. 1985.

C. songorica (Tzvelev) Czer. (Catabrosella humilis subsp. songorica Tzvelev)

Eurasia.

C. variegata (Boiss.) Tzvelev (Aira catabrosoides (K. Koch) Steud.; Catabrosa balansae Boiss.; Catabrosa variegata Boiss.; Catabrosella variegata var. chrysantha (Woronow) Tzvelev; Colpodium balansae (Boiss.) Woronow; Colpodium chrysanthum Woronow; Colpodium variegatum (Boiss.) Griseb.; Poa catabrosoides K. Koch, also catabrosodes)

Caucasus, Turkey. See Diagnoses plantarum orientalium novarum, ser. 1, 1(5): 1. 1844, Linnaea 21(4): 406. 1848, Flora Rossica 4(13): 384. 1852, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 223. 1854, Flora Orientalis 5: 577. 1884 and Flora Kavkaza (edition 2) 1: 270. 1939, Novosti Sist. Vyss. Rast. 1966: 32. 1966, Grasses of the Soviet Union 482. 1976, Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 496. 1985.

Catalepis Stapf & Sten

From the Greek kato, kata “below, downward, down from” and lepis, lepidos “flake, scale.”

One species, South Africa. Chloridoideae, Chlorideae, or Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae, Zoysiinae, perennial, caespitose, creeping, herbaceous, unbranched, unarmed, leaves mostly basal, auricles absent, ligule a fringe of short hairs, plants bisexual, inflorescence spicate or paniculate, head of numerous racemes, spikelets solitary and shortly pedicel-late, floret 1 bisexual, 2 glumes very unequal, lower glume reduced to a small subulate scale, upper glume narrow and acuminate, lemma keeled and acute, palea present, 2 lodicules free and fleshy, stamens 3, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas plumose, growing in mountain grassland, sandy veld near vlei, disturbed places, black clay near vleis, open habitats, shallow sandy soil, along roadsides, stony hillsides, type Catalepis gracilis Stapf & Stent, see Kew Bulletin 1929: 11-12. 1929 [Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1929(1): 11-12. 1929].

Species

C. gracilis Stapf & Stent

South Africa, Transvaal. Perennial, tufted, creeping, rhizomatous, leaf blade rolled and curly with age, contracted spike-like panicle, lower glume reduced to a small scale, lodicules cuneate, highly palatable and overgrazed, weed, pioneer grass, useful for erosion control.

in English: gause grass

in South Africa: gause gras

Catapodium Link = Cutandia Willk. Scleropoa Griseb., Synaphe Dulac

From the Greek kata “below, all along” and podion “little foot,” referring to the short branches clothed with spikelets, or from the Greek katapoda, katapodas “straightway,” allusion obscure; see the German botanist and physician Johann Heinrich Friedrich Link (1767-1851), in Hortus regius botanicus berolinensis. 1: 44, 145, 380. Berolini (Oct-Nov) 1827 and 2: 193. 1833.

About 2 species, Europe, Mediterranean, North Africa to Iran. Pooideae, Poodae, Poeae, or Pooideae, Poeae, Ammo-chloinae, annual, often coastal, tufted or solitary, erect or spreading, sometimes geniculate, smooth, slender, herbaceous, unbranched, hollow internodes, auricles absent, leaf blade flat, linear leaves, ligule an unfringed membrane, plants bisexual, stiff and 1-sided panicle, spikelets many-flowered, florets 3-10 bisexual or uppermost floret reduced and sterile, awnless glumes unequal and pointed, lemmas obtuse and glabrous, palea nerved and keeled with keels wingless, 2 ovate lodicules free and glabrous, stamens 3, ovary glabrous, stigmas plumose, small fruit ellipsoid, weed, found in maritime sand, disturbed areas, dry places, open habitats, sometimes referred to Desmazeria Dumort., type Catapodium loliaceum (Huds.) Link, see Species Plantarum 1: 67-70. 1753, Flora Anglica 10. 1754, Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae 179. 1810, Observations sur les Graminées de la Flore Belgique 110, 113. 1823 [1824], Hortus Regius Botanicus Berolinensis 1: 44, 145, 280. 1827, Florula belgica, opera majoris prodromus, auctore ... 157. 1827, Spicilegium florae rumelicae et bithynicae ... 2: 431. 1846, Flore de Département des Hautes-Pyrénées 90. 1867, Edmond Bonnet (1848-1922) et J.F. Gustave Barratte (1857-1920), Catalogue Raisonné des Plantes Vasculaires de la Tunisie 483. Paris 1896 [Exploration Scientifique de la Tunisie] and Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 76: 350-352. 1978 [Notes on Cutandia and related genera.], Candollea 45: 65-74. 1990, Bothalia 27: 75-82. 1997, Both-alia 29(2): 335-341. 1999, J.M. Dixon, “Koeleria macrantha (Ledeb.) Schultes (K. alpigena Domin, K. cristata (L.) Pers. pro parte, K. gracilis Pers., K. albescens auct. non DC.).” Journal of Ecology 88(4): 709-726. Aug 2000, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 230. 2003, Journal of Ecology 92(2): 297-309. Apr 2004.

Species

C. mamoraeum (Maire) Maire & M. Weiller (Micropyrum mamoraeum (Maire) Stace; Nardurus mamoraeus Maire)

Morocco. See Bulletin de la Société d‘Histoire Naturelle de l‘Afrique du Nord 28: 386. 1937, Bulletin de la Société d‘Histoire Naturelle de l‘Afrique du Nord 33(4): 96. 1942, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 76: 350. 1978.

C. marinum (L.) C.E. Hubb. ( Catapodium loliaceum (Huds.) Link; Desmazeria loliacea Nyman; Demazeria marina (L.) Rothm.; Desmazeria marina (L.) Druce; Desmazeria marinum (L.) Druce; Festuca loliacea auct.; Festuca marina L.; Festuca rottboelloides Kunth; Poa loliacea Huds.; Sclerochloa loliacea Woods ex Bab.; Scleropoa loliacea (Huds.) Woods)

Europe, Turkey, Mediterranean. Annual, tufted, tiny, erect or decumbent, ligule membranous, auricles absent, short leaves, plants bisexual, inflorescence a raceme or a panicle, dense raceme-like panicles, inflorescence racemose or paniculate, spikelets distichous and erect, 2 glumes, palea narrowly elliptic and strongly 2-keeled, 2 lodicules, 3 stamens, ovary glabrous, fruit compressed and grooved, useful for erosion control, seashore, stony places, walls, bare sandy ground, open habitats, maritime habitat, coastal grassland, on sandy soils, see Amoenitates Academici ... 4: 96. 1759, Hort. Berol . 1: 45. 1827 and Scottish Botanical Review 1: 156. 1912, Feddes Repertorium 52: 177. 1943, Kew Bull. 1954: 375. 1954, Willdenowia 6(2): 291. 1971, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 91: 440. 1985.

in English: stiff sand grass, sea ferngrass, darnel poa

in French: fétuque marine, catapode maritime, ivraie maritime

in Italian: logliarello marino

C. rigidum (L.) C.E. Hubb. ex Dony (Catapodium rigidum (L.) C.E. Hubb.; Catapodium rigidum (L.) Dony; Demazeria rigida (L.) Tutin; Desmazeria rigida (L.) Tutin; Desmazeria rigidum (L.) Tutin; Diplachne rigida (L.) Munro ex Chapm.; Festuca rigida (L.) Raspail; Glyceria rigida (L.) Sm.; Poa cristata Walter, nom. illeg., non Poa cristata (L.) L.; Poa rigida L.; Sclerochloa rigida (L.) Link; Scleropoa rigida (L.) Griseb.; Synaphe rigida (L.) Dulac)

Europe, Mediterranean. Annual, much branched at the base, often coastal, small to tiny, glabrous, rigid, slender, tufted, erect or spreading and geniculate at the base, ligule acute and membranous, leaf sheath glabrous ribbed, glabrous inrolled leaves, stiff inflorescence with oblong awnless spikelets, erect and 1-sided panicle linear to narrowly ovate with rigid and ascending branches, florets widely spaced, glumes pointed and subequal, lemmas obtuse, paleas with scabrid keels, low forage value, weed of disturbed areas, wasteland, dry open places, dry rocky outcrops, walls, sea dune areas, depleted pasture, gardens, on sandy disturbed areas, dry habitats and substrates, along roadsides, railway ballast, in sand or sandy soil, on sandy and gravelly beaches, in damp situations, limestone, see Flora Anglica 10. 1754, Flora Caroliniana, secundum ... 80. 1788, Enumeratio Plantarum Horti Regii Berolinensis Altera 1: 90. 1821, English Flora 1: 119. 1824, Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Botanique 5: 445. 1825, Spicilegium florae rumelicae et bithynicae ... 2: 431. 1844, Flore de Département des Hautes-Pyrénées 90. 1867, Flora of the Southern United States 609. 1897 and Flora of the British Isles 1434. 1952, Charles Abbot (1761-1817), Flora Bedfordiensis, comprehending such plants as grow wild in the county of Bedford, arranged according to the system of Linnæus, with occasional remarks. 437. 1953, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 91: 439. 1985, Flora of South Africa 4: 1888. 1986, Grasses of New South Wales 136. 1991, The Grasses of Tasmania 52. 1991, Taxon 49(2): 256. 2000.

in English: fern grass, hard grass, rigid fescue, hard poa, hard meadow-grass

in French: catapode rigide, paturin rigide

in Morocco: mahadoun srhir

in Italian: logliarello ruderale

in South Africa: steifgras

C. rigidum (L.) C.E. Hubb. ex Dony subsp. rigidum (Catapodium rigidum var. rigidum)

Europe, Mediterranean.

Catatherophora Steud. = Pennisetum Rich.

Greek kato, kata “below, downward” plus ather “barb, spine, chaff, prickle, awn” and phoros “bearing.”

Panicoideae, Paniceae, Cenchrinae, or Panicoideae, Panicodae, Paniceae, see Species Plantarum 1: 60. 1753, Syn. Pl. 1: 72. 1805, Flora 12: 465. 1829 and Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 22: 210. 1921, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 371-374. 1994, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 527-536. 2003.

Cathariostachys S. Dransf

Possibly from the Greek kathairo “to purge,” kathartes “purifier,” katharos “pure,” kathartikon “purgatives,” referring to the cyanogenic parts of the bamboos.

Two species, Madagascar. Bambusoideae, type Cathariostachys capitata (Kunth) S. Dransf., lowlands, mountain forests, see S. Dransfield, “Valiha and Cathariostachys, 2 new bamboo genera (Gramineae-Bambusoideae) from Madagascar.” Kew Bulletin 53(2): 375-397. 1998.

Species

C. capitata (Kunth) S. Dransf. (Beesha capitata (Kunth) Munro; Cephalostachyum peclardii A. Camus; Nastus capitatus Kunth; Ochlandra capitata (Kunth) E.G. Camus)

Madagascar. See Révision des Graminées 1: 325, t. 75. 1830, Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 26(1): 145. 1868 and Les Bambusées 183. 1913, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 72: 87-88. 1925, Kew Bulletin 53(2): 378, 391. 1998.

C. madagascariensis (A. Camus) S. Dransf. (Cephalostachyum madagascariense A. Camus; Cephalostachyum peclardii A. Camus) (named for a mister Péclard, grass collector in Madagascar, see Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 72: 88. 1925)

Madagascar. Bamboo, stoloniferous, solitary stems, the favourite food of the bamboo lemurs, Hapalemur spp. consume the cynogenic parts — young leaf bases, young pseudopetioles and young shoots, see Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 72: 87-88. 1925, Kew Bulletin 53(2): 391, 394. 1998.

in English: giant bamboo

in French: bambou géant

in Madagascar: volosy, volohosy, volotsangana

Cathestecum J. Presl = Bouteloua Lag.

Possibly from the Greek kathestekotos, “fixedly, steadily,” katasketos, katasketon, “held back, kept back, held fast.”

About 5-6 species, Mexico, U.S., Guatemala. Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae, Boutelouinae, annual or perennial, herbaceous, unarmed, glabrous, erect or ascending or decumbent, stoloniferous, caespitose, leaves mostly basal, auricles absent, sheaths terete with open margins, ligule a dense fringe of hairs, plants bisexual, inflorescence a false spike, racemes cuneate, each raceme with dimorphous spikelets in triplets, male and female fertile spikelets mixed in the inflorescence, central spikelet fertile and 3-flowered, lateral spikelets sessile and 2-flowered, 2 lower spikelets usually male or neuter, spikelets subtended by solitary bristles deciduous with the spikelets, 2 glumes very unequal, thin lemmas, awns 3, palea present, 2 free and fleshy lodicules, stamens 0-3, ovary glabrous, 2 plumose stigmas, open habitats, dry areas, hillsides, open scrub, open gravelly ground, under trees and shrubs, type Cathestecum pro-stratum J. Presl, see Variedades de Ciencias, Literatura y Artes 2(4,21): 134, 141. 1805, Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 294-295, t. 42. 1830, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 11: 37, t. 45. 1884 and Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 14(3): 358-363. 1912, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 27(12): 495-501. 1937, Fieldiana, Botany 24(2): 38-331. 1955, Phytologia 37(4): 317-407. 1977, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 105: 134-138. 1978, Irving William Knob-loch, compiled by, “A preliminary verified list of plant collectors in Mexico.” Phytologia Memoirs. VI. Plainfield, N.J. 1983, Taxon 33: 126-134. 1984, Las Gramíneas de México 2: 1-344. 1987, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 296. 1994, Sida 17: 111-114. 1996, Aliso 17(2): 99-130. 1998, Aliso 18: 61-65. 1999, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 41: 20-33. 2001.

Species

C. brevifolium Swallen (Bouteloua diversispicula Columbus; Cathestecum brevifolium var. brevifolium)

Mexico. Good forage, medicinal, mat-forming, found on gravelly soil, along roadsides, see Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 27(12): 500. 1937, Aliso 18(1): 63. 1999.

in Mexico: grama china, pasto

C. brevifolium Swallen var. sonorense Pacheco L. (Cathestecum brevifolium Swallen; Cathestecum erectum Vasey & Hack.)

Mexico. Inflorescence reddish to greenish, see Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 11: 37, pl. 45. 1884.

C. multifidum Griffiths (Bouteloua multifidum (Griffiths) Columbus; Griffithsochloa multifida (Griffiths) G.J. Pierce)

Mexico. See Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 14(3): 360, f. 24. 1912, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 105(2): 134. 1978.

C. prostratum J. Presl (Bouteloua griffithsii Columbus; Cathestecum annuum Swallen)

Mexico. Forage, see Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 295, t. 42. 1830 and Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 27(12): 497. 1937.

in Mexico: grama china, zacate

C. tamaulipense Pierce ex Beetle

Mexico. See A.A. Beetle, Las Gramíneas de México 2: 177. 1987.

C. varium Swallen (Cathestecum brevifolium Swallen; Bouteloua varia (Swallen) Columbus)

Mexico. Fodder, see Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 27(12): 498. 1937, Phytologia 37(4): 317-407. 1977.

in Mexico: pasto

Celtica F.M. Vázquez and Barkwort

One species, western Mediterranean. Pooideae, Stipeae, Stipinae, perennial, ligules membranous scabrous, lax panicle open, spikelets lanceolate, glumes 3-nerved or veined, lemma coriaceous, awn bigeniculate, paleas membranous bifid, 3 lodicules, 3 anthers, type Stipa gigantea Link (Celt-ica gigantea (Link) F.M. Vázquez and Barkworth), see Species Plantarum 1: 78-81. 1753, Révision des Graminées 1: 58-59. 1829 and Preslia 48(2): 186. 1976, Acta Bot. Malacitana 21: 163-165. 1996, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 432. 2003, Francisco M. Vázquez and Mary E. Barkworth, “Resurrection and emendation of Macrochloa (Gramineae: Stipeae).” Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 144(4): 483-495. Apr 2004.

Species

C. gigantea (Link) F.M. Vázquez and Barkworth (Avena cavanillesii Lag.; Avena sterilis L.; Celtica gigantea subsp. donyanae (F.M. Vázquez & Devesa) F.M. Vázquez & Bark-worth; Lasiagrostis gigantea (Link) Trin. & Rupr.; Macro-chloa arenaria (Brot.) Kunth; Macrochloa gigantea (Link) Hack.; Stipa arenaria Brot.; Stipa gigantea Link; Stipa gigantea subsp. donyanae F.M. Vázquez & Devesa; Stipa gigantea subsp. maroccana (Pau & Font Quer) F.M. Vázquez & Devesa; Stipa gigantea var. maroccana Pau & Font Quer; Stipa gigantea var. mesatlantica Andr.; Stipa pellita (Trin. & Rupr.) Tzvelev)

Portugal, Spain, Morocco. See Species Plantarum, Editio Secunda 1: 118. 1762, Journal für die Botanik 2: 313. 1799, Flora Lusitanica 1: 86. 1804, Variedades de Ciencias, Literatura y Artes 4(19): 39. 1805, Species Graminum Stipaceorum 96. 1842, Catalogue Raisonné des Graminées de Portugal 16. 1880 and Iter Maroccanum 1927: no. 23. 1928, Index Hort. Budapest 90. 1934, Grass. Saudi Arabia 123. 1989, Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana, ser. 2 64: 35-74. 1991, Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 52: 179-186. 1995, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 124: 202-203. 1997.

C. gigantea (Link) F.M. Vázquez and Barkworth subsp. donyanae (Vázquez and Barkworth) Vázquez and Bark-worth

Portugal, Spain, Morocco.

C. gigantea (Link) F.M. Vázquez and Barkworth subsp. maroccana Font Quer) Vázquez and Barkworth

Morocco.

C. gigantea (Link) F.M. Vázquez and Barkworth subsp. sterilis Vázquez and Barkworth

Southwest Portugal.

Cenchropsis Nash = Cenchrus L.

Resembling the genus Cenchrus L.

Panicoideae, Paniceae, Cenchrinae, type Cenchropsis myosuroides (Kunth) Nash, see Species Plantarum 2: 1049-1050. 1753 and Flora of the Southeastern United States ... 109, 1327. 1903, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 144-150. 2003.

Cenchrus L. = Cenchropsis Nash, Echinaria Fabr., Nastus Lunell, Raram Adans.

From the Greek kenchros “millet”; Latin cenchros, used by Plinius for an Arabian diamond or an unknown kind of precious stone big as a grain of millet; see Carl Linnaeus, Species Plantarum. 1049. 1753 and Genera Plantarum. edition 5. 470. 1754.

About 22-30 species, cosmopolitan, warm and dry regions, tropical and warm temperate. Panicoideae, Panicodae, Paniceae, or Panicoideae, Paniceae, Cenchrinae, annual or perennial, tufted, erect or procumbent, weak geniculate culms, herbaceous, slender, branched, stoloniferous or rhizomatous, auricles absent, ligule a short ciliate membranous rim, loose leaf sheaths keeled and compressed, narrow leaf blades linear or linear-lanceolate, sometimes leaves pungent, plants bisexual with only a single spike-like axis, inflorescence a false simple cylindrical spike, inflorescence bristles fused and often united at base, spikelets solitary or clustered, sessile involucre of sterile spikelets hardened and spiny, deciduous involucre composed of 1 or more whorls of bristles, spikelets unawned and falling with the glumes, florets 1 or 2, lower floret sterile or male, upper floret hermaphrodite deciduous with the spiny involucre, 2 glumes very unequal and shorter than the spikelet, lower glume minute or sometimes suppressed, palea present, lodicules absent, stamens 3, ovary glabrous, stigmas 2, spines and bristles on the seeds, weed, cultivated fodder, halophytic, troublesome prickly spiny burrs contaminate wool and their spines damage skin, in damp or wet soils some species are prone to root rots, native pasture species, drought resistant and tolerant of hard grazing, soil stabilizer, shade species, ornamental, grows on open grasslands, on disturbed land, woodland on poorer soils, coastal dunes, pampas, bush, rainforest, sandy and weedy places, some species overlapping and confused with Pennisetum Rich., see Species Plantarum 2: 1049-1050. 1753, Enumeratio Methodica Plantarum 206. 1759, Familles des Plantes 2: 35, 597. 1763, Flora Atlantica 2: 385. 1799 and Flora of the Southeastern United States ... 109, 1327. 1903, American Midland Naturalist 4: 214. 1915, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 22: 45-77. 1929, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 45(5): 135-143. 1955, Iowa State College Journal of Science 37(3): 259-351. 1963 [Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Cenchrus], Kurtziana 4: 95-129. 1967, Taxon 33: 126-134. 1984, Acta Amazonica 14(1-2): 95-127. 1984, J. Fournet and John L. Hammerton, Weeds of the Lesser Antilles. INRA, Paris 1991, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 374-375. 1994, Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 275-279. 1995, Sida 19(3): 523-530. 2001 [Nomenclatural changes in Pennisetum (Poaceae: Paniceae)], Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 144-150. 2003.

Species

C. sp.

in Mexico: rosapillo

C. agrimonioides Trin. (Cenchrus agrimonioides var. laysanensis F. Br.; Cenchrus calyculatus var. uniflorus Hillebr.; Cenchrus fusiformis Nees; Cenchrus fusiformis Nees & Meyen; Cenchrus pedunculatus Degener & Whitney)

U.S., Hawaii. Perennial, endangered species, occurs in the mountains, grows in well-drained soil, see De Graminibus Paniceis 72. 1826, Gramineae 38. 1841, Nova Acta Phys.-Med. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 19(Suppl. 1): 170. 1843, Flora of the Hawaiian Islands 505. 1888 and Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 81: 20. 1931.

in English: agrimony sandbur

in Hawaii: kamanomano, kumanomano

C. agrimonioides Trin. var. agrimonioides

U.S., Hawaii. Perennial, endangered species

in English: agrimony sandbur

C. agrimonioides Trin. var. laysanensis F. Br. (Cenchrus pedunculatus O. Deg. & Whitney) (Laysan Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands)

U.S., Hawaii. Perennial, endangered or extinct species, see De Graminibus Paniceis 72. 1826 and Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 81: 20. 1931.

in English: Laysan agrimony sandbur

in Hawaii: kamanomano, kumanomano

C. australis R. Br. (Cenchrus calyculatus Cav.)

Australia, Queensland. See Icones et Descriptiones Plantarum, quae aut sponte ... 5: 40, t. 463. 1799, Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae 1: 196. 1810, Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 1: 303. 1825.

in English: hillside burrgrass

C. biflorus Roxb. (Cenchrus annularis Andersson ex Peters; Cenchrus barbatus Schumacher; Cenchrus catharticus Delile; Cenchrus catharticus Schltdl., nom. illeg., non Cenchrus catharticus Delile; Cenchrus leptacanthus A. Camus; Cenchrus niloticus Fig. & De Not.; Cenchrus perinvolucratus Stapf & C.E. Hubb.; Elymus caput-medusae Forssk., nom. illeg., non Elymus caput-medusae L.)

Tropical Africa, Sahel, Sudan, Yemen, subtropical Africa. Annual, herbaceous, tufted, erect or geniculately ascending, sheaths keeled or compressed, ligule a densely ciliate rim, blades flat and rigid, lamina linear-lanceolate, inflorescence spike-like formed of clusters of spikelets, spikelets surrounded by a rigid involucre in 2 whorls, inner bristles flattened, outer bristles short and spiny, ovoid disc at the base of the burr, thorny grains may wound livestock and wildlife, exact native range obscure, paleotropical invasive weed, adapted to hot and dry tropical areas, it does not have any flood tolerance, used for hay and silage, native pasture species, grazed by most animals in its juvenile state, a source of fodder, food for the herds grazing throughout the Sahel, in northwestern Sahel a food resource for the nomadic Tuareg and settled populations, seeds eaten (Nigeria), seeds used for making bread, in India seeds eaten mixed with bajra (millet) for bread making, seeds also eaten raw, in Sudan seeds are pounded and eaten raw or made into porridge, a thin bread (kisra) is also made from the seeds, a grass with hypotenisve activity, impressions of Cenchrus biflorus seeds in potsherds found in the archeological site of Tichitt Chebka III (Mauritania, West Africa), grows on sand dunes and on sandy soils, clayey soils and light sandy soils, coastal sand dune scrub woodland, deciduous bushland, sand dune savannah and desert fringes, on disturbed lands, orange sand, in sandy plains, in bush, in arid and semiarid regions, hot and dry tropical areas, in low-rainfall woodland savannah on sand, abandoned cultivation, bare sandy ground, see Flora Aegyptiaco-Arabica 25. 1775, Hortus Bengalensis, or a catalogue ... 81. 1814, Flora Indica; or Descriptions ... 1: 238. 1820, Beskrivelse af Guineeiske planter 43-44. 1827, Kongel. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Naturvidensk. Math. Afh. 3: 63-64. 1828, Linnaea 4: 78. 1829, Catalogus plantarum horti botanici monspeliensis 1838: 4. 1839, Mémoires de l‘Académie des Sciences de Turin 14: 380, t. 33. 1854, Naturwissenschaftliche Reise nach Mossambique ... 553. 1863 and Boll. Reale Orto Bot. Giardino Colon. Palermo 9: 51. 1910, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 80: 774. 1933, Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1933: 299. 1933.

in English: burgrass, bur grass, India sandbur, Indian sand-bur, gallons curse, 2-flowered sandspur.

in Arabic: e’neti, el gasba, gasba, heskinit, höbb el adjais, initi, koreib, niti

in Botswana: kram-kram

in Burkina Faso: cram-cram

in Gambia: casso

in Ghana: karengia

in Guinea: anyalangò, dialango, djalangò, uyalankon

in Guinea-Bissau: quebè

in Mali: cram-cram, cramcram, dané, dani, gasba, heskinit, initi, khine, kolomon, konomon, koolumo ya, koreib, norna, norolan, uéjag, uzag, uzak, wadjak

in Mauritania: e’neti, el gasba, gasba, initi, niti

in Niger: daani, dané, dani (Djerma/Zarma), dâni, éneti, gasba, gerengyari, gobi, gôbi, hansaelik, hebbere, hébbo, hobbéré, karanguia, karanguya, k’arangya, kébbé, ngibbi, nögu, wadjâk, wajjag, wuajjag

in Nigeria: apiiwa, emimo, eemo, hebbere, ikon, ikpolikpo, K‘arangiya, karangiyàà, karangiyàà gumba, karangiyàà kumba, karanguja, kebbe, kora-kondo, ngibbi, njimi, njiwi, nyakkabre

in Sahel: wezzeg, wezzag, cram-cram

in Sudan: haskaneet, haskanit, abu sha‘ar, haskanit kishin

in Sahara: ouezzeg (Tuareg)

in Senegal: gebi, haham, hamham, hébbe, hobbéré, kebbè, kebè, khakham, khamkham, ngoj, ngojin, ngotj, norma, norna, norolan, xam xam

in Upper Volta: dani, diubiguina, hebbere, kebbe, kinangu, rani

in Yemen: kurbays

in Yoruba: emimo, eemo

in Kanuri: Ngibbi

in India: argana, baront, basla, bharbhunt, bharont, bharut, bhurat, bhurt, bhurut, dhaman, kukar, lapta

C. brevisetus E. Fourn. (Cenchrus echinatus L.; Cenchrus echinatus var. brevisetus (E. Fourn.) Scribn.)

Mexico. See Species Plantarum 2: 1050. 1753, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France sér. 2, 27: 294. 1880, Mexicanas Plantas 2: 50. 1886 and Publications of the Field Columbian Museum, Botanical Series 2(1): 26. 1900, Rheedea 10(2): 153-155. 2000.

C. brownii Roemer & J.A. Schultes (Cenchrus dactylolepis Steud.; Cenchrus echinatus Steud. ex Döll, nom. illeg., non Cenchrus echinatus L.; Cenchrus echinatus var. viridis (Spreng.) Spreng. ex Griseb.; Cenchrus inflexus R. Br., nom. illeg., non Cenchrus inflexus Poir.; Cenchrus inflexus Poir.; Cenchrus rigidus Willd. ex Döll; Cenchrus viridis Spreng.; Cenchrus viridis var. macrocephalus Döll; Pseudechinolaena inflexa (Poir.) Pittier)

Mexico, Southern America. Annual, herbaceous, tufted, erect to straggling, glabrous, culm bases sometimes decum-bent and rooting at the nodes, sheaths slightly compressed, leaves scattered along culms, inflorescence densely spicate, spikelet involucre in 2 whorls, burs imbricate or densely crowded, inner bristles flattened, green fruits, weed species, pioneer grass, forage, invader, grows in sandy waste places and forest borders, sandy soils, savannah, on beaches and near the ocean, in disturbed places, see Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 6: 50. 1804, Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae 195. 1810, Systema Vegetabilium 2: 258. 1817, Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 1: 301. 1824, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 109. 1854, Flora of the British West Indian Islands 556. 1864, Flora Brasiliensis 2(2): 309-310. 1877 and Bol. Técn. Minist. Agric. 41. Caracas 1937.

in English: burgrass, burrgrass, fine-bristled burrgrass, slim-bristle sandbur, slim-bristle sandburr, fine-bristle sandbur, fine burgrass, fine bur grass, sandbur, green sandspur

in Costa Rica: mozote

in Ecuador: cadillo

in Honduras: mozote de caballo

in Mexico: cadillo, cadillo bobo, guachapure, huizapol, mosoto lanudo

in South Africa: fynklitsgras, knopklitsgras

in Japan: kuri-no-iga

C. caliculatus Cav. (Cenchrus anomoplexis Labill., nom. illeg., non Cenchrus anomoplexis Desf.; Cenchrus australis R. Br.; Cenchrus australis var. latifolius Drake; Cenchrus calyculatus Cav.; Cenchrus taitensis Steud.; Pennisetum calyculatum (Cav.) Spreng.) (Latin caliculus, i “a small cup”)

Pacific Islands, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea. Perennial or annual, forming clumps or dense mats, scrambling, trailing, robust, short woody rhizome, culms rooting at lower nodes, tiny ligule densely ciliate, sheath compressed and keeled, blade flat, leaf blades narrowly lanceolate, panicle spike-like, spikelets glabrous in clusters, burrs purplish to black, spines soft, lower glume obtuse, upper glume acute, lower lemma sterile or male and scabrous, upper lemma bisexual and scabrous, sharp-pointed fruits, straggling over vegetation, probably dispersed by adhering to seabird feathers, a fodder plant, weed, found on poor soils, near coast, on rocky coasts, on old lava fields, open areas, open sunny places, coastal thickets, see Icones et Descriptiones Plantarum, quae aut sponte ... 5: 40, t. 463. 1799, Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae 1: 196. 1810, Sertum Austro-Caledonicum 14, t. 19. 1824, Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 1: 303. 1825, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 419. 1854, Flora of the Hawaiian Islands 505. 1888, Flore de la Polynésie française ... 252. Paris 1892.

in English: hillside burrgrass, large burr grass, Polynesian bur-grass

in Tonga: hefa

in Society Islands: piripiri

C. ciliaris L. (Cenchrus aequiglumis Chiov.; Cenchrus anjana Ham. ex Wallich; Cenchrus bulbosus Fresen.; Cenchrus ciliaris Fig. & De Not.; Cenchrus ciliaris f. intermedia (Chiov.) Chiov.; Cenchrus ciliaris var. anachoreticus Chiov. ex Pirotta; Cenchrus ciliaris var. genuina Chiov.; Cenchrus ciliaris var. genuinus (Leeke) Maire & Weiler, nom. illeg., non Cenchrus ciliaris var. genuina Chiov.; Cenchrus ciliaris var. leptostachys (Leeke) Maire & Weiler; Cenchrus ciliaris var. nubicus Fig. & De Not.; Cenchrus ciliaris var. nubicus T. Durand & Schinz, nom. illeg., non Cenchrus ciliaris var. nubicus Fig. & De Not.; Cenchrus ciliaris var. pallens (Fenzl ex Leeke) Maire & Weiler; Cenchrus ciliaris var. pennisetiformis (Hochst. & Steud.) Chiov. ex Pirotta; Cenchrus ciliaris var. rigidifolius (Fig. & De Not.) Chiov.; Cenchrus ciliaris var. villiferus Fig. & De Not.; Cenchrus ciliaris var. villiferus T. Durand & Schinz, nom. illeg., non Cenchrus ciliaris var. villiferus Fig. & De Not.; Cenchrus digynus Ehrenb. ex Boiss.; Cenchrus echinoides Wight ex Steud.; Cenchrus glaucus C.R. Mudaliar & Sundararaj; Cenchrus lappaceus L.; Cenchrus lappaceus Tausch, nom. illeg., non Cenchrus lappaceus L.; Cenchrus longifolius Hochst. ex Steud.; Cenchrus mutilatus Kuntze; Cenchrus mutabilis Wight ex Hook.f.; Cenchrus pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud.; Cenchrus pennisetiformis var. intermedia Chiov.; Cenchrus pennisetiformis var. rigidifolia (Fig. & De Not.) Chiov.; Cenchrus pennisetiformis var. typica Chiov.; Cenchrus pubescens L. ex B.D. Jacks.; Cenchrus rigidifolius Fig. & De Not.; Cenchrus rufescens Desf.; Cenchrus setigerus Vahl; Panicum vulpinum L.; Panicum vulpinum Willd., nom. illeg., non Panicum vulpinum L.; Pennisetum cenchroides Rich., nom. illeg.; Pennisetum cenchroides Rich. ex Pers.; Pennisetum cenchroides var. echinoides (Hochst. & Steud.) Hook.f.; Pennisetum cenchroides var. hamphilahense Terracc.; Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link; Pennisetum ciliare f. brachystachys Peter; Pennisetum ciliare f. longifolium Peter; Pennisetum ciliare var. anachoreticum Chiov.; Pennisetum ciliare var. ciliare; Pennisetum ciliare var. genuina Leeke; Pennisetum ciliare var. hamphilahense (Terracc.) T. Durand & Schinz; Pennisetum ciliare var. leptostachys Leeke; Pennisetum ciliare var. pal-lens Fenzl ex Leeke; Pennisetum ciliare var. robustior Penz.; Pennisetum ciliare var. setigerum (Vahl) Leeke; Pennisetum distylum Guss.; Pennisetum incomptum Nees ex Steud.; Pennisetum longifolium Fenzl ex Steud.; Pennisetum mutilatum (Kuntze) Leeke; Pennisetum petraeum Steud.; Pennisetum polycladum Chiov.; Pennisetum prieurii Kunth; Pennisetum prieurii A. Chev., nom. illeg., non Pennisetum prieurii Kunth; Pennisetum rangei Mez; Pennisetum rufescens (Desf.) Spreng.; Pennisetum rufescens Hochst. ex Steud., nom. illeg., non Pennisetum rufescens (Desf.) Spreng.; Pennisetum teneriffae Steud.; Setaria vulpina (Willd.) P. Beauv.)

Tropical Africa, Middle East, India, Pakistan, Syria. Perennial bunchgrass, rarely spreading, profusely branched, shrub-like, wiry to woody, often forming tussocks or mat, tufted, very variable in habit, ascending, base decumbent and geniculate, tough rootstock, ligule ciliate, sheaths glabrous to sparingly pilose and compressed, leaves more or less glabrous and linear, inflorescence dense spike-like pale green or purplish, involucre elongate, spikelets seated in bristly involucres, solitary or clustered spikelets surrounded by numerous bristles not spiny, prickly burs, inner bristles united only at the base to form a disc, outer bristles filiform, lower glume usually nerveless and acute, upper glume mucronate, lemmas subequal and minutely awned, lower lemma male or sterile rarely bisexual, upper lemma bisexual, ornamental, weed species introduced into many tropical and subtropical areas and widely naturalized, invasive and adaptable, palatable when young, cultivated fodder with a moderately high oxalate content, native pasture species, forage, nutritive value of new growth very good, can be fed green or turned into silage, tolerant of heavy grazing once established, soil stabilizer, very drought resistant, sensitive to waterlogging, in India (Rajasthan) seeds eaten mixed with bajra (millet) for bread making, seeds also eaten raw, occurs mostly on sandy soils and alluvial flats, on shallow soils of marginal fertility, on light sandy soils, in heavy limestone, creeklines, river edges, roadside table drains, silty and alluvial soils, shifting sand dunes, sandstone rocky sites, along roadsides and water courses, dry river beds, rocky hillsides, on sandy loam and clay loam soils, in open woodlands and calcareous areas, hot dry areas, in dry sandy regions and denuded arid lands, often treated as Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link, many ecotypes and strains are known, see Mantissa Plantarum 302. 1771, Flora Atlantica 2: 388. 1799, Syn. Pl. 1: 72. 1805, Enumeratio Plantarum ... 2: 395. 1805, Enumeratio Plantarum Horti Botanici Berolinensis, ... 1031. 1809, Essai d‘une Nouvelle Agrostographie 51. 1812, Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 1: 302. 1825, Hortus Regius Botanicus Berolinensis 1: 213. 1827, Ind. Sem. Hort. Bocc. 8. 1828, Museum Senckenbergianum 2: 138. 1837, Flora 20(1): 57. 1837, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 317. 1840, Flora Orientalis 5: 449. 1844, Memorie della Reale Accademia delle Scienze di Torino, ser. 2, 14: 383, 386, 392. 1854, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 105-106, 109. 1854, Atti del Congresso Botanico Internazionale de Genova 1892 1892: 366. 1892, Annuario del Reale Istituto Botanico di Roma 5: 93. 1894, Conspectus Florae Africae 5: 776, 778. 1894, Annuario del Reale Istituto Botanico di Roma 6: 167. 1896, The Flora of British India 7: 88. 1896, Annuario del Reale Istituto Botanico di Roma 7: 66. 1897, Revisio Generum Plantarum 3: 347. 1898 and Annuario del Reale Istituto Botanico di Roma 8(1): 43-44. 1903, Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaften 79: 21-22, 33. 1907, Annuario del Reale Istituto Botanico di Roma 8(3): 325-326. 1908, Index to the Linnean herbarium, with indication of the type of species marked by Carl von Linné ... 53. London 1912, Flore de l‘Afrique Centrale Française, Énumeration des Plantes Récoltées 1: 368. 1913, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 57: 190. 1921, Agronomie Coloniale 20: 108. 1926, Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 40: 71. 1930, Flore de l‘Afrique du Nord: 1: 342. 1952, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 54: 926. 1957, Grasses of Burma ... 287. 1960, Curtis C. Daehler and Erin M. Goergen, “Experimental restoration of an indigenous Hawaiian grassland after invasion by Buffel Grass (Cenchrus ciliaris).” Restoration Ecology 13(2): 380-389. June 2005.

in English: blue buffalo grass, buffalo grass, buffel grass, U.S. buffel grass, Biloela buffel grass, black buffel grass, Gayndah buffel grass, South African kyasuwa, dhaman grass, foxtail grass, Rhodesian foxtail, African foxtail grass, African foxtail, anjan grass, malopo blue, poor man‘s pennisetum, pearl millet

in French: cenchrus cilié, pennisetum cilié, faux napier

in Spanish: pasto buffel, yerba buffel, yerba salina, zacate buffel

in Mexico: buffel, cola de zorra africana, cola de zorra rhodesiana, zacate buffel

in Arabic: heskanit, aebaed

in India: anajan, andho, angan, anjan, anjana, baiba, bandri, bharbhunt, charwa, dhaman, dhamman, handri, jiral kollukattai, koluk katai, kolukkattai pul, kurkan, kusa, marwar anjan, taura, vaghnoru

in the Philippines: kawit-kawitan, sagisi

in Thailand: ya bup fen

in Mali: ebanau, ebeno, habinni, heskanit, labdi, lahbdi

in Morocco: el-labd, kra’legrâb, bûrgîba, bu rgiba, bou-errgueba, tabat d-did, tâbat ed-dîb, sebet-ed-dib

in Niger: habini, massinguié, tabahot

in Nigeria: karangiyaa, karangiyar, nijibi

in Senegal: diam hamham, ngolo

in Somalia: anodug, garrow, harfo

in Southern Africa: bloubuffelsgras, blaubüffelgras, breëblaargras, buffelgras, donkiegras, droëland(s)gras, katstertbuffel, katstertgras, katstertjie, lidjiesgras, pêrelmanne, pokogras, skaapgras; modula-tjava (Sotho); se-be-kxare-yaweso (Zulu)

in Sudan: haskanit naim, heskanit

C. dactylolepis Steud. (Cenchrus brownii Roem. & Schult.)

Suriname. See Systema Vegetabilium 2: 258. 1817, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 109. 1854.

C. distichophyllus Griseb.

West Indies, Cuba. See Catalogus plantarum cubensium ... 234. 1866.

C. echinatus L. (Cenchrus brevisetus E. Fourn.; Cenchrus cavanillesii Tausch; Cenchrus crinitus Mez; Cenchrus echinatus Cav.; Cenchrus echinatus Steud. ex Döll, nom. illeg., non Cenchrus echinatus L.; Cenchrus echinatus var. brevisetus (E. Fourn.) Scribn.; Cenchrus echinatus var. glabratus F. Br.; Cenchrus echinatus var. hillebrandianus (A.S. Hitchc.) F. Br.; Cenchrus echinatus var. morisonii Kuntze; Cenchrus echinatus var. pennisetoides F. Br.; Cenchrus echinatus var. viridis (Spreng.) Spreng. ex Griseb.; Cenchrus hexaflorus Blanco; Cenchrus hillebrandianus Hitchc.; Cenchrus insularis Scribn. ex Millsp.; Cenchrus insularis Scribn.; Cenchrus lechleri Steud. ex Lechler; Cenchrus macrocarpus hort. ex Steud.; Cenchrus macrocarpus Ledeb. ex Steud.; Cenchrus pungens Kunth; Cenchrus quinquevalvis Buch.-Ham. ex Wall.; Cenchrus spinifex Cav.; Cenchrus viridis Spreng.; Panicastrella muricata (L.) Moench)

Tropics and subtropics. Annual, herbaceous to subshrubby, stout, spiny and unpleasant, coarse, ascending from a geniculate base, spreading to erect, geniculate or trailing, growing in clumps, loosely tufted, culms slightly flattened and bent at the nodes, purple-reddish leaf sheaths keeled and overlapping at the base, ligule a densely ciliate rim, leaf blades narrow and slightly hairy on the upper surface near the base, loose inflorescence spike-like and purplish, seed heads are composed of spiny burrs, burs imbricate, inner bristles flattened, outer bristles terete, spikelets acuminate, lower glume narrow, upper glume puberulous to membranous, lower lemma sterile rarely male, upper lemma bisexual, bur purple tinged, good forage grass when young and before the burs harden, medicinal, anti-malarial use (with leaves of Persea americana or leaves of Lippia schomburgkiana), tea for kidney problems, an infusion is drunk as a febrifuge in the West Indies, invasive in most tropical countries, a troublesome weed in cultivated land, spines from this plant are very irritating, common on waste ground, near running fresh water, coastal, coastal dunes, near the ocean, open areas, sandy or limestone soils, open ground and waste places, edge of cultivated fields, roadsides, ruderal areas, in turf, on disturbed ground and road verges, road ditch, river sands, poor soils, in vine thickets, on beaches and riverbanks, recently fallow land, see Species Plantarum 2: 1050. 1753, Methodus Plantas Horti Botanici ... 206. 1794, Icones et Descriptiones Plantarum, quae aut sponte ... 5: 38-39, t. 461-462. 1799, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum 1: 115. 1815 [1816], A Flora of the Northern and Middle Sections of the United States 1: 69. 1824, Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 1: 301. 1824, Flora 20: 97. 1837, Flora de Filipinas 36. 1837, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 2: 317. 1840, A Numerical List of Dried Specimens 8854-B, C. 1849 [Wallich’s Catalogue], Berberides Americae Australis 56. 1857, Flora of the British West Indian Islands 556. 1864, Flora Brasiliensis 2(2): 309. 1877, Mexicanas Plantas 2: 50. 1886, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 765. 1891 and Publications of the Field Columbian Museum, Botanical Series 2(1): 26-27, t. 58. 1900, Allgemeine Botanische Zeitschrift für Systematik, Floristik, Pflanzengeographie 9: 169. 1903, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 12: 127. 1908, Notizblatt des Botanischen Gar-tens und Museums zu Berlin-Dahlem 7: 48. 1917, Memoirs of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum ... 8(3): 211, f. 106. 1922, Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 84: 65-66. 1931, Grasses of Burma ... 289. 1960, Iowa St. J. Sci. 37: 298. 1963, Regnum Veg. 127: 31. 1993, Economic Botany 51(3): 212-237. 1997, Rheedea 10(2): 153-155. 2000.

in English: sand-bur, sandbur, sand burr, cram cram, common sandbur, southern sandspur, southern sandbur, southern burgrass, southern sandbur grass, burr grass, bur grass, burgrass, Mossman River grass, Mossman burr grass, hedgehog grass, hedge-hog grass, hedgehog dogtail

in Spanish: cadillo, cadillo bravo, cadillo tigre, espolón, abrojo, guisaso

in Belize: muul, espina

in Brazil: carrapicho

in the Caribbean: herbe rude, herbe collante,zèb rid, zèb kolan, zèb pikan, herbe piquante

in Cuba: guizazo

in Ecuador: guagran espino, rabo de zorro, selemo, guagran casha

in Mexico: abrojo, cadillo, cardo, ch’ohool, guechi nate, guechi-na-ta, huizapol, huizapul, k’iith, k’iith toom, mozote, muul, ojo de arriera, ojo de hormiga, pega ropa, pegarropa, perro, rosetilla, rosetilla grande, t’oyol, t’oyol toom, t’oxol, zacahuitztli

in Peru: carricillo

in Pacific: cram-cram (New Caledonia), mosie vihilango

in Hawaii: ‘ume‘alu, mau‘u kuku

in New Guinea: hmalbru

in India: argana, dhaman

in Thailand: yaa khee khrok, yaa kheekhrok, ya khi khrok, yaa khikhrok, ya son krachap, yaa son krachap

C. geniculatus Thunb. (Panicum geniculatum (Thunb.) Thunb., nom. illeg., non Panicum geniculatum Poir.; Pennisetum geniculatum (Thunb.) E. Phillips, nom. illeg., non Pennisetum geniculatum (Poir.) Jacq.; Pennisetum geniculatum (Thunb.) Leeke, nom. illeg., non Pennisetum geniculatum (Poir.) Jacq.; Pennisetum thunbergii Kunth)

Africa. See Prodromus Plantarum Capensium, ... 24. 1794, Flora Capensis 1: 388. 1813, Flora Capensis, Edidit et Praefatus est J. A. Schultes 1: 103. 1823, Révision des Graminées 1: 50. 1829 and Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaften 79: 43. 1907, An Introduction to the Study of the South African Grasses ... 219. 1931.

C. gracillimus Nash

U.S., Florida, Cuba. Perennial, wiry, sometimes forming dense clumps, sheaths keeled, blades stiff, burs not imbricate and ovoid, bristles somewhat flattened, weed species growing in sandy soils of open pinelands, wet prairies and river flats, under the light shade of the trees, behind the sandy dunes, see Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 22(7): 300. 1895 and Iowa St. J. Sci. 37: 294. 1963.

in English: slender sandburr, slender sandbur, slender sand-spur

C. hillebrandianus Hitchc. (Cenchrus echinatus L.) (named in honor of the German physician Wilhelm B. Hillebrand, 1821-1886, botanist, traveler, from 1851 to 1871 lived in the Hawaiian islands, wrote A Flora of the Hawaiian Islands. Annotated and published after the author‘s death by William Francis Hillebrand [1853-1925]. London, New York & Heidelberg 1888, “The relation of forestry to agriculture.” in Hawaiian Pl. Rec. 22: 174-200. 1920 and “Die Vegetationsformationen der Sandwich-Inseln.” Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 9: 305-314. 1888. See W.T. Pope, “Dr. William Hill-ebrand, M.D. (1821-1886).” Hawaiian Annual. 1919: 53-60; J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 2: 177. 1965; J. Ewan, editor, A Short History of Botany in the United States. New York and London 19695; T.W. Bossert, Biographical dictionary of botanists represented in the Hunt Institute portrait collection. 175. 1972; S. Lenley et al., Catalog of the manuscript and archival collections and index to the correspondence of John Torrey. Library of the New York Botanical Garden. 1973; S. Lenley et al., Catalog of the manuscript and archival collections and index to the correspondence of John Torrey. Library of the New York Botanical Garden. 223. Boston, Mass. 1973; Ethelyn Maria Tucker, Catalogue of the library of the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. Cambridge, Mass. 1917-1933)

Hawaii. Sandy soil, see Species Plantarum 2: 1050. 1753 and Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 12: 127. 1908, Memoirs of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum ... 8(3): 211, f. 106. 1922, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 24(8): 291-556. 1927, Field Museum of Natural History, Botanical Series 13(1/1): 96-261. 1936, Regnum Veg. 127: 31. 1993, Ruizia; Monografías del Jardín Botánico 13: 1-480. 1993.

C. incertus M.A. Curtis (Cenchrus albertsonii Runyon; Cenchrus bambusoides Caro & E.A. Sánchez; Cenchrus carolinianus Walter; Cenchrus echinatus f. longispina Hack.; Cenchrus humilis Hitchc.; Cenchrus longispinus (Hack.) Fernald; Cenchrus microcephalus Nash ex Hitchc. & Chase; Cenchrus muricatus Phil., nom. illeg., non Cenchrus muricatus L.; Cenchrus parviceps Shinners; Cenchrus pauciflorus Benth.; Cenchrus pauciflorus var. longispinus (Hack.) Jansen & Wacht.; Cenchrus pauciflorus var. muricatus Caro & E.A. Sánchez; Cenchrus pauciflorus var. pauciflorus; Cenchrus roseus E. Fourn.; Cenchrus spin-ifex Cav.; Cenchrus strictus Chapm.; Cenchrus tribuloides sensu J. Black, non L.; Cenchrus tribuloides L.; Nastus carolinianus (Walter) Lunell; Nastus strictus (Walter) Lunell; Pennisetum pauciflorus Benth.)

Northern America, U.S., Florida, Arizona, Texas, Mexico. Annual or sometimes a short-lived perennial, tufted, with a shallow root system, erect or bend at the lower nodes, branched, base decumbent and frequently reddish, prostrate stems rooting at the lower nodes, leaf sheaths either hairy or glabrous, ligule ciliate, blade flat or folded, inflorescence open or compact, flowering spikes often partially enclosed by the upper leaf sheath, seed head a spike of spiny burs, spiny inflorescence not very dense, involucre pubescent, spines flat and more or less spreading and rigid, lower lemma sterile, upper lemma bisexual, each yellowish bur usually contains 2 seeds, seeds often a nuisance in hay and wool as well as skin, noxious weed species specialized for life on sand dunes, invasive and unpalatable, often an indicator of poor fertility, found mostly in disturbed areas, dry sites, dry sand, washes, in saline meadows, beaches, dunes, sand hills, in cultivated fields, sandy soils, road verges and paddocks, lawns and pastures, see Species Plantarum 2: 1050. 1753, Flora Caroliniana, secundum ... 79. 1788, Icones et Descriptiones Plantarum, quae aut sponte ... 5: 38, t. 461. 1799, A Flora of the Northern and Middle Sections of the United States 1: 69. 1824, Boston J. Nat. Hist. 1: 135. 1835, The Botany of the Voyage of H.M.S. Sulphur 56. 1844, Anales de la Universidad de Chile 36: 202. 1870, Botanical Gazette 3(3): 20. 1878, Mexicanas Plantas 2: 50. 1886 and American Midland Naturalist 4: 214. 1915, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 18(7): 356. 1917, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 24(8): 488. 1927, American Journal of Botany 26: 485. 1939, Field & Laboratory 24: 73. 1956, Kurtziana 4: 44, 122, f. 8. 1967.

in English: burrgrass, spiny burrgrass, spiny burr grass, spiny bur grass, gentle Annie, grass burr, mat sandburr, field sandspur, field sandbur, sandbur grass, sand bur grass, coastal sandspur, coast sandbur grass, coast sandbur

in Argentina: roseta

in Mexico: pasto

in South Africa: dubbeltjiegras, klitsgras, sandklits, sandklitsgras

C. laniflorus Steud.

Pacific Islands. See Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 110. 1854.

C. lappaceus L. (Cenchrus lappaceus Tausch, nom. illeg., non Cenchrus lappaceus L.; Centosteca lappacea (L.) Desv.; Centotheca lappacea (L.) Desv.; Melica lappacea (L.) Raspail; Uniola lappacea (L.) Trin.)

India. See Species Plantarum, Editio Secunda 1488. 1763, Annales des Sciences Naturelles (Paris) 5: 443. 1825, Nouveau Bulletin des Sciences, publié par la Société Philomatique de Paris 2: 189. 1810, Mémoires de l‘Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint Pétersbourg. Sixième Série. Sciences Mathématiques, Physiques et Naturelles 1(4): 358. 1830, Flora 20(1): 57. 1837 and Blumea 19: 59. 1971, Kew Bulletin 27(3): 447-450. 1972.

C. leptacanthus A. Camus (Cenchrus biflorus Roxb.)

Africa. See Flora Indica; or Descriptions ... 1: 238. 1820 and Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 80: 774. 1933, Iowa State College Journal of Science 37(3): 259-351. 1963.

C. linearis Lam.

Europe, France. See Flore Françoise 3: 631. 1778.

C. longifolius Hochst. ex Steud. (Cenchrus ciliaris L.)

Africa, Nubia. See Mantissa Plantarum 302. 1771, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 109. 1854.

C. longisetus M.C. Johnst. (Cenchrus villosus (R. Br. ex Fresen.) Kuntze, nom. illeg., non Cenchrus villosus (Spreng.) Spreng.; Pennisetum villosum R. Br. ex Fresen.)

Africa. See Museum Senckenbergianum 2: 134. 1837, Revisio Generum Plantarum 3(3): 347. 1898 and Sida 1(3): 182. 1963.

C. longispinus (Hackel) Fernald (Cenchrus carolinianus Walter; Cenchrus echinatus L. forma longispina Hackel; Cenchrus echinatus sensu C. Gardner, non L.; Cenchrus pauciflorus Benth.; Cenchrus pauciflorus var. longispinus (Hack.) Jansen & Wacht.; Nastus carolinianus (Walter) Lunell; Nastus strictus (Walter) Lunell)

Argentina, U.S. Annual or short-lived perennial, spiny, tufted, coarse, fibrous root system, ascending, sometimes decumbent and geniculate, often with many branches arising from the base, leaf sheaths strongly compressed and keeled, ligule a fringe of hairs, scabrous to pilose leaves flat and linear, no auricles, compact cylindrical spike-like panicles, conspicuous round and spiny burs along the seed head, burs contain 30-60 spines, slender bristle, purplish involucre sessile, lower lemma sterile, upper lemma bisexual, weed species with low forage value, invasive and naturalized, found in cultivated and disturbed soils, sandy soils and road verges, sandy alluvium, in dry roadside gravel, sandy fields and sandy woods, roadsides and railroads, coastal plains, fields and pastureland, on floodplains, in lawns and waste ground, confused with Cenchrus echinatus L., see Flora Caroliniana, secundum ... 79. 1788, The Botany of the Voyage of H.M.S. Sulphur 56. 1844 and Allgemeine Botanische Zeitschrift für Systematik, Floristik, Pflanzengeographie 9: 169. 1903, American Midland Naturalist 4: 214. 1915, Rhodora 45: 388. 1943, Nederlandsch Kruidkundig Archief. Verslangen en Mededelingen der Nederlandsche Botanische Vereeniging 56: 246. 1949, Iowa State College Journal of Science 37(3): 298. 1963, Taxon 44: 607. 1995.

in English: mat sandbur, burrgrass, burgrass, grassbur, sand-spur, spiny burrgrass, long-spine sandbur, longspine sand-bur, longspine sandspur, field sandbur, gentle Annie, bear grass, hedgehog grass, innocent weed

C. macrocephalus (Döll) Scribn. (Cenchrus echinatus var. tribuloides (L.) Torr.; Cenchrus tribuloides L.; Cenchrus tribuloides var. macrocephalus Döll)

U.S. See Species Plantarum 2: 1050. 1753, A Flora of the Northern and Middle Sections of the United States 1: 69. 1824, Flora Brasiliensis 2(2): 312. 1877, Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 17: 110, f. 406. 1899 and Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 12: 127. 1908.

C. melanostachyus A. Camus

Madagascar. See Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 81: 594. 1934.

C. microcephalus Nash ex Hitchc. & Chase (Cenchrus incertus M.A. Curtis)

Bahamas. Saline flats, saline meadows, cultivated fields, see Boston J. Nat. Hist. 1: 135. 1835 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 18(7): 356. 1917.

C. mitis Anderss. (Cenchrus aequiglumis Chiov.)

Africa, Tanzania, Mozambique, Kenya. Annual, leaves flat, involucres ovoid, body of the involucre pubescent, inner spines flattened, outer bristles numerous and filiform, growing in bushland, coastal bushland, sandy soils, heavy grazed soils, abandoned ground, abandoned cultivation, see Naturwissenschaftliche Reise nach Mossambique ... 2: 554. 1864 and Agronomie Coloniale 20: 108. 1926.

C. montanus Steud. (Cenchrus montanus Nees ex Royle).

India. Annual, variable, ascending from a procumbent base, leaves linear acuminate, involucres shortly stalked enclosing 1-2 spikelets, outer spines of involucre subulate, inner spines lanceolate pungent connate, glumes subequal, nutritious, good grazing grass, makes excellent hay, in sandy places, see Illustrations of the Botany ... of the Himalayan Mountains ... 416. 1839, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 111. 1854.

in India: anjan, dhaman, dhamman

C. multiflorus J. Presl (Pennisetum karwinskyi Schrad.; Pennisetum multiflorum E. Fourn.; Pennisetum vulcanicum Chase)

Mexico. Tufted, forage, along roadsides, see Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 318. 1830, Linnaea 12(4): 431. 1838, Mexicanas Plantas 2: 49. 1886 and Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 13(16): 363. 1923, Phytologia 37(4): 317-407. 1977, Fl. Novo-Galic. 14: 113. 1983, Cuscatlania 1(6): 1-29. 1991, Las Gramíneas de México 5: 1-466. 1999.

C. myosuroides Kunth (Cenchropsis myosuroides (Kunth) Nash; Cenchrus alopecuroides J. Presl, nom. illeg., non Cenchrus alopecuroides Thunb.; Cenchrus ekmanianus Hitchc.; Cenchrus elliotii Kunth; Cenchrus myosuroides var. myosuroides; Cenchrus scabridus Arechav.; Cenchrus setoides Buckley; Panicum cenchroides Elliott, nom. illeg., non Panicum cenchroides Lam.; Pennisetum myosuroides (Kunth) Spreng.; Pennisetum pungens Nutt.; Setaria elliot-tiana Roem. & Schult.)

Mexico, U.S., Southern America. Tall perennial bunchgrass, caespitose, tough, stout, erect with a decumbent base, branched, glaucous, burs composed of several whorls of bristles, bristle united at the base, inner bristles as long as the spikelet, weed species browsed by cattle, very palatable, grows mostly along roadsides and in other waste places, in sandy open soil, dense to open grassland, moist sandy openings near coast, old fields and denuded rangelands, from sands to clays, see Nova Genera et Species Plantarum 1: 115-116, t. 35. 1815 [1816], A Sketch of the Botany of South-Carolina and Georgia 1: 111. 1816, The Genera of North American Plants 54. 1818, Mantissa 2: 279. 1824, Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 1: 303. 1825, Révision des Graminées 1: 51. 1829, Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 317. 1830, A Preliminary Report on the Geological and Agricultural Survey of Texas App. 2. 1866, Anales del Museo Nacional de Montevideo 1: 556, t. 12. 1897 and Flora of the Southeastern United States ... 109, 1327. 1903, Manual of the Grasses of the West Indies 361. 1936, Kurt-ziana 4: 112. 1967, Fl. Novo-Galic. 14: 113. 1983, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 77(1): 125-201. 1990.

in English: big sandbur, big sandburr, sandbur, big sandspur, grassbur, giant cenchrus, big cenchrus

in Mexico: pasto

C. myosuroides Kunth var. longisetus Caro & E.A. Sánchez

Argentina. See Kurtziana 4: 112. 1967.

C. myosuroides Kunth var. myosuroides (Cenchropsis myosuroides (Kunth) Nash; Cenchrus alopecuroides J. Presl, nom. illeg., non Cenchrus alopecuroides Thunb.; Cenchrus ekmanianus Hitchc.; Cenchrus elliotii Kunth; Cenchrus myosuroides var. myosuroides; Cenchrus scabridus Arechav.; Cenchrus setoides Buckley; Panicum cenchroides Elliott, nom. illeg., non Panicum cenchroides Lam.; Pennisetum myosuroides (Kunth) Spreng.; Pennisetum pungens Nutt.; Setaria elliottiana Roem. & Schult.)

Mexico, U.S., Southern America.

C. pallidus E. Fourn. (Cenchrus pallidus E. Fourn. ex Hemsl.; Cenchrus pilosus Kunth)

Mexico. See Nova Genera et Species Plantarum 1: 116, t. 36. 1815 [1816], Biologia Centrali-Americana; ... Botany ... 3: 507. 1885, Mexicanas Plantas 2: 50. 1886.

C. palmeri Vasey

America, Mexico. See Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Series 2, 2: 211. 1889.

C. parviceps Shinners (Cenchrus incertus M.A. Curtis)

U.S. Cultivated fields, see Boston J. Nat. Hist. 1: 135. 1835 and Field & Laboratory 24: 73. 1956.

C. parviflorus Poir. (Chaetochloa corrugata var. parviflora (Poir.) Scribn. & Merr.; Chaetochloa parviflora (Poir.) Scribn.; Pennisetum indicum subvar. parviflora (Poir.) Leeke; Pennisetum parviflorum (Poir.) Trin.; Setaria geniculata P. Beauv.; Setaria parviflora (Poir.) Kerguélen; Setaria parviflora var. parviflora)

Mesoamerica. See Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 6: 52. 1804, Essai d‘une Nouvelle Agrostographie 51, 169, 178. 1812, De Graminibus Paniceis 65. 1826, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Division of Botany. Bulletin 4: 39. 1897 and Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 21: 24, t. 12. 1900, Field Columbian Museum, Publ. 2(1): 26. 1900, Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaften 79: 19. 1907, Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique. Nouvelle série 120: 161. 1987.

in English: bristly foxtail

in Argentina: paitén

C. pauciflorus Benth. (Cenchrus albertsonii Runyon; Cenchrus echinatus f. longispina Hack.; Cenchrus humilis Hitchc.; Cenchrus longispinus (Hack.) Fernald; Cenchrus muricatus Phil., nom. illeg., non Cenchrus muricatus L.; Cenchrus pauciflorus var. longispinus (Hack.) Jansen & Wacht.; Cenchrus roseus E. Fourn.; Cenchrus tribuloides auct.)

South America, Mexico. Annual, on dry sand, see The Botany of the Voyage of H.M.S. Sulphur 56. 1844, Anales de la Universidad de Chile 36: 202. 1870, Mexicanas Plantas 2: 50. 1886 and Allgemeine Botanische Zeitschrift für Systematik, Floristik, Pflanzengeographie 9: 169. 1903, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 24(8): 488. 1927, American Journal of Botany 26: 485. 1939, Rhodora 45: 388. 1943, Nederlandsch Kruidkundig Archief. Verslangen en Mededelingen der Nederlandsche Botanische Vereeniging 56: 246. 1949, Iowa St. J. Sci. 37: 298. 1963, Kurtziana 4: 122, f. 8. 1967, Acta Botanica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 17(1-3): 123. 1971[1972], Memoir San Diego Society of Natural History 12: 1-140. 1981, Cuscatlania 1(6): 1-29. 1991.

in Mexico: abrojo roseta, cadillo, chancaquilla, huitzapol, huizapole, ladilla, rosetilla

C. pedunculatus O. Deg. & Whitney (Cenchrus agrimonioides Trin.)

Hawaii. See De Graminibus Paniceis 72. 1826 and Flora Hawaiensis Fam. 47. 1936.

C. pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. (Cenchrus aequiglumis Chiov.; Cenchrus ciliaris var. pennisetiformis (Hochst. & Steud.) Chiov. ex Pirotta; Cenchrus echinoides Wight ex Steud.; Cenchrus lappaceus Tausch, nom. illeg., non Cenchrus lappaceus L.; Pennisetum cenchroides var. echinoides (Hochst. & Steud.) Hook.f.; Pennisetum pennisetiforme (Hochst. & Steud.) Wipff)

Mediterranean region, east and northeast tropical Africa, India, Arabia, Yemen, Pakistan. Annual or short-lived perennial, tufted, variable, usually branched, soft stems, erect or ascending, leaf sheaths keeled and compressed, ligule a ciliate rim, blade flat to convolute, panicle spike-like and cylindrical, involucre elongate, bristles numerous, inner bristles glabrous and connate from the base, outer bristles filiform, spikelets lanceolate and acute, cluster of spikelets surrounded by hairy bristles, lower glume present or suppressed, lower lemma male or sterile, upper lemma bisexual, planted, pasture, fodder grass, well-grazed, adapted to arid conditions and slightly alkaline soils, excellent drought tolerance, withstands heavy grazing, survives seasonal floodings, useful for stabilisation of the sand dunes, grows as a monospecific sward, common on deep sandy soils, dry waste places, dry semidesert habitats, on sand hills and poor soils, salt marshes, along the banks of water courses, gravel plains, hot and dry regions, loams and alluvial silts, stream beds, along roadsides, well-drained sand dunes, see Mantissa Plantarum 302. 1771, Flora 20(1): 57. 1837, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 317. 1840, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 109. 1854, Memorie della Reale Accademia delle Scienze di Torino ser. 2, 14: 386. 1854, Annales des Sciences Naturelles; Botanique, série 4 18: 139. 1862, The Flora of British India 7: 88. 1896 and Annuario del Reale Istituto Botanico di Roma 8(1): 43-44. 1903, Annuario del Reale Istituto Botanico di Roma 8(3): 326. 1908, Agronomie Coloniale 20: 108. 1926, Sida 19: 527, f. 1. 2001.

in English: buffel grass, slender buffel grass, white buffel grass, white buffel, cloncurry buffel, cloncurry buffel grass

C. pilosus Kunth (Anthephora hermaphrodita (L.) Kuntze; Cenchrus pallidus E. Fourn.; Tripsacum hermaphroditum L.)

Guatemala, Venezuela. Annual, caespitose, erect or decum-bent, branched, glabrous, forage, grows on beach sand, grassy roadside, open areas, disturbed grounds, tropical dry forest, bare gravelly soils, see Systema Naturae, Editio Decima 2: 1261. 1759, Elenchus Plantarum Horti Regni Botanici Matritensis 9. 1803, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum 1: 116, t. 36. 1815 [1816], Mexicanas Plantas 2: 50. 1886, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 759. 1891 and Taxon 49(2): 257. 2000.

in Mexico: muul-suuk, pasto

in Venezuela: cadillo bobo

C. platyacanthus Andersson (Cenchrus granularis Andersson, nom. illeg., non Cenchrus granularis L.)

America, Galápagos Islands. Annual, glabrous, erect or ascending, weak, geniculate at the base, rooting at the nodes, ligule stiffly hairy, leaf blades elongate, inflorescence very compact and spiciform, flattened spines, in sandy soil, shore, see Kongl. Vetenskaps Academiens Handlingar 1853: 139-140. 1854 and Ira L. Wiggins and Duncan M. Porter, Flora of the Galápagos Islands 835-836. 1971.

C. prieurii (Kunth) Maire (Cenchrus hystrix Fig. & De Not.; Cenchrus macrostachyus Hochst. ex Steud.; Pennisetum breviflorum Steud.; Pennisetum prieurii Kunth) (after the French botanist F.M.R. Leprieur, 1799-1869, a dispenser in the French navy, between 1824-29 in Senegambia, in 1829 returned to France and began his Flora, continued by [Jean Baptiste] Antoine Guillemin (1796-1842), George Samuel Perrottet (1793-1870) and Achille Richard (1794-1852) as Florae Senegambiae tentamen. Paris (Treuttel et Wurtz), London 1830-1833; see Joseph Vallot (1854-1925), “Études sur la flore du Sénégal.” in Bull. Soc. Bot. de France. 29: 168-238. Paris 1882; R.W.J. Keay, “Botanical Collectors in West Africa prior to 1860.” in Comptes Rendus A.E.T.F.A.T. 55-68. Lisbon 1962; F.N. Hepper and Fiona Neate, Plant Collectors in West Africa. 49. 1971; G. Murray, History of the collections contained in the Natural History Departments of the British Museum. London 1904; J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. Boston 1965)

India, Africa. Annual, sometimes perennial, decumbent or tufted, erect to ascending, famine food, grains eaten by humans, good grazing for camels, seeds eaten raw, palatable fodder before anthesis, grows on sand dunes and sandy soils, sandy waste places, desert habitats, see Révision des Graminées 2: 411. 1831, Memorie della Reale Accademia delle Scienze di Torino, ser. 2, 14: 382. 1854, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 107, 109. 1854 and Bulletin du Muséum d‘Histoire Naturelle, sér. 2 3: 523. 1931.

in French: cram cram

in Arabic: gasba, heskanit, initi, tilimit

in Mali: heskanit, koolumo ana, tawajjaq, uazedj, wadjak, wajjag, wesedj

in Mauritania: gasba, initi, tilimit

in Niger: dani, âni, diger, k’arangya hanfoka, k’arangya kûra, kébbé buru, mali alyia (for the seeds), ngibbi bulduyè, tawajaq, tawajjag, wadjâk, wajjag

in Nigeria: karangiyar, karangiyar hanfoka, karangiyar kura

in Senegal: kébbé buru

in India: dhamnio, lambio-bhurut

C. prieurii (Kunth) Maire var. scabra Bhandari

India, Rajasthan. Indeterminate species, see Fl. Indian Desert 395. 1978.

C. pungens Kunth (Cenchrus echinatus L.)

Peru. See Species Plantarum 2: 1050. 1753 and Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 12: 127. 1908, Regnum Veg. 127: 31. 1993, Rheedea 10(2): 153-155. 2000.

C. purpurascens Thunb. (Pennisetum alopecuroides f. purpurascens (Thunb.) Ohwi; Pennisetum purpurascens (Thunb.) Kuntze, nom. illeg., non Pennisetum purpurascens Kunth; Pennisetum purpurascens (Thunb.) Makino, nom. illeg., non Pennisetum purpurascens Kunth)

Warm regions, Asia, Japan. See Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 2: 329. 1794, Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 1: 303. 1825, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 787. 1891 and Botanical Magazine (Tokyo) 26: 294. 1912, Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 10(4): 274. 1941.

C. racemosus L. (Lappago racemosa (L.) Honck.; Nazia racemosa (L.) Kuntze; Tragus echinatus (L.) Cav.; Tragus muricatus Moench; Tragus racemosus (L.) All.)

Europe. See Species Plantarum 2: 1049. 1753, Flora Pede-montana 2: 241. 1785, Synopsis Plantarum Germaniae 1: 440. 1792, Methodus Plantas Horti Botanici ... 53. 1794, Elenchus Plantarum Horti Botanici 38. 1803, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 780. 1891 and Feddes Repertorium 49: 53. 1940, Flora de la Provincia de Buenos Aires 4(2): 35. 1970, Acta Botanica Cubana 4: 1-11. 1980, Fl. Libya 145: 336. 1988, Taxon 49(2): 149, 249. 2000.

C. rajasthanensis K.C. Kanodia & P.C. Nanda

India, Rajasthan. Indeterminate species, see Geobios 5(4): 157. 1978.

C. retusus Sw. (Panicum polystachion L.; Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.)

Pacific. See Systema Naturae, Editio Decima 870. 1759, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum seu Prodromus 26. 1788, Syn. Pl. 1: 72. 1805, Mantissa 2: 146. 1824 and Micronesica; journal of the college of Guam. 18(2): 45-102. Agana, Guam 1982, Cytologia 54: 641-652. 1989, Journal of the Indian Botanical Society 68: 295-299. 1989.

C. rigidifolius Fig. & De Not. (Cenchrus ciliaris L.; Cenchrus ciliaris var. rigidifolius (Fig. & De Not.) Chiov.; Cenchrus pennisetiformis var. rigidifolia (Fig. & De Not.) Chiov.)

Africa. See Mantissa Plantarum 302. 1771, Memorie della Reale Accademia delle Scienze di Torino, ser. 2, 14: 386. 1854 and Annuario del Reale Istituto Botanico di Roma 8(1): 43-44. 1903, Annuario del Reale Istituto Botanico di Roma 8(3): 326. 1908.

C. robustus R.D. Webster

Australia. See The Australian Paniceae (Poaceae) 27. 1987.

C. rufescens Desf. (Cenchrus ciliaris L.; Pennisetum rufescens (Desf.) Spreng.)

Atlantic. See Mantissa Plantarum 302. 1771, Flora Atlantica 2: 388. 1799, Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 1: 302. 1825.

C. scabridus Arechav. (Cenchrus myosuroides Kunth; Cenchrus myosuroides var. myosuroides)

Uruguay. See Nova Genera et Species Plantarum 1: 115-116, t. 35. 1815 [1816], Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 1: 303. 1825, Anales del Museo Nacional de Montevideo 1: 556, t. 12. 1897 and Flora of the Southeastern United States ... 109, 1327. 1903, Fl. Novo-Galic. 14: 113. 1983, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 77(1): 125-201. 1990.

C. setiger Vahl (also spelled setigerus ) (Cenchrus barbatus Schumach.; Cenchrus bulbifer Hochst. ex Boiss.; Cenchrus ciliaris var. setigerus (Vahl) Maire & Weiler; Cenchrus montanus Nees ex Steud.; Cenchrus montanus Nees ex Royle; Cenchrus quinquevalvis Buch.-Ham. ex Wall.; Cenchrus schimperi Hochst. & Steud. ex Steud.; Cenchrus setigerus Forssk. ex Steud.; Cenchrus triflorus Roxb. ex Aitch.; Cenchrus tripsacoides R. Br.; Cenchrus uniflorus Ehrenb. ex Boiss.; Pennisetum ciliare var. setigerum (Vahl) Leeke; Pennisetum setigerum (Vahl) Wipff; Pennisetum vahlii Kunth)

East and northeast tropical Africa, northwest India, Arabia, Yemen. Perennial bunchgrass or annual, grows rapidly and vigorously, variable, leafy, more or less erect, tussocky, stoloniferous, forming clumps, more or less spiny, low spreading, bulbous at base, stout rootstock, short rhizomes, leaf sheath scabrous upward, ligule short and ciliate, leaf blades flat or folded, dense inflorescence spike-like erect and cylindrical, spikelets surrounded by a rigid involucre cup-shaped, body of the involucre glabrous, outer bristles minute or absent, inner bristles flattened and grooved on the back, lower lemma sterile rarely male, upper lemma bisexual, seeds purple and bristly, cultivated fodder, once established withstands heavy stocking, forage, pasture species or potential pasture grass, high feed value during the pre-flowering stage, tender leaves quite palatable, poor forage value, in India seeds eaten mixed with bajra (millet) for bread making, seeds also eaten raw, adapted to arid and semiarid climates with a long dry season, useful against moving sand, very tolerant of drought, naturalized elsewhere, can be a serious riverine weed, found in alluvial flats and water courses, wet to upland soil, open dry bush and grassland, arid deciduous grassland, desert areas, subdesert grassland, hot arid zones, along roadsides, on sandy soils, margins of irrigated fields, sandy and silty soils, free-draining soils, sand plains and sand dunes, alkaline soils, sandstone rocky sites, stony hills, savannah, ravine areas, degraded lands, see Enumeratio Plantarum ... 2: 395. 1805, Henry Salt (1780-1827), A Voyage to Abyssinia and travels into the interior of that country ... in the years 1809 and 1810, etc. 62. London 1814 [Botany. List of new and rare plants, etc. by Robert Brown], Flora 4(1), Beil. 2: 61-64. Jan-June 1821, Révision des Graminées 1: 49. 1829, Illustrations of the Botany and other Branches of the Natural History of the Himalayan Mountains and the Flora of Cashmere. 416. London 1839-1840, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 317. 1840, A Numerical List of Dried Specimens 8854-B,C. 1849, Catalogue of the Plants of the Punjab and Sindh 163. 1869, Flora Orientalis 5: 448. 1884 and Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaften 79: 22. 1907, Flore de l‘Afrique du Nord: 1: 342. 1952, Sida 19(3): 523-530. 2001.

in English: Birdwood grass, Birdwoodgrass, Birdwood, Birdwood buffel, anjan grass, cow sandbur, South African pennisetum

in Arabic: aebaed

in India: anjan, dhaman, motha dhaman, moda dhaman grass, kata-dhaman, marwar dhaman, kala-dhaman

C. somalensis Clayton (Pennisetum somalense (Clayton) Wipff)

Somalia. Perennial, densely tufted, narrow leaves folded to inrolled, involucre cup-shaped, inner bristles flexuous, outer bristles filiform, shade species, under shade of trees and among bushes, see Kew Bulletin 32(1): 3. 1977, Sida 19(3): 527. 2001.

C. spicatus (L.) Cav. (Cenchrus spicatus (L.) Kuntze, nom. illeg., non Cenchrus spicatus (L.) Cav.; Holcus spicatus L.; Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.)

South America. See Species Plantarum 1: 56. 1753, Systema Naturae, Editio Decima 2: 1305. 1759, Descripción de las Plantas ... 304. Madrid 1802, Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae 1: 195. 1810, Revisio Generum Plantarum 3(3): 346. 1898.

C. spinifex Cav. (Cenchrus echinatus L.; Cenchrus incertus M.A. Curtis; Cenchrus parviceps Shinners; Cenchrus pauciflorus Benth.)

U.S., Florida, South America. Tufted annual or short-lived perennial, culms geniculate, prostrate, decumbent, leaf sheaths compressed, leaves entire and alternate, flower spikes consist of burs with sharp spines, burs imbricate, bristles ciliate basally, outer bristles when present mostly flattened, first floret sometimes staminate, first palea sometimes reduced or absent, noxious weed, invasive, burs can inflict pain, growing on sandy areas and sandy soils in both open areas and thin woods, on sandy plains, beach sand, in sandy woods, fields and waste places, in sandy soils along rivers and streams, cultivated fields, along roadsides, see Species Plantarum 2: 1050. 1753, Methodus Plantas Horti Botanici ... 206. 1794, Icones et Descriptiones Plantarum, quae aut sponte ... 5: 38, t. 461. 1799, Boston Journal of Natural History 1: 135. Boston, Mass. 1835 [1834-1837], The Botany of the Voyage of H.M.S. Sulphur 56. 1844, Flora Brasiliensis 2(2): 309. 1877 and Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 12: 127. 1908, Regnum Veg. 127: 31. 1993.

in English: common sandbur, common sandspur, coast sandbur, coast sandspur, southern sandbur, sandbur, coastal sandbur, field sandspur, field sandbur, spiny burrgrass.

C. strictus Chapm. (Cenchrus incertus M.A. Curtis)

U.S., Florida. Cultivated fields, see Boston Journal of Natural History 1: 135. Boston, Mass. 1837 [The Boston Journal of Natural History, containing papers and communications read to the Boston Society of Natural History. Boston, MA. Vols. 1-7 (1834/37-1859/63, 1837-1863)], Botanical Gazette 3(3): 20. 1878.

C. taitensis Steud. (Cenchrus calyculatus Cav.)

French Polynesia. See Icones et Descriptiones Plantarum, quae aut sponte ... 5: 40, t. 463. 1799, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 419. 1854.

C. tomentosus Poir.

Africa. See Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 6: 51. 1804.

C. tribuloides L. (Cenchrus carolinianus Walter; Cenchrus echinatus var. tribuloides (L.) Torr.; Cenchrus incertus M.A. Curtis; Cenchrus macrocephalus Scribn.; Cenchrus macrocephalus (Döll) Scribn.; Cenchrus tribuloides var. macrocarpus Steud.; Cenchrus tribuloides var. macrocephalus Döll; Cenchrus vaginatus Steud.; Nastus carolinianus (Walter) Lunell; Nastus strictus (Walter) Lunell) (Latin tribulus, tribolos, i “a caltrop”; Greek tribolos, treis, tria “three” and bolos “a point”)

Eastern U.S., West Indies, Brazil. Perennial or annual, sharp and quite painful to touch, branched, sprawling, erect or ascending, branching and rooting at the lower nodes, leaf sheaths compressed, long narrow gray-green glabrous leaves, flowers scattered and infrequent, flower clusters spiny, spikelets hard and prickly, burrs densely pubescent, tiny and backward-pointing spines densely villous basally, outer bristles usually present, spines flattened and more or less spreading, fertile lemma and palea occasionally scab-erulous, weed species, unpleasant to walk on barefooted, naturalized elsewhere, useful stabilizer of dunes, young burs used as fodder, seeds scorched to make herbal coffee or bread, grows in moist sandy dunes, on coastal sands, beaches, on sandy shores, open dunes, active dunes, sandy fields and woods, cultivated fields, primary dunes zone, land side of barrier dunes, back dunes or secondary dunes, across secondary dunes, tropical salt marshes, open grasslands to dense shrub, groves of low broadleaf evergreen trees, see Species Plantarum 2: 1050. 1753, Flora Caroliniana, secundum ... 79. 1788, A Flora of the Northern and Middle Sections of the United States 1: 69. 1824, Boston Journal of Natural History 1: 135. Boston, Mass. 1837, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 110. 1854, Flora Brasiliensis 2(2): 312. 1877, Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 17: 110, f. 406. 1899 and Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 12: 127. 1908, American Midland Naturalist 4: 214. 1915, Acta Botanica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 17(1-3): 123. 1971[1972], Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: A Systematic Synopsis 1-342. 1982, Taxon 44: 607. 1995.

in English: hedgehog grass, bur, American burrgrass, bur-grass, sandspur, dune sandspur, beach sand-spur, sandspurs, sand-dune sandburr, sand dune sandbur, sand bur, dune sandbur, long-spine sandbur

in Mexico: cadillo, huisapole, huitzapol, huizapole, pasto, rosetilla, zacapolin

C. vaginatus Steud. (Cenchrus tribuloides L.)

Europe. See Species Plantarum 2: 1050. 1753, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 110. 1854 and Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 12: 127. 1908.

C. villosus (Spreng.) Spreng. (Anthephora hermaphrodita (L.) Kuntze; Anthephora villosa Spreng.; Cenchrus villosus (R. Br. ex Fresen.) Kuntze, nom. illeg., non Cenchrus villosus (Spreng.) Spreng.; Pennisetum villosum R. Br. ex Fresen.; Tripsacum hermaphroditum L.)

See Systema Naturae, Editio Decima 2: 1261. 1759, Neue Entdeckungen im ganzen Umfang der Pflanzenkunde 3: 14. 1822, Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 1: 301. 1825, Museum Senckenbergianum 2: 134. 1837, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 759. 1891, Revisio Generum Plantarum 3(3): 347. 1898.

Centosteca Desv. = Centotheca Desv.

Presumably an orthographic variant of Centotheca Desv., see Nouveau Bulletin des Sciences, publié par la Société Philomatique de Paris 2: 189. 1810, Journ. de Bot. 1: 70. 1813.

Centotheca Desv. = Centosteca Desv., Centotheca P. Beauv., Ramosia Merr.

From the Greek kenteo “to prick, torture, torment, sting, spur, pierce” and theke “a case, sheath,” alluding to the prickly glumes, to the spines on the lemma, to prickly hairs within the spikelet on the upper lemmas.

Some 1/4-5 species, Old World tropics, tropical West Africa, tropical Asia, Pacific, India, China, Sri Lanka. Bambusoideae, Oryzodae, Centothecoideae, Centotheceae, perennial or annual, unarmed, tufted, ascending to erect, knotty base, rhizomatous or caespitose, woody and persistent, flowering culms leafy, culm nodes glabrous, culm internodes solid, auricles present or absent, sheaths strongly nerved, ligule a short rim or an unfringed membrane, leaf blades elliptic or linear to lanceolate, plants bisexual and unarmed, inflorescence an ascending panicle, the terminal floret rudimentary, upper floret often with reflexed bristles, spikelets with pedicels hispid, 2 glumes herbaceous and oblong-lanceolate, lemmas apiculate and awnless, palea present, lodicules 2 or absent, stamens 2-3, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, spikelets breaking up at maturity, forest shade, type Centotheca lappacea (L.) Desv., see Nouveau Bulletin des Sciences, publié par la Société Philomatique de Paris 2: 189. 1810, Journ. de Bot. 1: 70. 1813, Flora Indica; or Descriptions of Indian Plants, by the Late William Roxburgh, ... edited by William Carey, D.D. to which are added descriptions of plants more recently discovered by Nathaniel Wallich... 2 vols. Serampore 1820-1824, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 19: 31. 1881 and Mat. Fl. Malay Pen. 3: 122. 1907, Philippine Journal of Science Bot. 11: 2. 1916, Amer. J. Bot. 56: 1054-1057. 1969, Blumea 19: 57-60. 1971, Kew Bulletin 27(3): 447-450. 1972, Taxon 30: 615. 1981, Dominguezia 4: 41. 1982, Taxon 33(4): 705. 1984, Taxon 37(2): 434-477. 1988.

Species

C. lappacea (L.) Desv. (Cenchrus lappaceus L.; Centotheca lappacea Desv.; Centotheca latifolia Trin.; Centotheca parviflora Andersson; Festuca ciliaris Heyne; Festuca latifolia Roth, nom. illeg., non Festuca latifolia DC.; Hiero-chloe latifolia (Osbeck) Kunth; Holcus latifolius Osbeck; Melica diandra Roxb.; Melica lappacea (L.) Raspail; Melica refracta Roxb.; Panicum festuciforme Hochst. ex Hook.f.; Pentas schumanniana K. Krause (Rubiaceae); Poa latifolia G. Forst.; Torresia biflora Roem. & Schult.; Torresia latifolia (Osbeck) P. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult.)

Southeast Asia, India, China, Africa. Perennial or annual, tufted, rather coarse, robust, rhizomatous, culms erect or ascending and solitary, sometimes rooting at the lower nodes, woody roots, leaf sheath with hairy margins and strongly nerved, leaf blade lanceolate to nearly elliptic, ligule membranous, leaves reticulate below, panicle exserted from the uppermost sheath, inflorescence a branching terminal panicle, open panicle with the lower branches drooping, spikelets ovate-elliptic, bristles on the upper flowering glume, 2 glumes, lower glume hairy, spines or stiff hairs on the lemma, palea narrow and slightly hairy, dispersal by reflexed spines, moderately palatable, good fodder, grazed by cattle, usually animals avoid eating the seed heads, medicinal value, weed species growing in shady damp areas, forest shade, rather shady habitats, hills, disturbed areas, swamps, open places in rain forests and thickets, along trails, forest paths, lowlands, edge of woodlands, in secondary vegetation, old taro plantations, waste places, in forest clearings, among tall shrubs, see Dagbok ofwer en Ostindisk Resa 247. 1757, Species Plantarum, Editio Secunda 1488. 1763, Florulae Insularum Australium Prodromus 8. 1786, Nouveau Bulletin des Sciences, publié par la Société Philomatique de Paris 2: 189. 1810, Systema Vegetabilium 2: 515, 728. 1817, Fundamenta Agrostographiae 141. 1820, Nov. Fl. Ind. Orient. 75. 1821, Annales des Sciences Naturelles (Paris) 5: 443. 1825, Révision des Graminées 1: 21. 1829, Mémoires de l‘Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint Pétersbourg. Sixième Série. Sciences Mathématiques, Physiques et Naturelles 1(4): 358. 1830, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. 374. 1864, The Flora of British India 332. 1896 and Handb. Fl. Ceylon 5: 304. 1900, Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 36: 420. 1904, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 39: 521. 1907, Bulletin of the Tokyo Science Museum 18: 10. 1947, Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de l‘État 23: 256, f. 31/F. 1953, Grasses of Ceylon 32. 1956, Grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan (excluding Bambuseae) 457, 459. 1960, Smithsonian Contr. Botany 45: 5. 1980, Grasses of Japan and its Neighboring Regions 497. 1987.

in English: barbed grass

in Sierra Leone: kulagbi, nana, naragbadi, nolomingkodena, suisexe

in Indonesia: jobuk, jukut kidang, karetet lempad, suket lorodan

in Malaysia: rumput darah, rumput lilit kain, rumput temaga

in Papua New Guinea: kuang

in the Philippines: andu-dukot aridekdiket, baylu patong

in Thailand: khon moi mae mai, khon moi maemaai, lek phai, niao ma, nieo maa, ya enieo, yaa ee nieo, ya i niao, yaa i nieo, ya khon moi maemai

in Vietnam: co’ móc

C. philippinensis (Merr.) C. Monod (Ramosia philippinensis Merr.)

Philippines. See Philippine Journal of Science 11: 2. 1916, Blumea 19(1): 60. 1971.

C. uniflora Swallen

Vietnam. Open places, in shade, see Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 26(12): 535-537, f. 1. 1936.

Centrochloa Swalle

Greek kentron “a spur, prickle” and chloe, chloa ”grass, young grass, vegetables, greens.”

One species, Brazil. Panicoideae, Panicodae, Paniceae, or Panicoideae, Paniceae, Paspalinae, annual, caespitose, herbaceous, auricles absent, ligule a fringed membrane, plants bisexual, inflorescence of subdigitate racemes, spikelets solitary, 1 glume per spikelet, lower glume absent, upper glume extending below the callus, upper lemma tip pubescent to puberulous, palea present, 2 free and fleshy lodicules, 3 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, open habitats, savannah, type Centrochloa singularis Swallen, see J.R. Swallen, “Centrochloa, a new genus of grasses from Brazil.” Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 25: 190-193. 1935, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 151. 2003.

Species

C. singularis Swallen

Brazil. See Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 25(4): 192, f. A. 1935.

Centrophorum Trin. = Chrysopogon Trin.

From the Greek kentron “a spur, prickle” and phoros “bearing,” kentrophoros “with a sting.”

Panicoideae, Andropogoneae, Sorghinae, type Centrophorum chinense Trin., see Fundamenta Agrostographiae 106, 187-188, t. 5. 1820, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 2(2): 28. 1887 and Flora Mesoamericana 6: 383. 1994, Austrobaileya 5(3): 503-533. 1999, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 159-161. 2003.

Centropodia Reichenbach = Asthenatherum Nevski, Centropodia (R. Br.) Rchb.

From the Greek kentron “a spur, prickle” and pous, podos “foot,” referring to the stem.

About 4 species, North Africa, southern Africa, Middle East, northern India. Arundinoideae, Arundineae, annual or perennial, herbaceous, unbranched, unarmed, glaucous, tufted or decumbent, woody rootstock, auricles absent, ligule a fringe of hairs, leaf blades stiff and pungent, plants bisexual, inflorescence a contracted panicle, panicles enclosed by spathe-like upper leaf sheaths, 2 glumes equal or subequal, rachilla internode between the glumes, awns 1 or 3 straight or geniculate, floret callus pungent, glumes 2 more or less equal strongly 7-11 nerved, lemmas coriaceous with a terminal long tuft, awn straight or geniculate, 2 lodicules free and fleshy, 3 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, open habitats, deserts, an earlier name for Asthenatherum Nevski, see Narrative of Travels and Discoveries in Northern and Central Africa 244. 1826, Conspectus Regni Vegetabilis 212a. 1828 and Senck. Biol. 43(4): 239-266. 1962, Kew Bulletin 37(4): 657-659. 1982, T.A. Cope, “Centropodia: an earlier name for Asthenatherum (Gramineae).” Kew Bulletin 37(4): 657-659. 1983, Bothalia 15(1/2): 153-159. 1984, Bothalia 18: 119-122. 1988, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: 866-873. 1988, Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 73. 1995.

Species

C. forskalii (Vahl) Cope (Asthenatherum forskahlei (Vahl)

Nevski; Asthenatherum forskalii (Vahl) Nevski; Avena forskalei Vahl; Avena forskalii Vahl; Avena pensylvanica Forssk., nom. illeg., non Avena pensylvanica L.; Danthonia forskalei (Vahl) Trin.; Danthonia forskalii (Vahl) R. Br.; Danthonia forskalii (Vahl) Trin.; Trisetum forskalii (Vahl) P. Beauv.)

Sudan, Egypt, Iran, Israel. Perennial, tufted to loosely tufted, erect, robust, linear leaves pubescent, sheaths pubescent, ligule a ring of hairs, dense panicle contracted and linear, glumes equal glabrous, lemma shorter than the glumes and pilose, lemma 2-lobed, awned, good fodder for stock and camels, on sandy plain, sand dunes, arid desert habitats, see Flora Aegyptiaco-Arabica 23. 1775, Symbolae Botanicae, ... 2: 25. 1791, Essai d‘une Nouvelle Agrostographie 88. 1812, Species Graminum 1: t. 49. 1826, Narrative of Travels and Discoveries in Northern and Central Africa 244. 1826, Verhandlungen der kaiserlichköniglichen zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 48: 647. 1898 and Kew Bulletin 37(4): 658. 1982, Willdenowia 19: 446. 1990.

in Arabic: legsaibo

in Mauritania: burekkebah, legsaibo, zeihife

in Morocco: rabya

in Niger: adawu, alamfazo, tetemt, aelambazo

in Sahara (Tassili): takamayt

C. glauca (Nees) T.A. Cope (Asthenatherum forskahlei auctt.; Asthenatherum glaucum (Nees) Nevski; Danthonia forskalii subsp. glauca (Nees) Maire & Weiller; Danthonia glauca Nees)

South Africa. Annual or short-lived perennial, tufted, erect, variable with habitat, brittle, fragile, weak, branched from the base, shortly rhizomatous, rhizomes covered with papery bracts, leaf blades scabrid with a fine sharp tip, basal sheaths densely hairy and loose, ligule a ring of short hairs, dense contracted panicle, lower 2 spikelets bisexual, glumes with bent awns, very palatable, very high grazing value, useful for erosion control, found in sandveld, on sand dunes, in gravel flats between dunes, in deep sandy soils, open habitats, on red sand, on gravelly soils, see Florae Africae Australioris Illustrationes Monographicae 327. 1841 and Flore de l‘Afrique du Nord: 2: 363. 1953, Kew Bulletin 37(4): 658. 1982.

in English: gha grass

in South Africa: ghagras, dünenhafer

C. glauca (Nees) T.A. Cope var. glauca

South Africa, Southern Kalahari. Perennial, tufted, glabrous, sandy dunes.

C. glauca (Nees) T.A. Cope var. lasiophylla (Pilger) Conert

South Africa. Perennial, tufted, rhizomes covered with hairy papery bracts, leaf sheaths densely hairy.

C. mossamedensis (Rendle) Cope (Asthenatherum mossamedense (Rendle) Conert; Danthonia mossamedensis Rendle) (Angola, Mossamedes)

South Africa. Perennial, tufted, rhizomatous, woody bulbous rhizomes, basal sheaths present or absent, in coarse sandy places, riverbeds, desert, drainage lines, see Catalogue of the African Plants Collected by Dr. F. Welwitsch in 1853-61 2(1): 211. 1899 and Senckenbergiana Biologica 43: 254. 1962, Kew Bulletin 37(4): 658. 1982.

Cephalochloa Cosson & Durieu = Ammochloa Boiss.

From the Greek kephale “head” and chloe, chloa “grass, young grass.”

Pooideae, Poodae, Aveneae, see Diagnoses plantarum orientalium novarum ser. 1. 2(13): 51-52. 1854, Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Botanique, sér. 4 1: 229. 1854 and Acta Universitatis Lundensis 36(4): 12. 1900, Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis, Beihefte 63: 1. 45. 1931, Kew Bulletin, Additional Series 13: 109. 1986 [Genera Graminum].

Cephalostachyum Munro = Schizostachium Griff., Schizostachyum Nees

From the Greek kephale “head” and stachys “a spike.”

About 1/12-16 species, tropics and subtropics, Bhutan, Indomalaya, Burma (Myanmar), Madagascar, from northeastern Himalayas to Thailand. Bambusoideae, Bambusodae, Bambuseae, Melocanninae, sympodial, perennial, unarmed, thin-walled, dense clumps, rhizomes pachymorph, manifold branching, woody, flexible, persistent, climbing, straggling, pendulous or scandent or not scandent, flowering culms leafy, culm internodes hollow, culm nodes glabrous or hairy, internodes long, culm sheath coriaceous shedding late, auricles lacking or not, sheath blade erect or extending outward, plants bisexual, flowering iterauctant, spikelets with basal buds, pseudospikelet aggregating into cephalanthium, 2-several glumes, palea present, 3 free lodicules, 6 stamens, hollow ovary appendage, 2-3 stigmas, useful for weaving into mats, found in deciduous forest, mixed forests, high rainfall forests, thickets, near streams, humid and shady conditions, broad-leaved forests, moist sites, mountain to forests at low altitudes, riverbanks, evergreen forest, type Cephalostachyum capitatum Munro, see Flora Brasiliensis seu Enumeratio Plantarum 2: 535. 1829, Deutsch. Fl. 6: 6. 1846, Notulae ad Plantas Asiaticas 3: 64. 1851, Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 26(1): 138-139, 143, t. 3. 1868, Forest Flora of British Burma 2: 566. 1877, Annals of the Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta. 7(26): 107, t. 94. 1896 and A. Camus, “Le genre Cephalostachyum a Madagascar.” Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 72: 84-88. 1925, Taxon 6(7): 201. 1957, R.A. Young & J.R. Haun, “Bamboo in the United States: Descripton, culture, and utilization.” Agriculture Handbook 193: i-iii, 1-74. 1961, F.A. McClure, “Genera of bamboos native to the New World (Gramineae: Bambusoideae).” Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 9: 1-148. 1973, Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae, Bambusoideae Botanical Survey of India, Flora of India, Series 4, 281-282. Calcutta 1989, Edin. J. Bot. 51: 29. 1994, Plant Resources of South-East Asia 7: 1-191. 1995, Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae 9(1): i-xxvi, 1-761. 1996, D.-Z. Li & J.-R. Xue, “The diversity and conservation of bamboos in Yunnan, China.” The Bamboos 6: 83-94. 1997, C.M.A. Stapleton, D.Z. Li & N. Jia-Ron, “A new combination in Cephalostachyum with notes on names in Neomicrocalamus (Gramineae-Bambusoideae).” Kew Bulletin 52(3): 699-702. 1997, S. Dransfield, “Valiha and Cathariostachys, 2 new bamboo genera (Gramineae-Bambusoideae) from Madagascar.” Kew Bulletin 53(2): 375-397. 1998, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 39: 36. 2000.

Species

C. burmanicum R.N. Parker & C.E. Parkinson (Schizostachyum burmanicum (R. Parker & C.E. Parkinson) H.B. Naithani & Bennet)

Burma. See Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 31: 127. 1932, Indian Forester 117(1): 68. 1991.

C. capitatum Munro (Bambusa capitata Wall. & Griff., not Bambusa capitata Trinius, not Bambusa capitata Willd. ex Ruprecht; Schizostachyum capitatum (Munro) R.B. Majumdar; Schizostachyum capitatum (Trin.) Rupr.; Schizostachyum capitatum Rupr.; Schizostachyum munroi S. Kumar & P. Singh)

Bhutan, Sikkim, India. Internodes smooth, culms nodes glabrous, culm sheaths smooth, leaves used as fodder, stems used for building purposes and arrows, used for weaving into mats, seeds used as food in time of scarcity, see Mémoires de l‘Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint Pétersbourg. Sixième Série. Sciences Mathématiques, Physiques et Naturelles. Seconde Partie: Sciences Naturelles 3(1): 626-627. 1835, Bambuseae 46-47, t. 17, f. 46. 1839, A Numerical List of Dried Specimens 8913. 1849, Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 26(1): 139. 1868 and Fl. Ind. Enumerat.-Monocot. 281. 1989, J. Indian Bot. Soc. 70(1-4): 423. 1991.

Local names: jhi, pishima, dulloo bans, payong

in Bhutan: payong, dullu bans, dulloo bans, pishima

in India: gobia, gopi, payang, silli

C. capitatum Munro var. decompositum Gamble (Schizostachyum capitatum var. decompositum (Gamble) R.B. Majumdar & Karth.; Schizostachyum munroi var. decompositum (Gamble) S. Kumar & P. Singh)

India, Sikkim. See Annals of the Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta. 7(26): 105. 1896 and Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae, Bambusoideae Botanical Survey of India, Flora of India, 281. 1989, J. Indian Bot. Soc. 70(1-4): 423. 1991.

C. chapelieri Munro (for Louis Armand Chapelier, 1779-1802, see H. Poisson, Etude des manuscrits de Louis Armand Chapelier. Voyageur-Naturaliste (1778-1806). Imprimerie Moderne. Tananarive 1940; “Lettres de Chapelier, copiées sur les originaux existant aux archives de Port-Louis. Annotées par G. Fontoynont.” Bulletin de l‘Académie Malgache 10: 297-371. 1912)

Madagascar. See Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 26(1): 140. 1868, Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 21: 317-353, 407-455. 1884-1885 and Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 72: 86. 1925, W.C. Lin, “The species and distribution of bamboos in the Republic of Malagasy (Madagascar), East Africa.” Special Bulletin of Taiwan Forestry Research Institute no. 4: 33. 1967.

C. chevalieri A. Camus (after the French botanist Auguste Jean Baptiste Chevalier, 1873-1956, author of L’Afrique Centrale Française. Mission Chari-Lac Tchad, 1902-1904. Paris 1907; see J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 1: 340. 1965)

Vietnam. See Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 90: 74. 1943.

C. flavescens Kurz (Melocanna lutescens Kurz; Schizostachyum flavescens (Kurz) R.B. Majumdar)

India, Burma. Cultivated, ornamental, see J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal n.s. 42(2): 252. 1873, Forest Flora of British Burma 2: 564. 1877 and Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae, Bambusoideae 281. 1989.

C. fuchsianum Gamble (Cephalostachyum latifolium Munro; Schizostachyum fuchsianum (Gamble) R.B. Majumdar; Schizostachyum latifolium (Munro) R.B. Majumdar, nom. illeg., non Schizostachyum latifolium Gamble; Schizostachyum latifolium (Gamble) Majumdar; Schizostachyum sharmae S. Kumar & P. Sing)

China, Yunnan. Culms pruinose, culm wall thin, pruinose ring below joint, sheath shedding late, no sheath auricles, sheath ligule very low, sheath blade narrow-lanceolate, 7-11 leaves on each twig, leaf blades ovate-lanceolate sparsely shortly tomentose beneath, strips used in weaving, see Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 26(1): 140. 1868, Annals of the Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta. 7(26): 107, t. 94. 1896 and Fl. Ind. Enumerat.-Monocot. 281. 1989, J. Indian Bot. Soc. 70(1-4): 423. 1991, Edin. J. Bot. 51(1): 29. 1994.

C. langbianense A. Chevalier & A. Camus

Vietnam. See Bull. Mus. Nation. Hist. Nat. Paris 27: 452. 1921.

C. latifolium Munro (Cephalostachyum fuchsianum Gamble; Schizostachyum fuchsianum (Gamble) R.B. Majumdar; Schizostachyum latifolium (Munro) R.B. Majumdar, nom. illeg., non Schizostachyum latifolium Gamble; Schizostachyum latifolium (Gamble) Majumdar; Schizostachyum sharmae S. Kumar & P. Sing)

Bhutan, India, Burma. Internodes rough, culm nodes hairy, culm sheaths ridges, inflorescence compound and unilateral, used for weaving, see Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 26(1): 140. 1868, Annals of the Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta. 7(26): 107, t. 94. 1896 and Fl. Ind. Enumerat.-Monocot. 281. 1989, J. Indian Bot. Soc. 70(1-4): 423. 1991, Edin. J. Bot. 51(1): 29. 1994.

in Bhutan: jhi, ghopi bans, pishima, palom

C. madagascariense A. Camus (Cathariostachys madagascariensis (A. Camus) S. Dransf.)

Madagascar. See Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 72: 88. 1925, Special Bulletin of Taiwan Forestry Research Institute no. 4: 33. 1967, S. Dransfield, “Valiha and Cathariostachys, 2 new bamboo genera (Gramineae-Bambusoideae) from Madagascar.” Kew Bulletin 53(2): 375-397. 1998.

C. mannii (Gamble) Stapleton & D.Z. Li (Arundinaria mannii Gamble; Neomicrocalamus mannii (Gamble) R.B. Majumdar; Racemobambos mannii (Gamble) Campbell)

India. See Annals of the Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta. 7(26): t. 26. 1896, Fl. Brit. Ind. 7: 38. 1896 and Notes SinoHimal. Bamboo Spec. 23. 1988, Fl. Ind. Enumerat.-Monocot. 279. 1989, Kew Bulletin 52(3): 700. 1997.

C. mindorense Gamble (Cephalostachyum mindorensis Gamble)

Philippines. Scrambling, thin-walled, many slender pseudospikelets clustered at each node, used for fencing and handicrafts, household articles, some taxonomic problem for this plant, see Plant Resources of South-East Asia 7: 148-149. 1995.

in Philippines: bagto

C. pallidum Munro (Schizostachyum pallidum (Munro) R.B. Majumdar)

India, Burma, Bhutan, China. Upper part of the culm scan-dent, culm wall thin, branching extending upward with no main branch, sheath narrow long, no sheath auricles, sheath ligule very low, sheath blade narrow-lanceolate to long-lanceolate, leaves ovate-lanceolate its underside scabrous to tomentose, used in weaving and making flutes, see Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 26(1): 139. 1868 and Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae, Bambusoideae Botanical Survey of India, Flora of India, Series 4, 282. Calcutta 1989 [also Fl. Ind. Enumerat.-Monocot. 282. 1989].

C. peclardii A. Camus (Cathariostachys capitata (Kunth) S. Dransf.; Nastus capitatus Kunth)

Madagascar. See Révision des Graminées 1: 325, t. 75. 1830 and Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 72: 87-88. 1925, Special Bulletin of Taiwan Forestry Research Institute no. 4: 19, 33. 1967, Kew Bulletin 53(2): 391. 1998.

C. pergracile Munro (Oxytenanthera aliena McClure; Schizostachyum pergracile (Munro) R.B. Majumdar)

Myanmar (Burma). Tufted, sympodial, deciduous, growing in large stands, young culms densely covered with small adnate pubescence, very thin walled, erect with nodding to pendulous tips, branches from the upper nodes, culm sheath thick and leathery, sheath blade erect or extending outward, sheath auricles long ovate, leaf blades linear-lanceolate and rough, inflorescence drooping, pseudospikelets, spikelets with 1-2 sterile florets at base, often flowers sporadically, can be propagated by seed and rhizome cuttings, widely cultivated, ornamental, stems used for fishing rods and in building, fences, wind-breaks, crate weaving, basketry, handicrafts, binding materials, raw material for paper pulp, young shoots bitter and edible, in Burma internode of a 1-year-old culm used for cooking glutinous rice, found in mixed deciduous forests, hills, see Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 26(1): 141. 1868 and Lingnan University Science Bulletin 9: 39. 1940, Economic Botany 11: 235-243. 1957, The Indian Forester 102: 579-595. 1976, Fl. Ind. Enumerat.-Monocot. 282. 1989.

in English: tinwa bamboo

in Burma: tinwa

in India: latang, madang

in Laos: khauz hla:m

in Thailand: khaao laam, khao lam, khui pang, khui paang, mai-pang, paang, pang, phai-khaolam, phai-khaolarm, wa blo, waa blo, wa phlong, waa phlong

C. perrieri A. Camus

Madagascar. Climbing, scandent, see Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 72: 85. 1925, Special Bulletin of Taiwan Forestry Research Institute no. 4: 18, 33. 1967.

C. scandens Bor (Cephalostachyum scandens Jia Rong Xue & C.M. Hui, nom. illeg., non Cephalostachyum scandens Bor; Cephalostachyum scandens Hsueh & C.M. Hui, nom. illeg., non Cephalostachyum scandens Bor; Schizostachyum scandens (Bor) H.B. Naithani & Bennet)

Burma, China. Scandent, straggling, see Kew Bulletin 12(3): 419. 1958, Indian Forester 117(1): 68. 1991, Research of Bamboos from Nujiang (Salween), Yunnan, China 22. 1996, Kew Bulletin 52(3): 699-702. 1997, Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 35(6): 562-565. 1997.

C. viguieri A. Camus

Madagascar. Solid, climbing, lining, erect or suberect, eaten by Hapalemur aureus, see Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 72: 85-86. 1925, Special Bulletin of Taiwan Forestry Research Institute no. 4: 19, 33. 1967.

in Madagascar: tsiergolovolo

C. virgatum (Munro) Kurz (Melocanna virgata Munro; Schizostachyum virgatum (Munro) H.B. Naithani & Bennet)

Myanmar. Culm top slightly drooping, thin-walled, manifold branching at lower portion of culm, branches spreading horizontally, young culm pruinose, sheath auricles like narrow stripe, sheath blade narrow-lanceolate erect or turned outside down, leaves lanceolate, inflorescence borne on leafless branch, several to many groups of slender pseudospikelets at each node, culms used for matting, handles, household utensils, in ware weaving used as rafters or strips, found growing in evergreen forests, some taxonomic problem for this plant, see Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 26(1): 133. 1868, Forest Flora of British Burma 2: 564. 1877 and Indian Forester 117(1): 68. 1991.

in Myanmar: waba

in Thailand: pai hia, phai hia, phai hiae

Ceratochaete Lunell = Zizania L.

From the Greek keras, keratos “a horn” and chaite “bristle, mane, loose flowing hair, long hair.”

Ehrhartoideae, Oryzeae, Zizaniinae, type Ceratochaete aquatica (L.) Lunell, see Species Plantarum 2: 991. 1753 and American Midland Naturalist 4: 214. 1915, Phytologia 72: 6. 1992, Sida 17(3): 533-549. 1997, Newslett. Int. Organ. Pl. Biosyst. (Oslo) 30: 10-15. 1999, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 39: 116-118. 2000.

Ceratochloa DC. & P. Beauv. = Bromus L., Ceratochloa P. Beauv.

Greek keras, keratos “a horn” and chloe, chloa “grass,” referring to the seeds.

Pooideae, Bromeae, type Ceratochloa cathartica (Vahl) Herter, see Species Plantarum 1: 76-78. 1753, A.M.F.J. Palisot de Beauvois, Essai d‘une nouvelle Agrostographie. 75, 158. 1812, Flora Rossica 4(13): 360. 1852 and U.S.D.A. Div. Agrostol. Bull. 23: 1-66. 1900, Revista Sudamericana de Botánica 6(5-6): 144. 1940, Blumea 4(3): 498. 1941, Brittonia 7: 421. 1952, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 102: 447. 1981, Taxon 41: 559. 1992, Taxon 44: 611-612. 1995, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 154-191. 2003.

Cerea Schltdl. = Cerea Thou. (Elaeocarpaceae), Ceresia Pers., Paspalum L.

Panicoideae, Paniceae, Paspalinae, see Systema Naturae, Editio Decima 846, 855, 1359. 1759, Louis-Marie Aubert Aubert du Petit-Thouars (1758-1831), Histoire des Végétaux Recueillis dans les Isles Australes d‘Afrique (edition 2) t. 28. Paris 1805, Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 12: 820. 1854 and Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 12: 116. 1908, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 443-527. 2003.

Ceresia Pers. = Paspalum L.

Ceres, the daughter of Saturn and Ops.

Panicoideae, Paniceae, Paspalinae, type Ceresia elegans Pers., see Systema Naturae, Editio Decima 846, 855, 1359. 1759, Flora Caroliniana, secundum ... 75. 1788, Tableau Encyclopédique et Méthodique ... Botanique 1: 177. 1791, Synopsis Plantarum 1: 85. 1805, Essai d‘une Nouvelle Agrostographie 9: 171, t. 5, f. 4. 1812, A Sketch of the Botany of South-Carolina and Georgia 1(2): 109, pl. 6. f. 4. 1816, Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 2: 290. 1817, Conspectus Regni Vegetabilis 49. 1828, Flora Brasiliensis seu Enumeratio Plantarum 2: 76. 1829, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 333. 1840, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 2: 256. 1841, Botanische Zeitung. Berlin 19(44): 326. 1861, Genera Plantarum 3: 1098. 1883, Index Kewensis 1: 489. 1893, Revisio Generum Plantarum 3(2): 360. 1898 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 24: 153. 1925, Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 26(15): 230. 1929, Linnaea 26: 133. 1953, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 335-352. 1994, Las Gramíneas de México 5: 1-446. 1999, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 89(3): 337-399. 2002 [Systematic revision and phylogeny of Paspalum subgenus Ceresia (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae)], Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 443-527. 2003.

Ceytosis Munro = Crypsis Aiton

Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae, Sporobolinae, or Chloridoideae, Zoysieae, Sporobolinae, see Hortus Kewensis; or, a catalogue ... 1: 48. 1789, Collectanea ad omnem rem botanicam spectantia partim e propriis, partim ex amicorum schedis manuscriptis concinnavit et edidit J.J. Roemer. Turici [Zürich], apud H. Gessnerum, [1806-]1809, J. Linn. Society Botany 6: 54. 1862 and Mittheilungen der Thüringischen Botanischen Vereins, ser. 2, 30: 83. 1913, Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 17(19-30): 293. 1921, Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, Zweite Auflage 14d: 62. 1956, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 41: 38, 56-57. 2001.

Chaboissaea E. Fourn. = Muhlenbergia Schreb.

About 4 species, North and South America, north-central Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, the Caribbean. Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae, Muhlenbergiinae, annual or perennial, erect or decumbent, caespitose, often rooting at lower nodes, auricles absent, ligule a membrane, leaf blades linear, plants bisexual, inflorescence a panicle exserted or partially included in upper sheath, disarticulation above glumes, solitary spikelets laterally compressed, florets 1-3 per spikelet, lower floret perfect, upper floret staminate or sterile, sterile florets absent or present, 2 glumes more or less equal, lemma entire and awned or awnless or mucronate, palea glabrous, lodicules fleshy and glabrous, stamens 3, ovary glabrous, stigmas 2, widespread in marshy areas, open habitats, ephemeral pools, seasonally wet marshes, drainage ditches, closely related to Muhlenbergia Schreb., type Chaboissaea ligulata E. Fourn., see Genera Plantarum 44. 1789, Systema Naturae ... editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata 2: 171. 1791, Mexicanas Plantas 2: 112. 1886 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 17: 181-189. 1913, Flora Taxonomica Mexicana, vol. 1. 1946, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 43: 405-407. 1953, Phytologia 37(4): 317-407. 1977, Australian Journal of Botany 33: 433-484. 1985, Phytologia 65: 155-157. 1988, P.M. Peterson and C.R. Annable, “A revision of Chaboissaea (Poaceae: Eragrostideae).,” Madroño 39(1): 8-30. 1992, American Journal of Botany 81: 622-629. 1994, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 276-286. 1994, Madroño 42(4): 427-449. 1995, Sida 17: 349-365. 1996, Brittonia 50(1): 23-50. 1998, P.M. Peterson, “Systematics of the Muhlenbergiinae (Chloridoideae: Eragrostideae).” Grasses: Systematics and Evolution 195-212. 2000, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 41: 143-173. 2001.

Species

C. atacamensis (Parodi) P.M. Peterson & Annable (Muhlenbergia atacamensis Parodi; Muhlenbergia atacamensis var. atacamensis; Muhlenbergia atacamensis var. brachyanthera Parodi)

South America. Annual, see Revista Argentina de Agronomía 15: 248, 250. 1948, Madroño 39(1): 19. 1992.

C. decumbens (Swallen) Reeder & C. Reeder (Muhlenbergia decumbens Swallen)

Mexico. Annual, see Boletín de la Sociedad Botánica de México 23: 30-32, f. 4. 1958 [1959], Phytologia 65(2): 156. 1988.

C. ligulata E. Fourn. (Muhlenbergia ligulata (E. Fourn.) Scribn. & Merr.)

Mexico. Good forage, see Mexicanas Plantas 2: 112, t. 1. 1886 and Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 24: 19. 1901.

in Mexico: pelillo

C. subbiflora (Hitchc.) Reeder & C. Reeder (Muhlenbergia subbiflora Hitchc.)

Mexico. Annual, moist soil, see North American Flora 17(6): 437. 1935, Phytologia 65(2): 156. 1988.

Chaetaria P. Beauv. = Aristida L.

Greek chaite “bristle, loose flowing hair.”

Arundinoideae, Aristideae, or Aristidoideae, Aristideae, type Chaetaria stricta (Michx.) P. Beauv., see Species Plantarum 1: 82. 1753, Essai d‘une nouvelle Agrostographie, ou nouveaux genres des Graminées. 30, 152, 158. 1812, Mémoires de l‘Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint Pétersbourg. Sixième Série. Sciences Mathématiques, Physiques et Naturelles 1(1): 83. 1830 and Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 22(7): 529. 1924, Meded. Rijks.-Herb. 54: 9. 1926, Kurtziana 1: 123-206. 1961, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 253-257. 1994, Flora del Valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán 3: 1-35. 1994, Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 76-85. 1995, Grassland of China 1995(1): 16-20. 1995, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 82: 593-595. 1995, Candollea 53(2): 466-470. 1998, Bot. Rev. 64: 1-85. 1998, Boletim do Instituto de Botânica (São Paulo) 12: 113-179. 1999, Acta Botánica Mexicana 63: 1-45. 2003, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 69-104, 151-152. 2003.

Chaetium Nees = Berchtoldia J. Presl

From the Greek chaite “bristle, loose flowing hair, foliage.”

About 3 species, tropical South America, Brazil, Mexico, West Indies. Panicoideae, Panicodae, Paniceae, or Panicoideae, Paniceae, Melinidinae, perennial, herbaceous, unbranched, caespitose, erect, solid internodes, auricles absent, plants bisexual, inflorescence racemose or panicu-late, loose single raceme along a central axis, spikelets lanceolate solitary or paired, 2 glumes subequal and awned, lower glume sometimes reduced to an awn, lower lemma acuminate or awned, upper lemma shortly awned, palea present, 2 free and fleshy lodicules, 3 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, open areas, along roadsides, grasslands, trails, moist forest, type Chaetium festucoides Nees, see Species Plantarum 1: 55. 1753, Flora Brasiliensis seu Enumeratio Plantarum 2(1): 269-271. 1829, Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 323-324, t. 43. 1830, Flora Brasiliensis 2(2): 149. 1877 and Brittonia 23(3): 293-324. 1971, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 330-331. 1994, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 85(3): 404-424. 1998 [Revisión sistemática y análisis cladístico del género Chaetium (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae).], Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 152-153. 2003.

Species

C. bromoides (J. Presl) Benth. ex Hemsl. (Berchtoldia bromoides J. Presl; Panicum berchtholdiae Döll)

Mexico. Perennial, erect, forming colonies, forage, found along roadsides, see Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1: 324, t. 43. 1830, Flora Brasiliensis 2(2): 150. 1877, Biologia Centrali-Americana; ... Botany ... 3: 503. 1885.

C. cubanum (C. Wright) Hitchc. (Bouteloua litigiosa Lag.; Perotis cubana C. Wright)

West Indies, Cuba. Awnless, see Hortus Kewensis 1: 85. 1789, Variedades de Ciencias, Literatura y Artes 2(4,21): 134. 1805, Genera et species plantarum 5. 1816, Anales de la Academia de Ciencias Medicas ... 8: 288. 1871 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 12(6): 232. 1909.

C. festucoides Nees (Oplismenus festucoides (Nees) Kunth; Panicum chaetium Steud.; Panicum festucoides Poir.)

South America, Brazil. See Flore d‘Oware 2: 14. 1807 [1810], Encyclopédie Méthodique. Botanique ... Supplément 4: 283. 1816, Flora Brasiliensis seu Enumeratio Plantarum 2(1): 270-271. 1829, Enumeratio Plantarum Omnium Hucusque Cognitarum 1: 146. 1830, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 2: 254. 1841.

Chaetobromus Nees = Danthonia DC.

From the Greek chaite “bristle” plus Bromus L., bromos “oats,” referring to the shape of the spikelets.

About 1-3 species, South Africa. Arundinoideae, Danthonieae, perennial, tufted, herbaceous, erect, unarmed, branched, sometimes long-rhizomatous or stoloniferous, sometimes decumbent, rooting also occurs at the lower nodes, black nodes, network of roots and runners, auricles absent, ligule a fringe of hairs, plants bisexual, inflorescence paniculate open or contracted, spikelets solitary 2- to 4-flowered, linear pungent bearded callus, 2 glumes papery equal or subequal, lemmas membranous with long awns and bristles, female-fertile lemmas with a bent awn, palea present, lodicules glabrous, 3 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, coastal species, on sandy soil, dry stony soils, a difficult genus, serious taxonomic problems, type Chaetobromus involucratus (Schrad.) Nees, see Flore Française. Troisième Édition 3: 32. 1805, Essai d‘une Nouvelle Agrostographie 92, t. 18, f. 8. 1812, Systema Vegetabilium 2: 690. 1817, A Natural System of Botany 449. 1836, Florae Africae Australioris Illustrationes Monographicae 1: 344-345. 1841 and Bothalia 18: 111-114, 119-122. 1988, South African Journal of Botany 61: 60-65. 1995, Genome 33: 646-658. 1990, Nordic Journal of Botany 18: 57-77. 1998 [A re-evaluation of species limits in Chaetobromus (Danthonieae: Poaceae)], P.C. Beukes and R.M. Cowling, “Evaluation of restoration techniques for the Succulent Karoo, South Africa.” Restoration Ecology 11(3): 308-316. Sep 2003.

Species

C. dregeanus Nees (Chaetobromus involucratus subsp. dregeanus (Nees) Verboom; Danthonia dregeana (Nees) Steud.)

South Africa. See Florae Africae Australioris Illustrationes Monographicae 1: 343-345. 1841, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 244. 1854 and Nordic Journal of Botany 18(1): 74. 1998.

C. involucratus (Schrad.) Nees (Avena involucrata Schrad.; Danthonia involucrata (Schrad.) Schrad.; Pentameris involucrata (Schrad.) Nees)

South Africa. Perennial, stoloniferous or tufted, rhizomatous, erect, basal leaves and sheaths hairy, basal florets with central awn usually not geniculate, rocky places, see Göttingische gelehrte Anzeigen (unter der Aufsicht der Königl. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften) 3: 2075. 1821, Mantissa 2: 383. 1824, Linnaea 7(3): 310. 1832, Florae Africae Australioris Illustrationes Monographicae 344-345. 1841 [Agrostographia Capensis ... denuo impressa. Halae 1853], Conspectus Florae Africae 5: 851. 1894 and Nordic Journal of Botany 18(1): 70, 72. 1998.

C. schraderi Stapf

South Africa. Perennial, erect, rooting at the lower nodes, subterranean runners, leaves with sharp points, inflorescence paniculate, spikelets on the side branches, valuable grazing crop, used to protect sandy soil against wind erosion, among shrubs, rocky areas, sandy soil, see Flora Capensis 7: 538. 1899 and Bothalia 18: 119-122. 1988, Genome 33: 646-658. 1990.

in South Africa: wortelgras

Chaetochloa Scribner = Setaria P. Beauv.

Greek chaite “bristle, mane, crest, foliage” and chloe, chloa “grass.”

Panicoideae, Paniceae, Setariinae, type Chaetochloa viridis (L.) Scribn., see Essai d‘une Nouvelle Agrostographie 51, 178. 1812, Index Seminum [Berlin] 18. 1855, Frank Lamson Scribner (1851-1938), in Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 4: 38-39. 1897 and Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 22(3): 156, 158. 1920, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 359-363. 1994, J.F. Veldkamp, “Miscellaneous notes on southeast Asian Gramineae: 9. Setaria and Paspalidium.” Blumea 39: 373-384. 1994, R.D. Webster, “Nomenclatural changes in Setaria and Paspalidium (Poaceae: Paniceae).” Sida 16: 439-446. 1995, Darwiniana 37(1-2): 37-151. 1999, Sida 18(4): 1037-1047. 1999, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 569-593. 2003.

Chaetopoa C.E. Hubb. = Anthephora Schreb.

Greek chaite “bristle, mane, crest, foliage” and poa “grass, pasture grass.”

About 2 species, Tanzania. Panicoideae, Panicodae, Paniceae, annual, herbaceous, slender, loosely tufted, erect, geniculately-ascending, auricles absent, ligule membranous, leaf sheaths hairy, narrow leaf blades, plants bisexual, cylindrical spiciform inflorescence bearing deciduous clusters of shortly pedicelled sterile spikelets embracing 1 sessile bisexual spikelet, 2 glumes subequal, bisexual spike-let lower glume suppressed or subulate, upper glume more or less lanceolate, upper lemma acuminate awned, sterile spikelets glumes long and awnlike, palea present, 2 glabrous lodicules, 3 stamens, ovary hairy, 2 stigmas, rocky places, open habitats, see Beschreibung der Gräser 2: 105, t. 44. Leipzig 1769-1810 and Hooker‘s Icones Plantarum 37: t. 3646. 1967, Kew Bulletin 32(4): 579-581. 1977, Flora of Tropical East Africa 451-898. 1982.

Species

C. pilosa W.D. Clayton

Tanzania. See Kew Bulletin 32(3): 579. 1978.

C. taylori C.E. Hubbard

Tanzania.

Chaetopogon Janchen = Chaeturus Link

From the Greek chaite “bristle, mane, crest, foliage” and pogon “a beard.”

About 1-2 species, Mediterranean. Pooideae, Poodae, Aveneae, annual, herbaceous, auricles absent, narrow linear leaf blades, ligule an unfringed membrane, plants bisexual, contracted inflorescence paniculate, spikelets without rachilla extension and shortly pedicellate, 2 membranous glumes unequal and longer than floret, lower glume awned, lemma rounded and acute, palea nerveless, 2 lodicules membranous, 3 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, sandy places, see Flora Berolinensis Prodromus 200. 1787, Journal für die Botanik 1799(2): 313. 1800 and Erwin Janchen (1882-1970), Die europäischen Gattungen der Farn-und Blütenpflanzen ... (edition 2) 33. Leipzig und Wien 1913, M. Gandoger (1850-1926), Flora cretica. Parisiis 1916, Lagascalia 15: 119-124. 1988, Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana, ser. 2 63: 153-205. 1990.

Species

C. creticus (Coustur. & Gand.) Hayek (Chaeturus creticus Coustur. & Gand.)

Creta. See Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis, Beihefte 30(3): 335. 1932.

C. fasciculatus Link (Hayek) (Chaeturus fasciculatus Link; Polypogon fasciculatus (Link) Pers.)

Mediterranean, Spain. See Flora Atlantica 1: 66. 1798 [1800], Syn. Pl. 1: 80. 1805 and Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis, Beihefte 30(3): 335. 1932.

Chaetostichium C.E. Hubb. = Oropetium Trin.

Greek chaite “bristle, mane, crest, foliage” and stichos “rank.”

One species, Africa. Chloridoideae, Eragrostideae, type Chaetostichium minimum (Hochst.) C.E. Hubbard, perennial, herbaceous, densely tufted, narrow and rigid leaf blades, ligules fringed, plants bisexual, slender and recurved inflorescence spicate, spikes usually flexuous or coiled, spikelets solitary, 1 or 2 glumes per spikelet, lower glume obscure or absent, upper glume acuminate to awned, palea and lodicules present, 3 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, depressions and bushland, shallow soil, among rocks, dry sandy soil, grassy plains, type Chaetostichium minimum (Hochst.) C.E. Hubb., see Fundamenta Agrostographiae 98, t. 3. 1820, Flora 38: 332. 1855 and Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France: Mémoires 8(d): 222. 1912, Hooker‘s Icones Plantarum 34: t. 3341. 1937, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 74: 14. 1947, Webbia 8: 107-108. 1951, Kew Bulletin 1957: 60. 1957, Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique 38: 1285. 1968, Kew Bulletin 30: 467-470. 1975, Kew Bulletin 50: 601-604. 1995.

Species

C. minimum (Hochst.) C.E. Hubbard (Chaetostichium majusculum C.E. Hubb.; Chaetostichium minimum var. macrochaetum Chiov.; Chaetostichium minimum var. microchaetum Chiov.; Lepturus minimus Hochst.; Oropetium majusculum (C.E. Hubb.) Cufod.; Oropetium minimum (Hochst.) Pilg.)

Northeast Africa. Perennial, densely tufted, small, spikes curved.

Chaetotropis Kunth = Polypogon Desf.

From the Greek chaite “bristle, crest, foliage” and tropis, tropidos “keel, the keel of a vessel.”

Pooideae, Poeae, Agrostidinae, see Flora Atlantica 1: 66-67. 1798 [1800], Révision des Graminées 1: 72. 1829 and Flora Mesoamericana 6: 241-242. 1994, Las Gramíneas de México 5: 1-466. 1999, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 583-588. 2003.

Chaeturus Link = Chaetopogon Janchen, Chaeturus Host ex Saint-Lager (Lamiaceae, Labiatae), Chaeturus Rchb. (Lamiaceae), Chaiturus Willd. (Lamiaceae)

Greek chaite “bristle, crest, foliage” and oura “a tail.”

Pooideae, Poodae, Aveneae, see Flora Berolinensis Prodromus 200. 1787, Journal für die Botanik 1799(2): 313. 1800, Conspectus Regni Vegetabilis 116. 1828, Étude des Fleurs, éd. 8 2: 681. 1889 and Die europäischen Gattungen der Farn-und Blütenpflanzen (edition 2) 33. 1913.

Chalcoelytrum Lunell = Chrysopogon Trin.

Greek chalkeios “of copper, of bronze” and elytron “a sheath, a cover.”

Panicoideae, Andropogoneae, Sorghinae, see Species Plantarum 2: 1045. 1753, Fundamenta Agrostographiae 187-188. 1820, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 2(2): 28. 1887 and American Midland Naturalist 4: 212. 1915, Austrobaileya 5(3): 503-533. 1999, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 159-161. 2003.

Chalynochlamys Franch. = Arundinella Raddi

Panicoideae, Arundinelleae, see Journal of Cytology and Genetics 20: 205-206. 1985, Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 75: 1783-1786. 1990, Journal of Cytology and Genetics 25: 140-143. 1990, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 377-378. 1994, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 81(4): 768-774. 1994, J.F. Veldkamp, “Name changes in Agrostis, Arundinella, Deyeuxia, Helictotrichon, Tripogon (Gramineae).” Blumea 41: 407-411. 1996, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 111-113. 2003.

Chamaecalamus Meyen = Calamagrostis Adans.

Greek chamai “on the ground, low, dwarf” and kalamos “a reed, cane.”

Pooideae, Poeae, Agrostidinae, see Familles des Plantes 2: 31, 530. 1763, Tentamen Florae Germanicae 1: 34. 1788, Reise um die Erde 1: 456. 1834, Gramineae 24. 1841, Mémoires de l‘Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint Pétersbourg. Sixième Série. Sciences Mathématiques, Physiques et Naturelles. Seconde Partie: Sciences Naturelles 6,4(3-4): 365. 1841, Nova Acta Phys.-Med. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 19(Suppl. 1): 156. 1843 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 191-227. 2003.

Chamaedactylis T.F.L. Nees = Aeluropus Trin.

Greek chamai “on the ground, low, dwarf” with daktylos “a finger.”

Chloridoideae, see Fundamenta Agrostographiae 143, t. 12. 1820, Genera Plantarum Florae Germanicae iconibus et descriptionibus illustrata ... Bonnae [1833-] 1835-1860 and Grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan 379-381. 1960, Novosti Sist. Vyss. Rast. 1966: 25. 1966, Fitologija 39: 72-77. 1991, S. Khatoon and S.I. Ali, Chromosome Atlas of the Angiosperms of Pakistan. Karachi 1993 [University of Karachi, Department of Botany], Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 81(4): 784-791. 1994.

Chamaeraphis R. Br. = Setosa Ewart

Greek chamai “on the ground, dwarf” and rhaphis, rhaphidos “a needle.”

One species, Australia. Panicoideae, Panicodae, Paniceae, perennial, herbaceous, tufted, solid internodes, auricles absent, narrow leaf blades, ligule an unfringed membrane, plants bisexual, inflorescence densely spicate, imbricate reduced racemes in 2 opposite rows, each raceme composed of a single spikelet with pungent callus and subtended by a stout bristle, 2 glumes unequal, open sandy places, open areas, coastal grassland, type Chamaeraphis hordeacea R. Br., see Robert Brown, Prodromus florae Novae Hollandiae 193-194. 1810, Annales des Sciences Naturelles (Paris) 5: 299. 1825 and Lexicon Generum Phanerogamarum 115. 1903, Alfred James Ewart (1872-1937) and Olive Blanche Davies (fl. 1917), The flora of the Northern territory 33, pl. 2. Melbourne 1917, Icones Plantarum [Hooker‘s] Edn. Ser. 5 2: t. 3140. 1930, The Australian Paniceae (Poaceae) 1-322 (28-29). 1987, Vascular Plant Families and Genera 395. 1992.

Species

C. hordeacea R. Br. (Panicum hordeaceum (R. Br.) Raspail; Setosa erecta Ewart & Cookson)

Australia.

Chamaerhaphis Sprenge

Orthographic variant Chamaeraphis R. Br., see Genera plantarum 1: 76. 1830.

Chamagrostis Borkh. = Mibora Adans.

Greek chamai “dwarf” plus Agrostis.

Pooideae, Poeae, Miliinae, or Aveneae, see Familles des Plantes 2: 495. 1763, Moriz Balthasar Borkhausen (1760-1806), Tentamen dispositionis plantarum Germaniae seminiferarum ... 43. Darmstadt 1792, August Wilhelm Eber-hard Christoph Wibel (1775-1813), Primitiae Florae Werthemensis 126. Ienae [Jena] 1799, English Botany 16: 1127. 1803, Essai d‘une Nouvelle Agrostographie 167, pl. 8, f. 4. 1812, Observations sur les Plantes des Environs d‘Angers 45. 1818, Fundamenta Agrostographiae 135. 1820, Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles. second edition 31: 17. 1824 and Boll. Soc. Bot. Ital. 1925: 151. 1925, Bulletin de la Société d‘Histoire Naturelle de l‘Afrique du Nord 32: 220. 1941, Preslia 46(2): 168. 1974, Taxon 49(2): 243. 2000, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 450. 2003.

Chandrasekharania V.J. Nair, V.S. Ramach. & Sreek

One species, India. Panicoideae, Panicodae, or Arundinelleae, annual, ligule membranous, plants bisexual, contracted panicle capitate, papery spikelets, both florets bisexual, 2 glumes unequal and shortly awned, lemmas membranous with a short straight awn, palea wingless and bilobed, 2 lodicules fleshy and glabrous, 3 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, type Chandrasekharania keralensis V. J. Nair, Ramachandran, Sreekumar, see V.J. Nair, V.S. Ramachandran and P.V. Sreekumar, “Chandrasekharania. A new genus of Poaceae from Kerala, India.” Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Plant Sci.) 91: 79-82. 1982, Uniyal, B.P. & D.C. & Pal., “Additional locality for Chandrasekharania keralensis.” J. Econ. Tax. Bot. 4(3): 950. 1983.

Species

C. keralensis Nair, Ramachandran & Sreekumar

Southern India. Lemma bidentate and short awned.

Chascolytrum Desv. = Briza L., Chondrachyrum Nees

From the Greek chasko “to gape” and elytron “a sheath, a cover.”

About 6 species, South America. Pooideae, Poeae, Brizinae, perennial or annual, caespitose or clump forming, glabrous, leaves nonauriculate, basal sheaths persistent, ligule hyaline and smooth, sheath loose and smooth, rough and green leaves, cleistogamous spikelets, purplish or green compact inflorescence linear to ovate, small curled spikelets in small airy heads on stems, glumes green or purplish, lower glume narrowly obovate, upper glume elliptic, lemmas imbricate and mucronate or shortly awned, upper lemmas with a mid-nerve shortly aristate, palea winged with glabrous wings, ovary glabrous and without a conspicuous apical appendage, fruit ventrally compressed, type Chascolytrum subaristatum (Lam.) Desv., often in Briza L., see Species Plantarum 1: 66-67, 70-71. 1753, Nouveau Bulletin des Sciences, publié par la Société Philomatique de Paris 2: 190. 1810, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum 1: 164. 1815 [1816], A Natural System of Botany 449. 1836, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 288. 1854, Genera Plantarum 3(2): 1194-1195. 1883 and Revista de la Facultad de Agronomia y Veterinaria 3: 120. 1920, Feddes Repertorium 84(7-8): 541. 1973, O. Matthei, “Der Briza-Komplex in Südamerika: Briza, Calotheca, Chascolytrum, Poidium (Gramineae)” Willdenowia. Beihefte 8: 1-168. 1975, Hick-enia 1: 73-78. 1977, Darwiniana 23(1): 279-309. 1981 [Los géneros sudamericos afines a Briza L. (Gramineae).], Boletim do Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul 41: 1-191. 1987, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 229. 1994, Flora Mediterranea 5: 340-345. 1995, Bothalia 27: 75-82. 1997, Cladistics 14: 287-296. 1998 [N.D. Bayón, Cladistic analysis of the Briza Complex (Poaceae, Poeae)], Opera Botanica 137: 1-42. 1999, Lagascalia 21(1): 235-240. 1999, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 146-151, 233-234. 2003.

Species

C. erectum (Lam.) Desv. (Briza erecta Lam.; Briza macro-stachya (J. Presl) Steud.; Briza montevidensis Trin. ex Steud.; Calotheca brizoidea P. Beauv.; Calotheca brizoides (Lam.) Desv.; Calotheca dilatata Link; Calotheca macro-stachya J. Presl; Calotheca montevidensis Spreng. ex Steud.; Festuca brizoides Spreng.; Festuca erecta (Lam.) Spreng. ex Kunth, nom. illeg., non Festuca erecta (Huds.) Wallr.)

South America. Perennial, good forage, see Tableau Encyclopédique et Méthodique ... Botanique 1: 187. 1791, Essai d‘une Nouvelle Agrostographie 86, 155, t. 17, f. 6. 1812, Hortus Regius Botanicus Berolinensis 1: 157. 1827, Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 268, 351. 1830, Enumeratio Plantarum Omnium Hucusque Cognitarum 1: 373. 1833, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 225, 261. 1840, Flora Brasiliensis 2(3): 132. 1878 and Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 24(8): 334. 1927.

C. lamarckianum (Nees) Matthei (Briza fusca (Parodi) Parodi; Briza lamarckiana Nees; Briza lindmanii Ekman; Briza subaristata var. fusca Parodi)

Southern America, southern Brazil to Argentina, Uruguay. Panicle spreading with long and flexuous branches, occurs in sandy fields near small streams, often considered to be a synonim of Chascolytrum lamarckianum (Nees) Matthei, see Flora Brasiliensis seu Enumeratio Plantarum 2: 481. 1829 and Arkiv för Botanik utgivet av K. Svenska Vetenskapsakademien 13(10): 54, t. 4, f. 2. 1913, Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía y Veterinaria 3: 127, f. 2(1). 1920, Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía y Veterinaria 4: 93. 1922, Willdenowia, Beih. 8: 74. 1975.

C. paleapiliferum (Parodi) Matthei (Briza paleapilifera Parodi)

America, Argentina. See Revista de la Facultad de Agronomia y Veterinaria 3: 124, f. 2(5). 1920, Willdenowia, Beih. 8: 88. 1975.

C. parodianum (Roseng., B.R. Arrill. & Izag.) Matthei (Briza parodiana Roseng., B.R. Arrill. & Izag.)

America, Uruguay. See Boletin de la Facultad de Agronomia de Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo 105: 26. 1968, Willdenowia, Beih. 8: 68. 1975.

C. scabrum (Nees ex Steud.) Matthei (Briza scabra (Nees ex Steud.) Ekman; Chondrachyrum scabrum Nees ex Steud.; Panicum scabrum Trin. ex Steud.)

America. See Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 254. 1841, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 276, 288. 1854 and Arkiv för Botanik utgivet av K. Svenska Vetenskapsakademien 13(10): 53. 1913, Willdenowia, Beih. 8: 77, 88. 1975.

C. subaristatum (Lam.) Desv. (Briza microstachya (J. Presl) Steud.; Briza poiformis (Spreng.) Kuntze; Briza reniformis (J. Presl) Steud.; Briza rotundata (Kunth) Steud.; Briza stricta (Hook. & Arn.) Steud.; Briza subaristata Lam.; Briza subaristata var. interrupta (Hack. ex Stuck.) Roseng. B.R. Arrill. & Izag.; Briza triloba Nees; Briza triloba f. pumila Hack. ex Kneuck.; Briza triloba f. violascens Hack.; Briza triloba var. alpha Nees; Briza triloba var. beta Nees; Briza triloba var. grandiflora Döll; Briza triloba var. interrupta Hack.; Briza triloba var. typica Parodi; Briza violascens Steud.; Bromus rotundatus Kunth; Calotheca microstachya J. Presl; Calotheca poiformis Spreng.; Calotheca reniformis J. Presl; Calotheca rotundata (Kunth) Roem. & Schult.; Calotheca rotundata (Kunth) Steud.; Calotheca stricta Hook. & Arn.; Calotheca triloba (Nees) Kunth; Chascolytrum rotundatum (Kunth) Kunth; Chascolytrum trilobum (Nees) Desv.; Festuca commersonii Spreng.)

Mexico, Chile, southern Brazil to Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay. Perennial or annual, caespitose or clump forming, good forage, useful for erosion control, usually in moist cultivated areas, along roadsides, see Tableau Encyclopédique et Méthodique ... Botanique 1: 187. 1791, Nouveau Bulletin des Sciences, publié par la Société Philomatique de Paris 2: 190. 1810, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum 1: 152-153. 1815 [1816], Systema Vegetabilium 2: 632. 1817, Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 1: 348, 353. 1825, Flora Brasiliensis seu Enumeratio Plantarum 2: 482. 1829, Révision des Graminées 1: 121. 1829, Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 268. 1830, The Botany of Captain Beechey‘s Voyage 50. 1832, Enumeratio Plantarum Omnium Hucusque Cognitarum 1: 374. 1833, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 225. 1840, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 283-284. 1854, Flora Chilena 6: 383. 1854, Flora Brasiliensis 2(3): 134. 1878, Revisio Generum Plantarum 3(3): 342. 1898 and Allgemeine Botanische Zeitschrift für Systematik, Floristik, Pflanzengeographie 8: 97. 1902, Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires 21: 146. 1911, Revista de la Facultad de Agronomia y Veterinaria 3: 127, 128, f. 2(1). 1920, Bol. Fac. Agron. Univ. Montevideo 105: 22. 1968, Willdenowia Beih. 8: 79. 1975.

in Mexico: lanternita, linternita

Chasea Nieuwl. = Panicum L.

Dedicated to the American botanist Mary Agnes Chase (née Merrill), 1869-1963, agrostologist, plant collector, traveler, among her writings are First Book of Grasses. New York 1922 and “Poaceae (pars).” North Amer. Fl. 17(8): 568-579. 1939, with the American botanist Albert Spear Hitchcock (né Jennings) (1865-1935) wrote Grasses of the West Indies. Washington [D.C.] 1917, Tropical North American Species of Panicum. Washington [D.C.] 1915 and The North American Species of Panicum. Washington [D.C.] 1910, in 1950 revised the Manual of the Grasses of the United States (by A.S. Hitchcock), with Cornelia D. Niles edited Index to Grass Species. Boston 1962. See J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 1: 335. 1965; T.W. Bossert, Biographical dictionary of botanists represented in the Hunt Institute portrait collection. 71. 1972; J. Ewan, editor, A Short History of Botany in the United States. New York and London 1969; Ida Kaplan Langman, A Selected Guide to the Literature on the Flowering Plants of Mexico. 1964; Frans A. Stafleu and Erik A. Mennega, Taxonomic literature. Suppl. IV. 57-60. 1997.

Panicoideae, Paniceae, Panicinae, see Species Plantarum 1: 55, 58. 1753 and Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 15: 13-15. 1910, American Midland Naturalist 2: 64. 1911, Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Série Botânica 17(2): 297-314. 2001, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 306-441. 2003.

Chasechloa A. Camus = Echinolaena Desv.

For the American botanist Mary Agnes Chase (née Merrill), 1869-1963.

About 3 species Madagascar. Panicoideae, Panicodae, Paniceae, or Panicoideae, Paniceae, Paspalinae, annual or perennial, herbaceous, auricles absent, plants bisexual, inflorescence spicate, spikelets solitary, 2 glumes subequal and winged, lower glume acute to shortly awned, lemmas keeled, palea present, 2 lodicules glabrous and fleshy, 3 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, savannah, often in Echinolaena, type Chasechloa madagascariensis (Baker) A. Camus, see Species Plantarum 1: 55. 1753, Journal de Botanique, Appliquée à l‘Agriculture, à la Pharmacie, à la Médecine et aux Arts 1: 75. 1813, Flora Brasiliensis seu Enumeratio Plantarum 2: 127. 1829 and Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 95: 330-331. 1949, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 302. 1994, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 224-225. 2003.

Species

C. egregia (Mez) A. Camus (Echinolaena boiviniana A.

Camus; Panicum egregium Mez)

Madagascar. See Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 56(Beibl. 125): 5. 1921, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 75: 912. 1928, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 95: 331. 1948[1949].

C. humbertiana A. Camus

Madagascar. See Mémoires de l‘Institut Scientifique de Madagascar, Série B, Biologie Végétal 5: 203-204. 1955.

C. madagascariensis (Baker) A. Camus (Echinolaena madagascariensis Baker)

Madagascar. See Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 21: 452. 1885.

Chasmanthium Link = Gouldochloa Valdés-Reyna, Morden & S.L. Hatch

Greek chasma, chasmatos “open, any wide opening” and anthos “flower.”

About 6 species, eastern U.S., Mexico. Centothecoideae, Centotheceae, or Panicoideae, Centotheceae, perennial, erect or ascending, herbaceous, hollow, rhizomatous, leaf blades linear to narrowly lanceolate, auricles absent, ligule variable, plants bisexual, inflorescence a panicle or a raceme, spikelets cuneate and pedicellate, 2- to 20-flowered, rachilla extension bearing a rudimentary floret, reduced florets both above and below fertile florets, 2 glumes equal or unequal, lemmas acute and papery, palea gibbous, 2 glabrous lodicules, stamen 1-3, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, exposed-cleistogamous or chasmogamous, semiarid shrub-land, woodland, moist areas, traditionally referred to Uniola, type Chasmanthium gracile (Michaux) Link, see Species Plantarum 1: 71. 1753, Hortus Regius Botanicus Berolinensis 1: 159. 1827 and Southw. Nat. 11(2): 145-189. 1966, Southw. Nat. 11(4): 415-455. 1966 [Revision of grasses traditionally referred to Uniola, II. Chasmanthium], Systematic Botany 11(1): 112-118, f. 1-5. 1986, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 158-159. 2003.

Species

C. curvifolium (Valdés-Reyna, Morden & S.L. Hatch) Wipff & S.D. Jones (Gouldochloa curvifolia Valdés-Reyna, Morden & S.L. Hatch)

America, Mexico. See Systematic Botany 11(1): 112-118, f. 1-5. 1986, Phytologia 69(6): 469. 1990 [1991].

C. latifolium (Michx.) Yates (Uniola latifolia Michx.)

U.S. Perennial, clump forming, arching or drooping, ligules a ciliate membrane, panicles open or contracted, spikelets ovate and laterally compressed, nodding clusters of oatlike seed heads, subequal florets, seeds a food source for wild-life, decorative foliage, ornamental and attractive, forage, sometimes used in gardens and landscapes, once established tolerant of drought and salt, found in wet woods, bottom-lands, pondside, see Flora Boreali-Americana 1: 70-71. 1803 and The Southwestern Naturalist 11(4): 416. 1966.

in English: Indian woodoats, broadleaf uniola, wild oats, northern sea oats, spangle grass, sea oats, river oats

in Mexico: canastilla de hoja ancha

C. laxum (L.) Yates (Chasmanthium gracile (Michx.) Link; Holcus laxus L.; Uniola gracilis Michx.; Uniola laxa (L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.; Uniola sessiliflora Poir.; Uniola uniflora Benke; Uniola virgata Bartram ex Pursh)

North America, U.S. Perennial, see Species Plantarum 2: 1047-1048. 1753, Flora Boreali-Americana 1: 71. 1803, Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 8: 185. 1808, Flora Americae Septentrionalis; or, ... 1: 82. 1814, Preliminary Catalogue of Anthophyta and Pteridophyta Reported as Growing Spontaneously within One Hundred Miles of New York 69. 1888 and Rhodora 31(368): 148-149. 1929, The Southwestern Naturalist 11(4): 433, 440, f. 6. 1966, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 77: 601. 1990.

in English: slender woodoats, spike uniola, slender spikegrass, small river oats

C. nitidum (Baldwin) Yates (Uniola intermedia Bosc ex P. Beauv.; Uniola nitida Baldw.)

U.S. Perennial, see Essai d‘une Nouvelle Agrostographie 75, 181. 1812, A Sketch of the Botany of South-Carolina and Georgia 1(2): 167. 1816 and Southw. Naturalist 11(4): 448, 453-454. 1966.

in English: shiny woodoats, shiny spikegrass, spanglegrass.

C. ornithorhynchum (Steud.) Yates (Chasmanthium ornithorhynchum Nees; Chasmanthium ornithorhynchum Nees ex Steud.; Chasmanthium ornithorhynchum (Nees) H.O. Yates; Uniola ornithorhyncha (Nees) Steud.; Uniola ornithorhyncha Steud.; Uniola ornithoryncha (Nees) Steud.)

U.S. Perennial, see Annals of Natural History 1: 284. 1838, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 280, 473. 1854 and The Southwestern Naturalist 11(4): 443, f. 8. 1966.

in English: birdbill woodoats

C. sessiliflorum (Poir.) Yates (Chasmanthium laxum subsp. sessiliflorum (Poir.) L.G. Clark; Chasmanthium laxum var. sessiliflorum (Poir.) J. Wipff & S.D. Jones; Poa sessiliflora (Poir.) Kunth; Uniola longifolia Scribn.; Uniola sessiliflora Poir.)

U.S. Perennial, see Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 8: 185. 1808, Révision des Graminées 1: 111. 1829, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 21(5): 229-230. 1894 and The Southwestern Naturalist 11(4): 426, 433. 1966, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 77(3): 601. 1990, Phytologia 77(6): 456. 1994[1995].

in English: longleaf woodoats, longleaf uniola, slender woodoats

Chasmopodium Stap

From the Greek chasme “gaping, yawning” and podion “a small foot.”

About 2 species, west tropical Africa, Zaire. Panicoideae, Andropogonodae, Andropogoneae, Rottboelliinae, perennial or annual, herbaceous, canelike, pithy stems, robust, coarse, branched, auricles absent, ligule a fringe of hairs, broad leaf blades, plants bisexual, inflorescence axillary, single racemes subcylindrical, spikelets paired sessile and pedicellate, lower floret male, 2 glumes more or less equal, lower glume oblong-ovate and 2-keeled, palea present, 2 free and fleshy lodicules, 3 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, good fodder, used for fencing, sometimes toxic, savannah, rainforest, type Chasmopodium caudatum (Hack.) Stapf, see Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 76. 1917, Flore Agrostologique du Congo Belge 1: 66. 1929, Kew Bulletin 28(1): 51. 1973, Bull. Jard. Bot. Nat. Belg. 48: 373-381. 1978.

Species

C. afzelii (Hack.) Stapf (the name commemorates the Swedish doctor and botanist Adam Afzelius, 1750-1837, botanical collector, pupil of Linnaeus, correspondent of Banks, Smith, and Thunberg, in 1812 professor of materia medica at Uppsala, traveler, he lived in Sierra Leone in 1792-93 and 1794-96 and collected plants there, in 1792 Agric. Adviser, Freetown, Sierra Leone Company, in 1797 medical degree; among other works Afzelius was the author of Genera plantarum Guineensium revisa et aucta. Uppsala [1804]. See J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 1: 18. 1965; Joseph Vallot, “Études sur la flore du Sénégal.” in Bull. Soc. Bot. de France. 29: 172. Paris 1882; G. Murray, History of the collections contained in the Natural History Departments of the British Museum. London 1904; Warren R. Dawson, The Banks Letters. London 1958; Jonas C. Dryander, Catalogus bibliothecae historico-naturalis Josephi Banks. London 1796-1800; Antoine Lasègue, Musée botanique de M. Benjamin Delessert. 1845; H.N. Clokie, Account of the Herbaria of the Department of Botany in the University of Oxford. 121. Oxford 1964; J. Lanjouw and F.A. Stafleu, Index Herbariorum. Part II, Collectors A-D. Regnum Vegetabile vol. 2. 1954; E.M. Tucker, Catalogue of the library of the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. 1917-1933; E.G. Cox, A Reference Guide to the Literature of Travel. Washington 1935; A.P. Kup, editor, “Adam Afzelius Sierra Leone Journal 1795-1796.” Studia Ethnographica Upsaliensae. 27. 1967; Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. 4: 221. 1798; F.N. Hepper and Fiona Neate, Plant Collectors in West Africa. 2, 10. 75. 1971; Anthonius Josephus Maria Leeuwenberg, “Isotypes of which holotypes were destroyed in Berlin.” Webbia. 19(2): 862. 1965; R.W.J. Keay, “Botanical Collectors in West Africa prior to 1860.” in Comptes Rendus A.E.T.F.A.T. 55-68. Lisbon 1962; Sir James Edward Smith (1759-1828), Tracts Relating to Natural History. 288, t. 4, 5, 6, 7. [Octavo, first edition; a collection of 12 essays including “Description of a New Genus of Plants called Boronia.” (the genus Boronia named after the Italian naturalist Francesco Borone, 1769-1794, plant collector, companion of Afzelius in Sierra Leone)] London 1798; Carl Frederik Albert Christensen, Den danske Botaniks Historie med tilhørende Bibliografi. Copenhagen 1924-1926; Pierre Fatumbi Verger, Ewé: The Use of Plants in Yoruba Society. São Paulo 1995; Celia Blanco, Santeria Yoruba. Caracas 1995; C. Bolt, The Anti-Slavery Movement. Oxford 1969; Johnson U.I. Asiegbu, Slavery and the Politics of Liberation 1787-1861. London 1969; Reginald Coupland, The Exploitation of East Africa, 1856-1890: The Slave Trade and the Scramble. London 1939; Robert Clarke, Sierra Leone. London 1843; Nicholas Owen, Journal of a Slave-Dealer. Edited, with an introduction by Eveline Martin. London 1930)

Tropical Africa. See Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 77. 1917.

in English: cane grass, wild rice of the bush, wild rice of the bird

in Guinea: kali

in Nigeria: kamsuvan doki, marorehe, sansari, shinkaafar daajii, shinkaafar tsuntsuu

in Senegal: esisitè

in Sierra Leone: aboboruni, awop, bomie, ethanke, fa, famese, fanebaba, gala, gbande, kala, kale, kali, kalla, ken gras, kesiowuli, ngala, ngalei, ngara, waga

in Upper Volta: ngeloori

West Africa, Sierra Leone. Annual, coarse, robust, canelike

C. caudatum (Hack.) Stapf (Rottboellia caudata Hack.) Central Africa, Sudan. See Supplementum Plantarum 13, 114. 1781 [1782], Monographiae Phanerogamarum 9: 298. 1889 and Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 76. 1917.

in English: cane grass

in Nigeria: kamsuvan doki, marorehe, sansari

Chauvinia Steudel = Spartina Schreb.

After the French botanist François Joseph Chauvin, 1797-1859, algologist, see J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 1: 337. 1965.

Chloridoideae, Zoysieae, Sporobolinae, type Chauvinia chilensis Steud., see Genera Plantarum 43. 1789, Catalecta Botanica 3: 10. 1806, Voyage Autour du Monde 2(2): 14. 1829, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 362. 1854 [1855] and Iowa State College Journal of Science 30(4): 471-574. 1956 [Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Spartina], Flora Mesoamericana 6: 292. 1994, Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 78: 509-540. 1996, M.J. Balick, M.H. Nee & D.E. Atha, Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: i-ix, 1-246. 2000, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 41: 195-200. 2001.

Chennapyrum Á. Löve = Aegilops L.

Presumably from the Greek chenna “a quail” and pyros “grain, wheat.”

Pooideae, Triticeae, Triticinae, see J.C. Buxbaum (1693-1730), Plantarum minus cognitarum centuriae, complectens plantas circa Byzantium et in Oriente observatas Centuria I. Petropoli 1728-1740, Species Plantarum 1: 85. 1753, Species Plantarum 2: 1050-1051. 1753, Familles des Plantes 2: 36, 513. 1763, Enumeratio Methodica Plantarum 371. 1763, Systema Vegetabilium 2: 769. 1817, Notes sur Quelques Plantes Critiques, Rares, ou Nouvelles, ... 2: 69. 1849, Illustrationes Plantarum Orientalium 4: 12, 21, 23. 1851, Flora Dalmatica 3: 345. 1852, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 354. 1854, Flore de France 3: 601. 1856, Plantae Europeae 1: 128. 1890 and Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis Beih. 55: 84, 90, 117. 1929, Blumea, Supplement 3: 15, 17. 1946, Grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan (excluding Bambuseae) 653-655. 1960, Feddes Repert. 91: 225-228, 233-234, 236. 1980, Biologisches Zentralblatt 101(2): 206-208. 1982, Feddes Repert. 95: 493, 495. 1984, Taxon 41: 552-583. 1992, Agric. Univ. Wageningen Pap. 94-7: 1-512. 1994, Taxon 44: 611-612. 1995, Flora de Veracruz 114: 1-16. 2000, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 20-23. 2003.

Chevalierella A. Camus Dedicated to the French botanist Auguste Jean Baptiste Chevalier, 1873-1956 (b. Orne, d. Paris), explorer, plant collector (in French West Africa, Belgian. Congo, Cape Verde Islands., Dahomey, French Guinea, Ivory Coast), father of applied tropical botany, 1905 established Botanical Garden at Dalaba (Guinea), traveler, president of Acad. Science of France, his works include Michel Adanson, voyageur, naturaliste et philosophe. Paris 1934, Travaux bryologiques dédiés à la mémoire de Pierre-Tranquille Husnot. Paris 1942, Nos connaissances actuelles sur la géographie botanique et la flore économique du Sénégal et du Soudan. [Exposition Universelle Internationale de 1900. Colonies françaises.] Paris 1900, Flore vivante de l’Afrique Occidentale Française ... Paris 1938, L‘Afrique Centrale Française. Mission ChariLac Tchad, 1902-1904. Paris 1907 and Monographie des Myricacées. Cherbourg 1901, with François (or Francis) Fleury (1882-1919) in Indochina; see J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 1: 340. Boston 1965; R. Zander, F. Encke, G. Buchheim and S. Seybold, Hand-wörterbuch der Pflanzennamen. 14. Aufl. Stuttgart 1993; François Gagnepain (1866-1952), in Paul Henri Lecomte‘s Flore générale de l‘Indo-Chine. Paris 1944; Henri Jacques-Félix, in Taxon 5(6): 120-125. 1956; Clyde F. Reed, Bibliography to Floras of Southeast Asia. Baltimore, Maryland 1969; F.N. Hepper and Fiona Neate, Plant Collectors in West Africa. 18. Utrecht 1971; J. Lanjouw and F.A. Stafleu, Index Herbariorum. Part II, Collectors A-D. Regnum Vegetabile vol. 2. 1954; Frans A. Stafleu and Erik A. Mennega, Taxonomic literature. Supplement IV. 89-97. 1997; E.M. Tucker, Catalogue of the library of the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. Cambridge, Mass. 1917-1933; Alain Campbell White and Boyd Lincoln Sloane, The Stapelieae. Pasadena 1937.

About 1-2 species, Zaire. Centothecoideae, Centotheceae, perennial, small herbaceous habit, unarmed, leaf blades elliptic and pseudopetiolate, tufted, leafy, plants bisexual, inflorescence spiciform of numerous loose racemes, 1-flowered, spikelets solitary and pedicellate, rachilla extension bearing a small sterile floret, 2 glumes unequal, lemmas awned, palea present, 2 glabrous lodicules, 2 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, forest, shady places, type Chevalierella congoensis A. Camus, see Revue internationale de botanique appliquée et d‘agriculture tropicale 13: 421-422. 1933, Bull. Jard. Bot. Bruxelles 29: 400. 1954, Bull. Sci. Inst. des Recherches Agronomiques tropicales 8. 1962.

Specie

C. congoensis A. Camus

Zaire.

C. dewildemanii (Vand.) Van der Veken ex Compère (Ichnanthus dewildemanii Vanderyst) (for the Belgian botanist Émile Auguste Joseph De Wildeman, 1866-1947, a specialist of the Congolese flora; see J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 1: 450. 1965; Ida Kaplan Langman, A Selected Guide to the Literature on the Flowering Plants of Mexico. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia 1964; Frans A. Stafleu and Richard S. Cowan, Taxonomic literature. 1: 639-643. Utrecht 1976; É.A.J. De Wildeman, “Études de systématique et de géographie botaniques sur la flore du Bas- et du Moyen-Congo.” in Annales du Musée du Congo (Belge). Botanique. Sér. 5 Congo-Kasai. 152, t. 40 (1). 1910; É.A.J. De Wildeman, Reliquiae Dewevreanae ou Énumération des Plantes récoltées par Alfr. Dewèvre en 1895-96 dans l’État Indépendant du Congo. Fasc. 1-2. Bruxelles 1901)

Zaire. See Essai d‘une Nouvelle Agrostographie 56. 1812 and Bulletin agricole du Congo Belge 10: 249. 1919, Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de l‘État 33: 393. 1963.

Chikusichloa Koidzum

From Japanese chiku “bamboo” and Greek chloe, chloa “grass, young grass.”

Three species, Japan, Sumatra, China. Bambusoideae, Oryzodae, Oryzeae, perennial, aquatic or terrestrial, tufted, erect, herbaceous, ligule membranous, leaf blades linear, plants bisexual, open inflorescence paniculate, panicles terminal and lax, spikelets 1-flowered, long slender stipe derived from floret callus, glumes usually absent or vestigial, lemma membranous strongly 5- to 7-veined, awned or awnless, palea present, 2 lodicules, 1 stamen, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, shade species, found in moist places in forest, resembles Leersia Sw., type Chikusichloa aquatica Koidz., see Botanical Magazine (Tokyo) 39: 23-24. 1925, J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo 3: 303. 1930, Yi-Li Keng (1897-1975), “The genus Chikusichloa of Yapan and China.” J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 21: 526-530. 1931.

Species

C. aquatica Koidz.

China, Japan. Type species, leaf sheaths smooth and keeled, panicle lax and purplish, spikelets awned, glumes absent, lemma lanceolate to narrowly ovate, awn scabrous, grains yellowish brown, growing in wet valleys, along streamsides, see Botanical Magazine 39: 23. 1925.

C. brachyathera Ohwi

Japan, Ryûkyû Islands. Awned, see Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 11: 255. 1942.

in English: Iriomote grass

in Japan: Iriomote-gaya

C. mutica Keng

China. Leaf sheaths smooth, panicle lax, spikelets awnless, callus stipe slightly curved, glumes vestigial, lemma lanceolate, stipe with 2 tiny lemma vestiges, grains dark brown, found in damp streamsides in forest, see Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 21(21): 527-530, f. 2. 1931.

Chilochloa P. Beauv. = Phleum L.

From the Greek cheilos “a lip” and chloe, chloa “grass.”

Pooideae, Poeae, Alopecurinae, type Chilochloa boehmeri (Wibel) P. Beauv., see Species Plantarum 1: 59-60. 1753, Primitiae Florae Werthemensis 125. 1799, Essai d‘une Nouvelle Agrostographie 37, 158. 1812, Observations sur les Graminées de la Flore Belgique 131. 1823 [1824], Wilhelm Ludwig Petermann (1806-1855), Deutschlands flora 619. Leipzig 1849 and Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 24: 167. 1925, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 234, 491-494. 2003.

Chimonobambusa Makino = Oreocalamus Keng, Qiongzhuea (T.H. Wen & D. Ohrnberger) J.R. Xue [Pinyin spelling Hsueh] & T.P. Yi, Qiongzhuea J.R. Xue & T.P. Yi, Qiongzhuea Hsueh & Yi, Quiongzhuea Hsueh & Yi

Winter bamboo, bamboo shooting out in cold winter, from the Greek cheimon “winter” plus Bambusa.

About (2-6-)10/20-38 species, south and eastern Asia, Indochina, India, southwest China, Japan. Bambusoideae, Bambusodae, Bambuseae, Arundinariinae or Shibataeinae, monopodial or amphipodial, perennial, woody, tall or shrub-like, sometimes arborescent, erect, diffuse habit, single-stemmed or clump forming, conspicuously thorny, branched above, 3 or more branches at each node, rhizomatous or stoloniferous, rhizomes leptomorph, running rhizomes, flowering culms leafy, multiple twigs, culm sheaths somewhat leathery or chartaceous and deciduous or persistent, sheath blades very small, no sheath auricles, leaves glabrous, culm internodes hollow, internodes smooth or scabrous, the 2-ridged culm nodes usually thorny and very swollen, lower nodes often with rootlets thorns, tubercular aerial roots present, plants bisexual, inflorescence diffuse and compound, a terminal or axillary racemose leafy panicle, racemes fascicled, spikelets terminal on the branchlets and many-flowered, usually 2 glumes frequently 1 or none, lemmas membranous, palea present, 3 stamens, ovary glabrous without the apical appendage, short style, 2 plumose stigmas, forest, type Chimonobambusa marmorea (Mitford) Makino, see Annals of the Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta. 7: 130, t. 119. 1896 and Botanical Magazine (Tokyo) 28(329): 153-154. 1914, Plantae Wilsonianae 2(1): 64. 1914, Journal of Japanese Botany 11(1): 1. 1935, Sunyatsenia 4(3-4): 146-151, t. 37. Canton 1940, Technical Bulletin of the National Forestry Research Bureau 8: 15. 1948, Taxon 6(7): 201-202. 1957, Acta Botanica Yunnanica 1(2): 75-76. 1979, Acta Botanica Yunnanica 2(1): 91-92, 96-99, pl. 3, 4. 1980, Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 21(1): 96-99, pl. 2. 1983, Acta Botanica Yunnanica 5(1): 42-44, 45-46, pl. 3, 4. 1983, Kew Bulletin, Additional Series 13: 48. 1986 [Genera Graminum], Journal of Bamboo Research 5(2): 22. 1986, Journal Nanjing University. Natural Sciences Edition 22(3): 416. 1986, Bamboo Res. 1988(3): 8. 1988, Kew Bulletin 44(2): 349-367. 1989 [A revision of the species described under Arundinaria (Gramineae) in southeast Asia and Africa.], D. Ohrnberger, Genus Chimonobambusa. Augsberg 1990, Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 29(5): 452-455. 1991, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 39: 36. 2000, Anwaruddin Choudhury, “An overview of the status and conservation of the red panda Ailurus fulgens in India, with reference to its global status.” Oryx 35(3): 250-259. July 2001, Johan Gielis, “A generic geometric transformation that unifies a wide range of natural and abstract shapes.” Am. J. Bot. 90: 333-338. 2003, Taxon 53(2): 527. 2004.

Species

C. angustifolia C.D. Chu & C.S. Chao (Chimonobambusa linearifolia W.D. Li & Q.X. Wu)

China, Guangxi, Sichuan. Glabrous, culm and branch fragile, culm sheath papyraceous shorter than internode, tiny tubercles caducous, shoots bitter, found near ditches, wet spots, hills, in hardwood forests, see Journal of Nanjing Agricultural College 1981(3): 36, t. 5. 1981, Journal of Bamboo Research 4(1): 47-48, f. 3. 1985.

C. armata (Gamble) Hsueh & Yi (Arundinaria armata Gamble; Chimonobambusa metuoensis Hsueh & Yi; Chimonocalamus armatus (Gamble) R.B. Majumdar; Oreocalamus armatus (Gamble) T.H. Wen)

China. Culm cylindrical, internodes of branches ridged and grooved, nodes thorny, sheath annulus convex, sheath shorter than internode and shedding late, sheath blade tiny and erect, no sheath auricles, sheath ligule truncate, leaves lanceolate, edible shoots, see Annals of the Royal Botanic Garden. Calcutta. 7: 130, t. 119. 1896 and Journal of Bamboo Research 2(1): 38. 1983, Journal of Bamboo Research 5(2): 22. 1986, Journal of Bamboo Research 6(2): 11-13, f. 2. 1987, Fl. Ind. Enumerat.-Monocot. 275. 1989.

in Thailand: tut

C. brevinoda Hsueh & W.P. Zhang

China, southeast Yunnan. Internodes cylindrical or square, leaves 3-5 per twig, culm annulus convex, lower nodes often with rootlets thorns, culm sheath persistent and longer than internode, sheath auricles absent, sheath ligule indistinct, leaf blades lanceolate, braod-leaved forest, see Journal of Bamboo Research 7(1): 14-16, f. 1. 1988.

C. callosa (Munro) Nakai (Arundinaria callosa Munro; Chimonobambusa callosa (Munro) Makino; Chimonocalamus callosus (Munro) Hsueh & Yi; Sinobambusa callosa (Munro) T.H. Wen)

Asia, Bhutan, India. Shrubby, erect, single, smooth, striate when young, nodes pubescent and thorny, internodes smooth, nodes swollen subtended by a ring, culm sheaths pubescent, leaf sheaths glabrous, auricles small, leaves oblong-lanceolate, branched panicle, nodes of the panicle subtended by sheathing bracts, 2 glumes nerved, lemmas mucronate and ciliate, paleas acute, 3 lodicules fimbriate, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas shortly plumose, culms used for thatching and tying, young shoots edible, growing in open clumps, in forests, deep shade, see Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 26(1): 30. 1868 and Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 6(3): 151. 1925, Acta Botanica Yunnanica 1(2): 84. 1979, Journal of Bamboo Research 1(1): 35. 1982, Kew Bulletin 44: 366. 1989, Edinb. J. Bot. 51: 327. 1994.

in India: kaure maling, khare bans, spar, sypar, u-spar, uskong, uspar

Vernacular names: khare bans, rawa, u

C. communis (Keng f.) Wen & Ohrnb. (Chimonobambusa communis (J.R. Xue & T.P. Yi) K.M. Lan; Chimonobambusa communis (J.R. Xue & T.P. Yi) Wen & D. Ohrnberger; Oreocalamus communis (J.R. Xue & T.P. Yi) Keng f.; Qiongzhuea communis J.R. Xue & T.P. Yi)

China. See Acta Botanica Yunnanica 2(1): 96-98, pl. 3. 1980, Journal Nanjing University. Natural Sciences Edition 22(3): 416. 1986, Flora Guizhouensis 5: 308. 1988.

C. convoluta Q.H. Dai & X.L. Tao

China, Guangxi. Internodes with yellowish brown longitudinal tomentum, sheath shorter than internode and deciduous, see Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 20(2): 212-213, pl. 2. 1982.

C. damingshanensis Hsueh & W.P. Zhang

China, Guangxi, Nanning. Sheath densely tomentose, a ring of dark brown tomentose below nodes, basal nodes with root-thorns, inflorescence paniculate or racemose, lemmas papery awned, slopes, see Bamboo Res. 7(3): 5, t. 1. 1988.

C. densifolia (Munro) Nakai (Arundinaria densifolia Munro; Sinarundinaria densifolia (Munro) C.S. Chao & Renvoize; Yushania densifolia (Munro) R.B. Majumdar)

Sri Lanka; Kerala, India. Rare, small, shrubby, gregarious, thick or thin walls, nodes prominent with 2 or 3 branches, culm sheath hirsute, leaves subsessile and rounded at the base, scaly thick rhizome, inflorescence on leafy branches, 2 glumes attenuate, lemmas and glumes with an awned tip, paleas 2-keeled, 3 lodicules, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas plumose, leaves used as a fodder for cattle, see Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 26(1): 32. 1868 and Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 6: 151. 1925, Kew Bulletin 44(2): 354. 1989.

C. fansipanensis Nguyen & Vucan

Vietnam. See Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 76(7): 994. 1991

C. grandifolia Hsueh & W.P. Zhang

China. Culm wall thick, 3 branches at each node, internode cylindrical, sheath papyraceous and shedding late, sheath blade triangular, sheath annulus with a ring of dense brown hair, lower internodes often with rootlets thorns or spiny air roots, leaves oblong-lanceolate, edible shoots, ornamental, see Journal of Bamboo Research 7(1): 17-19, f. 2. 1988.

C. hejiangensis C.D. Chu & C.S. Chao

China, Hejiang, Sichuan. Sheath deciduous, internode tubercular, see Journal of Nanjing Agricultural College 1981(3): 36, t. 6. 1981.

C. hirtinoda C.S. Chao & K.M. Lan

China. Culm square, young culm densely hairy, sheath blade tiny, 3 branches at each node, nodes with tubercles, spiny aerial roots, sheath papyraceous longer than inter-node, leaves membranous oblong-lanceolate or lanceolate, see Bamboo Research in Asia 1982(1): 2, f. 2. 1982.

C. lactistriata W.D. Li & Q.X. Wu

China. Short and sparse tubercular setae, 3 branches at each node, sheath papyraceous usually longer than internode, sheath blade narrow triangular or absent, sheath auricles undeveloped, sheath ligule tiny or absent, leaves lanceolate finely pubescent beneath, see Journal of Bamboo Research 4(1): 46-47, f. 2. 1985.

C. leishanensis Yi

China. See Acta Botanica Yunnanica 13(2): 144-145, pl. 1. 1991.

C. linearifolia W.D. Li & Q.X. Wu

China. See Journal of Bamboo Research 4(1): 47-48, f. 3. 1985.

C. luzhiensis (Keng f.) Wen & Ohrnb. (Chimonobambusa luzhiensis (J.R. Xue & T.P. Yi) T. H. Wen & D. Ohrnberger; Chimonobambusa luzhiensis (J.R. Xue & T.P. Yi) K.M. Lan; Oreocalamus luzhiensis (J.R. Xue & T.P. Yi) Keng f.; Qiongzhuea luzhiensis J.R. Xue & T.P. Yi)

China. See Acta Botanica Yunnanica 5(1): 45-46, pl. 4. 1983, Journal Nanjing University. Natural Sciences Edition 22(3): 416. 1986, Flora Guizhouensis 5: 309. 1988.

C. macrophylla Wen & Ohrnb. (Chimonobambusa macro-phylla (J.R. Xue & T.P. Yi) T. H. Wen & D. Ohrnberger; Qiongzhuea macrophylla J.R. Xue & T.P. Yi; Qiongzhuea macrophylla f. macrophylla)

China. See Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 23(5): 398-399, pl. 1. 1985, Acta Botanica Yunnanica 10(1): 51, 53, f. 1, 2. 1988.

C. macrophylla Wen & Ohrnb. f. intermedia Wen & Ohrnb. (Chimonobambusa macrophylla f. intermedia (J.R. Xue & D.Z. Li) T. H. Wen & D. Ohrnberger; Qiongzhuea intermedia J.R. Xue & D.Z. Li)

China.

C. macrophylla Wen & Ohrnb. f. leiboensis Wen & Ohrnb. (Chimonobambusa macrophylla f. leiboensis (J.R. Xue & T.P. Yi) T. H. Wen & D. Ohrnberger; Qiongzhuea macro-phylla f. leiboensis J.R. Xue & T.P. Yi)

China.

C. maculata Wen (Chimonobambusa maculata (T.H. Wen) Wen; Qiongzhuea maculata T.H. Wen)

China. See Journal of Bamboo Research 5(2): 22, f. 5. 1986, Journal of Bamboo Research 7(1): 31. 1988.

C. marmorea (Mitford) Makino (Arundinaria marmorea (Mitford) Makino; Arundinaria matsumurae Hack., also spelled matsumarae; Arundinaria nana Makino; Bambusa marmorea Mitf.; Chimonobambusa marmorea Makino; Chimonobambusa marmorea (Mitford) Nakai; Chimonobambusa purpurea J.R. Xue & T.P. Yi; Phyllostachys marmorea (Mitford) Asch. & Graebn.)

Asia temperate, Japan. Origin unknown. Small, slender, round culm, smooth, purple-lined, 3 branches at each node, nodes prominent, internodes glabrous, nodes of lower part with spiny air roots, sheath persistent or shedding late, culm sheaths softly membranous and marbled brown and white, running rhizomes, leaf blades narrowly lanceolate or band-like lanceolate, leaves glabrous, spikelets linear with 4-7 florets, terminal floret usually male, 0-3 glumes frequently 1 or none, lemmas ovate-lanceolate, palea 2-mucronate at the tip, 3 ovate lodicules, 3 stamens exserted, ovary narrowly ovoid, 2 feathery stigmas, may be invasive, edible shoots tasty, ornamental, cultivated, used for furniture, handles, see The Bamboo Garden 46: 547. 1894, Botanical Magazine (Tokyo) 11: 160. 1897 and Synopsis der mitteleuropäischen Flora 2(1): 778. 1902, Botanical Magazine (Tokyo) 28(329): 154. 1914, Bulletin de l‘Herbier Boissier 7(9): 716. 1929, Report Fuji Bamboo Garden 17: 8. 1972, Journ. Yunnan For. Coll. 1982(1): 36, f. 2. 1982.

in English: winter bamboo, marble bamboo

in Japan: kan-chiku

C. marmorea (Mitford) Makino var. marmorea (Arundinaria marmorea (Mitford) Makino; Bambusa marmorea Mitford; Chimonobambusa setiformis T.H. Wen; Phyllostachys marmorea (Mitford) Ascherson & Graebner)

Asia temperate. A ring of root-thorns on basal nodes, see The Bamboo Garden 46: 547. 1894 and J. Bamboo Res. 3(2): 29. 1984.

C. marmorea (Mitford) Makino var. purpurea (Hsueh & T.P. Yi) D.Z. Li (Chimonobambusa neopurpurea T.P. Yi; Chimonobambusa purpurea Hsueh & T.P. Yi)

Asia temperate. Robust, a ring of root-thorns on nonbranching nodes, see J. Yunnan Forest. Coll. 1982 (1): 36. 1982, J. Bamboo Res. 8(3): 23. 1989.

C. metuoensis Hsueh & Yi

China, Tibet. See Journal of Bamboo Research 2(1): 34, t. 4. 1983.

C. microfloscula McClure

China, Yunnan. Internode cylindrical, 3 branches at each node, some basal nodes with spiny aerial roots, sheath caducous and shorter than internode, sheath ligule with a ciliate tip, leaves oblong-lanceolate, edible shoots, cultivated, planted as hedge and fence, growing in hardwood forests, see Lingnan University Science Bulletin 9: 17. 1940.

C. montigena Ohrnb. (Chimonobambusa montigena (Yi) Ohrnberger; Qiongzhuea montigena Yi)

China, Yunnan. See Journal of Bamboo Research 9(3): 28-30, f. 2. 1990.

C. neopurpurea Yi (Chimonobambusa purpurea Hsueh & Yi)

China, Sichuan. Aerial roots under branch, sheath thinly papyraceous and longer than internode, edible shoots, culm used for papermaking, shelter, fence, screen, see J. Bamboo Res. 8(3): 22, pl. 2. 1989, Acta Botanica Yunnanica 14(2): 137-138. 1992.

C. ningnanica Hsueh & L.Z. Gao (Chimonobambusa tuberculata J.R. Xue & L.Z. Gao)

China, Tibet. See Journal of Bamboo Research 2(1): 38. 1983, Journal of Bamboo Research 6(2): 11-15, f. 2, 3. 1987.

C. opienensis (Keng f.) Wen & Ohrnb. (Chimonobambusa opienensis (J.R. Xue & T.P. Yi) T.H. Wenb & D. Ohrnberger; Oreocalamus opienensis (J.R. Xue & T.P. Yi) Keng f.)

China. See Acta Botanica Yunnanica 2(1): 98-99, pl. 4. 1980, Journal Nanjing University. Natural Sciences Edition 22(3): 416. 1986.

C. pachystachys Hsueh & Yi

China, Yunnan. Square or cylindrical internodes, yellowish brown, tubercular air roots, sheath deciduous or persistent, sheath auricles absent, sheath ligule truncate, bamboo for giant panda, see Journ. Yunnan. For. Coll. 1982(1): 33, f. 1. 1982.

C. paucispinosa Yi

China, Yunnan. See Journal of Bamboo Research 9(3): 24-26, f. 1. 1990.

C. puberula (Keng f.) Wen & Ohrnb. (Chimonobambusa puberula (J.R. Xue & T.P. Yi) T. H. Wen & D. Ohrnberger; Chimonobambusa puberula (J.R. Xue & T.P. Yi) K.M. Lan; Oreocalamus puberulus (J.R. Xue & T.P. Yi) Keng f.; Qiongzhuea puberula J.R. Xue & T.P. Yi)

China. See Acta Botanica Yunnanica 5(1): 42-44, f. 3. 1983, Journal Nanjing University. Natural Sciences Edition 22(3): 416. 1986, Flora Guizhouensis 5: 308. 1988.

C. pubescens Wen

China. See Journal of Bamboo Research 5(2): 20. 1986.

C. quadrangularis (Franceschi) Makino (Arundinaria angulata (Munro) Porterf.; Arundinaria quadrangularis (Franceschi) Makino; Bambusa quadrangularis Franceschi; Chimonobambusa angulata K.M. Nakai; Chimonobambusa quadrangularis (Fenzi) Makino; Phyllostachys quadrangularis (Franceschi) Rendle; Tetragonocalamus angulatus (Munro) Nakai; Tetragonocalamus quadrangularis (Franceschi) Nakai)

Asia temperate, China, Sichuan, Guangxi, Taiwan. Diffuse bamboo, solitary culms, well-spaced, dark green, thick-walled but fragil, internodes quadrangular, extensively running rhizomes, branch nodes swollen, lowest nodes with spiny rootlets, culm sheath triangular, leaf sheath bristly at the apex, leaves lanceolate or narrowly lanceolate, branches spreading and drooping, culm surface rough, shoot delicious, cultivated, naturalized, ornamental, used as walking stick, see Arboretum Amazonicum 5: 401. 1880, Botanical Magazine (Tokyo) 9: 71. 1895 and Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 36(254): 443. 1904, Botanical Magazine (Tokyo) 28(329): 153-154. 1914, Science Education [Rika Kyô-iku] 15(16): 67. Tokyo 1932, Journal of Japanese Botany 9(2): 86, 88-90. 1933, Report Fuji Bamboo Garden 17: 10. 1972, Cuscatlania 1(6): 1-29. 1991, Journal of Bamboo Research 10(1): 17-18. 1991.

in English: square bamboo, square-stem bamboo, square-stemmed bamboo

in Japan: shiho-chiku, shi-hou-chiku, shihou-chiku zoku, shikaku-dake, kimmei-hou-chiku (with green oblong stripes on the bud canal), tatejima-hou-chiku, suow-shikaku dake

C. quadrangularis (Franceschi) Makino f. purpureiculma

Wen China. See Journal of Bamboo Research 8(1): 24. 1989.

C. rigidula (Keng f.) Wen & Ohrnb. (Chimonobambusa rigidula (J.R. Xue & T.P. Yi) T. H. Wen & D. Ohrnberger; Oreocalamus rigidulus (J.R. Xue & T.P. Yi) Keng f.; Qiongzhuea rigidula J.R. Xue & T.P. Yi)

China. See Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 21(1): 96-99, pl. 2. 1983, Journal Nanjing University. Natural Sciences Edition 22(3): 416. 1986.

C. rivularis Yi

China. See Journal of Bamboo Research 8(3): 18-21, f. 1. 1989.

C. setiformis Wen

China. Greenish purplish, sheath persistent and papyraceous, no sheath auricles and cilia, sheath ligule arcuate, leaves narrowly lanceolate glabrous, see Journal of Bamboo Research 3(2): 29, t. 5. 1984.

C. szechuanensis (Rendle) Keng f. (Arundinaria szechuanensis Rendle; Oreocalamus szechuanensis (Rendle) Keng f.)

China, Sichuan. Glabrous, middle and lower portion of culm square, several nodes with spiny aerial roots, culm sheath caducous and shorter than internode, forming thickets, shoot edible, culm used for papermaking, a plant for giant panda, see Plantae Wilsonianae 2(1): 64. 1914, Sunyatsenia 4(3-4): 147-148. 1940, Technical Bulletin of the National Forestry Research Bureau 8: 15. 1948.

C. szechuanensis (Rendle) Keng f. var. flexuosa Hsueh & C. Li (Chimonobambusa szechuanensis f. flexuosa (J. R. Xue & C. Li) T.H. Wen & D. Ohrnberger)

China, Sichuan. Culm zigzag and abnormally swollen, used for making smoking pipes, see Journ. Yunn. For. Coll. 1982(1): 40, f. 3. 1982.

C. tuberculata Hsueh & L.Z. Gao (Chimonobambusa armata f. tuberculata (J.R. Xue & L.Z. Gao) T.H. Wen; Chimonobambusa ningnanica J.R. Xue & L.Z. Gao)

China, Yunnan. Culm cylindrical, young culm densely pubescent, 3 or more branches at each node, at nodes 4-12 spiny tubercular aerial roots, caducous sheath long triangular and longer than internode, leaves lanceolate, see Journal of Bamboo Research 2(1): 38. 1983, Journal of Bamboo Research 6(2): 11-15, f. 2, 3. 1987.

C. tumidissinoda Hsueh & Yi ex Ohrnb. (Chimonobambusa tumidinoda (J.R. Xue & T.P. Yi) T.H. Wen; Qiongzhuea tumidinoda Hsueh & Yi)

China. See Acta Botanica Yunnanica 2(1): 93, pl. 1-2. 1980, Journal of Bamboo Research 10(1): 17. 1991, Taxon 53(2): 527. 2004.

C. unifolia Wen (Chimonobambusa unifolia (Yi) T.H. Wen; Qiongzhuea unifolia Yi)

China. See Journal of Bamboo Research 9(1): 27-29, f. 1. 1990.

C. utilis (Keng) Keng f. (Oreocalamus utilis Keng)

China, Sichuan, Guizhou. Internode cylindrical or square, culm smooth and glabrous, sheath papery, sheath ligule green, 3 branches on each nodes, edible shoot, timber bamboo, see Sunyatsenia 4(3-4): 148-151, t. 37. 1940, Technical Bulletin of the National Forestry Research Bureau 8: 15. 1948.

C. verruculosa Wen & Ohrnb. (Chimonobambusa verruculosa (T.P. Yi) T. H. Wen & D. Ohrnberger; Qiongzhuea verruculosa T.P. Yi)

China. See Bulletin of Botanical Research (Harbin) 8(4): 65-67, pl. 2. 1988.

C. yunnanensis Hsueh & W.P. Zhang

China, Yunnan. Internode square, sometimes cylindrical, culm annulus flat, sheath blade triangular, nodes below middle culm with spiny aerial roots, no sheath auricles, in evergreen hardwood forests, see Journal of Bamboo Research 7(1): 19-21, f. 3. 1988.

Chimonocalamus Hsueh & Yi = Chimonocalamus J.R. Xue & T.P. Yi, Sinarundinaria Nakai

From the Greek cheimon, cheimonos “winter” and kalamos “a reed, cane.”

About 16 species, China, India, Bhutan, Myanmar. Bambuseae, Thamnocalaminae, erect, shrubby or arborescent, sympodial, rhizomes short-necked, thorny, clump-forming, 3 or more branches, joint of branches swollen, culm sheaths caducous longer than internodes, sheath ligule developed, inflorescence semelauctant shortly paniculate on leafy flowering branches, 2 glumes, lemmas slightly awned, paleas 2-keeled, 3 lodicules, 3 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas plumose, mountains, subtropical regions, used for house construction and weaving, edible shoots, cavity of culms often containing a fragrant oil, see Journal of Japanese Botany 11(1): 1. 1935, Acta Botanica Yunnanica 1(2): 74-92. 1979, Kew Bulletin 44(2): 349-367. 1989, Journal of South China Agricultural University 10(2): 45. 1989, Edinburgh Journal of Botany 51(2): 284, 290. 1994, Journal of Bamboo Research 13(4): 1-3, f. 1. 1994, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 39: 112-113. 2000.

Species

C. bicorniculatus S.F. Li & Z.P. Wang (Semiarundinaria bicorniculata (S.F. Li & Z.P. Wang) Govaerts)

China. See Acta Phytotax. Sin. 33(6): 614-615, f. 1. 1995, World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1): 21. 1999.

C. burmaensis (C.S. Chao & Renvoize) D.Z. Li (Chimonocalamus burmaensis (C.S. Chao & Renvoize) Ohrnb.; Sinarundinaria burmaensis C.S. Chao; Sinarundinaria burmaensis C.S. Chao & Renvoize)

Burma. See Kew Bulletin 43(3): 409, f. 1. 1988, Acta Botanica Yunnanica 16(1): 40. 1994.

C. callosus (Munro) Hsueh & Yi (Arundinaria callosa Munro; Arundinaria far Brandis ex Camus; Chimonobambusa callosa (Munro) Nakai; Sinobambusa callosa (Munro) Wen)

Bhutan, India. See Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 26(1): 30. 1868 and Indian Trees 721. 1906, J. Arnold Arboretum 6: 151. 1925, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 1(2): 84. 1979, J. Bamb. Res. 1(1): 35. 1982, Edinb. J. Bot. 51(3): 327. 1994.

Local names: khare bans, khare maling, u, rawa

C. delicatus Hsueh & Yi

China. Sheath coriaceous but fragile and easy to break, culm annulus convex, sheath blade lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, no sheath auricles, sheath ligule denticulate, edible shoots, see Acta Bot. Yunnan. 1(2): 77-78, f. 1. 1979.

in China: xiangzhu

C. dumosus Hsueh & Yi

China, Yunnan. Young culm gray pruinose, sheath annulus smooth, culm auricles convex, manifold branching, sheath papery, sheath blade erect, sheath auricles absent, sheath ligule rusty hairy, 3-7 leaves on each twig, edible shoots, bushy, see Acta Bot. Yunnan. 1(2): 81-82, f. 7. 1979.

in China: xiao xiangzhu

C. dumosus Hsueh & Yi var. pygmaeus Hsueh & Yi

China. Aerial roots densely clustered, sheath blades caducous, green branches, see Acta Bot. Yunnan. 1(2): 82. 1979.

C. fimbriatus Hsueh & Yi

China, Yunnan, Kengma. Young culm sparsely tomentose, aerial spiny roots densely clustered, sheath coriaceous, culm sheath ligule fimbriate, edible shoot, see Acta Bot. Yunnan. 1(2): 78-79, f. 3. 1979.

in China: liusu xiangzhu

C. gallatlyi (Gamble) Hsueh & Yi (Arundinaria gallatlyi Gamble; Chimonobambusa gallatlyi (Gamble) Rhind; Sinarundinaria gallatlyi (Gamble) C.S. Chao & Renvoize)

Burma. See Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 7: 23, pl. 21. 1896 and Bull. Misc. Inf., Kew 47. 1928, The Grasses of Burma 2: 10. Calcutta 1945, J. Bamb. Res. 2(1): 38. 1983, Kew Bulletin 44(2): 354. 1989.

C. griffithianus (Munro) Hsueh & Yi (Arundinaria griffithiana Munro; Chimonobambusa griffithiana (Munro) Nakai; Sinarundinaria griffithiana (Munro) C.S. Chao & Renvoize)

Burma, India, China. See Trans. Linn. Soc. 26(1): 20. 1868 and J. Arnold Arboretum 6: 151. 1925, Acta Botanica Yunnanica 1(2): 83-84. 1979, Kew Bulletin 44(2): 353. 1989.

in China: geshi xiangzhu

C. longiligulatus Hsueh & Yi

China, Yunnan, Luchun. Culm annulus and sheath annulus convex, aerial spiny roots closely arranged, sheath coriaceous and caducous, sheath blade erect, 2-6 leaves on each twig, edible shoots, see Acta Phytotax. Sin. 23(3): 236, f. 1. 1985.

C. longispiculatus R.B. Majumdar (Chimonocalamus long-ispiculatus (C.S. Chao & Renvoize) D.Z. Li; Sinarundinaria longispiculata C.S. Chao & Renvoize)

India. See Kew Bulletin 43(3): 411. 1988, Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae, Bambusoideae Botanical Survey of India, Flora of India, Series 4, 276. Calcutta 1989, Acta Botanica Yunnanica 16(1): 41. 1994.

C. longiusculus Hsueh & Yi

China, Yunnan. Thick-walled, internodes solid, thick and spiny air roots, 4-5 branches at each node, sheath coriaceous shedding late, sheath blade linear and erect, sheath auricles small or absent, leaves linear, shoots edible, hard and tough wood used in rural construction, bushy, see Acta Bot. Yunnan. 1(2): 80-81, f. 6. 1979.

in China: changje xiangzhu

C. lushaiensis Ohrnb. (Chimonocalamus longispiculatus (C.S. Chao & Renvoize) D.Z. Li; Chimonocalamus long-ispiculatus (C.S. Chao & Renvoize) Ohrnb.; Sinarundinaria longispiculata C.S. Chao & Renvoize)

India. See Acta Bot. Yunnan. 16(1): 41. 1994, Kew Bulletin 43(3): 411, f. 2. 1988.

C. makuanensis Hsueh & Yi

China, Yunnan, Maguan. Young culms densely silky pubescent, air roots at each node of branches, 3-4 branches at each node, yellow-striped culm sheath caducous, sheath blade erect, edible shoot, see Acta Bot. Yunnan. 1(2): 80, f. 5. 1979.

in China: maguan xiangzhu

C. montanus Hsueh & Yi

China, Yunnan, Tengchong. Smooth, glabrous, spiny air roots expanding above branches, sheath blade slender lanceolate with wavy base, 2-4 leaves on each twig, see Acta Bot. Yunnan. 1(2): 79, f. 4. 1979.

in China: shan xiangzhu

C. pallens Hsueh & Yi

China, Yunnan, Yuanyang. Young culm with grayish to grayish green powder, aerial roots present, sheath coriaceous, sheath blade ribbon-like lanceolate, sheath ligule denticulate, see Acta Bot. Yunnan. 1(2): 79, f. 2. 1979.

in China: huizhu

C. tortuosus Hsueh & Yi

China, Tibet. Aromatic bamboo, 2-9 branches on each node, young culm silky pubescent, sheath persistent, sheath blade broadly lanceolate, culm sheath blade twisted when dry, sheath auricles convex and purplish, sheath ligule purplish and triangular, 3-7 leaves on each twig, found growing in broad-leaved forests, see Acta Botanica Yunnanica 1(2): 82, f. 8. 1979.

in China: xizang xiangzhu

Chionachne R. Br. = Sclerachne R. Br.

Greek chion “snow” and achne “chaff, glume,” alluding to the fruits or to the nature of the spikelet.

About 7 species, Southeast Asia, Polynesia, Indomalayan region, Indochina, eastern Australia. Panicoideae, Andropogonodae, Maydeae, or Andropogoneae, Chionachninae, perennial, rarely annual, woody and persistent or herbaceous, reedlike, rhizomatous or caespitose, bulbous base, culms cylindrical, branched, culm nodes hairy or glabrous, culm internodes solid or hollow, ligule tomentose, leaf blades flat, plants monoecious, inflorescence axillary, spiciform spatheate racemes bearing paired spikelets with female segments below and male segments above, all the fertile spikelets unisexual, basal female spikelet and several males, pedicelled spikelet suppressed or vestigial, male spikelets 2-flowered and solitary or 2-nate, 2 glumes dissimilar and membranous, caryopsis enveloped in the hard lower glume, palea present, lodicules absent, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, some species prone to grazing and trampling, on moist grassy slopes, forest margins, riverbanks, type Chionachne barbata (Roxb.) R. Br., see Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, new series, 5: 142. 1835, John Joseph Bennett (1801-1876) and Robert Brown, Plantae Javanicae rariores. 15, 18, 20. London 1838, Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint Pétersbourg. Sixième Série. Sciences Mathématiques, Physiques et Naturelles. Seconde Partie: Sciences Naturelles 6,4(3-4): 273. 1841, Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae 8: 116. 1873, Flora Australiensis 7: 515. 1878, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 2(3): 518. 1894 and Meded. Rijks-Herb. 67: 1-17. 1931, R.P. Celarier, “Cyto-taxonomy of the Andropogoneae 2. Subtribes Ischaeminae, Rottboellinae, and the Maydeae.” Cytologia 22: 160-183. 1957, Kew Bulletin 35: 813. 1981, Blumea 47(3): 545-580. 2002 [Revision of Chionachninae (Gramineae: Andropogoneae), by T.A. Jannink & J.F. Veldkamp].

Species

C. biaurita Hack.

Australia, Philippines. See Philippine Journal of Science 1(Suppl.): 263. 1906, Blumea 47(3): 556-557, f. 1. 2002.

C. cyathopoda (F. Muell.) Benth. (Chionachne cyathopoda (F. Muell.) F. Muell. ex Benth.; Polytoca cyathopoda (F. Muell.) Bailey; Sclerachne cyathopoda F. Muell.)

Western Australia. Perennial, tufted, reedlike, rhizomatous, produces coarse fodder, palatable when young, eaten by horses, a weed of irrigation canals, along the banks of river, clay, sand, see Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae 8: 116. 1873, Fl. Austral. 7: 516. 1878 and The Queensland Flora 6: 1849. 1902, Mededeelingen Van‘s Rijks-Herbarium 67: 11. 1931, Blumea 47(3): 557-559, f. 2. 2002.

in English: cane grass, river grass

C. gigantea (J. König) Veldkamp (Chionachne barbata (Roxb.) Aitch.; Chionachne barbata (Roxb.) Benth., nom. illeg., non Chionachne barbata (Roxb.) Aitch.; Chionachne barbata (Roxb.) Duthie, nom. illeg., non Chionachne barbata (Roxb.) Aitch.; Chionachne barbata (Roxb.) R. Br.; Chionachne koenigii (Spreng.) Thwaites; Coix arundinacea Lam.; Coix arundinacea J. König ex Willd., nom. illeg., non Coix arundinacea Lam.; Coix barbata Roxb.; Coix crypsoides Müll. Hal.; Coix gigantea J. König; Coix koenigii Spreng.; Polytoca barbata (Roxb.) Stapf)

Australia, India. Coarse, male spikes erect, pedicels jointed, used as fodder when young, growing in rice fields, moist rich soil, banks of water courses, see Der Naturforscher (Halle) 23: 211. 1788, Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 3: 422. 1791, Species Plantarum. Editio quarta 4: 203. 1805, Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 1: 239. 1824, Flora Indica; or, Descriptions of Indian Plants 3: 569. 1832, Plantae Javanicae Rariores 18. 1838, Botanische Zeitung. Berlin 19(45): 334. 1861, Enumeratio Plantarum Zeylaniae 357. 1864, Catalogue of the Plants of the Punjab and Sindh 157. 1869, Flora Australiensis: A Description ... 7: 515. 1878, A List of the Grasses of N.W. India, Indigenous and Cultivated 11. 1883, The Flora of British India 7(21): 102. 1897 [1896] and Blumea 47(3): 559-560, f. 3. 2002.

in India: bhus, ghella gadee, gurgur, kadpi, kirma-gilaram gadi, varival

C. hubbardiana Henrard

Western Australia, Queensland. Annual or perennial, arid habitats, black sand, black clay, see Blumea 3(3): 162-163. 1938, Blumea 47(3): 560-562, f. 4. 2002.

in English: hairy ribbon grass, river grass

C. koenigii (Sprengel) Thwaites & Hook.f. (Chionachne barbata (Roxb.) Aitch.; Chionachne barbata (Roxb.) Benth., nom. illeg., non Chionachne barbata (Roxb.) Aitch.; Chionachne barbata (Roxb.) Duthie, nom. illeg., non Chionachne barbata (Roxb.) Aitch.; Chionachne barbata (Roxb.) R. Br.; Chionachne gigantea (J. König) Veldkamp; Chionachne koenigii (Spreng.) Thwaites; Coix arundinacea Lam.; Coix arundinacea J. König ex Willd., nom. illeg., non Coix arundinacea Lam.; Coix barbata Roxb.; Coix crypsoides Müll. Hal.; Coix koenigii Sprengel; Polytoca barbata (Roxb.) Stapf; Polytoca barbata Stapf)

Eastern India, Sri Lanka. Perennial, coarse, monoecious, robust, stout, erect, branched, nodes softly bearded or hairy, leaf sheaths loose, ligule tomentose, stiff hairs on sheaths and leaves, irritating hairs, bracts subtending racemes, pistillate spikelets solitary, female spikelets sessile, the lower glume of the female spikelet embraces the spikelet, upper floret male or barren, 3 stamens, fruit case solitary, poor fodder, stony fruits used as rosary beads, medicinal value, useful in treating burns, grows in damp situations, riverbanks, along roadsides, in hot and damp regions, woodland borders, see Der Naturforscher (Halle) 23: 211. 1788, Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 3: 422. 1791, Species Plantarum. Editio quarta 4: 203. 1805, Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 1: 239. 1824, Flora Indica; or, Descriptions of Indian Plants 3: 569. 1832, Plantae Javanicae Rariores 18. 1838, Botanische Zeitung. Berlin 19(45): 334. 1861, Enumeratio Plantarum Zeylaniae 357. 1864, Catalogue of the Plants of the Punjab and Sindh 157. 1869, Flora Australiensis: A Description ... 7: 515. 1878, A List of the Grasses of N.W. India, Indigenous and Cultivated 11. 1883, The Flora of British India 7(21): 102. 1897 [1896] and Handb. Fl. Ceylon 5: 194. 1900, Grasses of Ceylon 204. 1956, Grasses of Burma 262. 1960, Blumea 47(3): 559-560, f. 3. 2002.

in India: amarapushpaka, ashvabala, chamarapushpa, darbhapathraka, gela gaddi, ghellagadi, gurgur, ikshugandha, ikshura, ishika, kaasi gaddi, kachalu, kadpi, kalivaeru gaddi, kanda, kansa, kanta-karvel, karmamoola, kasai, kasekshu, kasha, luchra, nadeya, niraja, potagala, sharada, shiri, sukanda, sukku debbe hullu, suku dabha, tauri, thendebalada hullu, vanahasaka, varival

in Thailand: dueai na, duei naa, duei na

C. macrophylla (Benth.) Clayton (Polytoca macrophylla Benth.)

Australia. See Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 19: 52. 1881 and Kew Bulletin 35(4): 814. 1981, Blumea 47(3): 563-564, f. 6. 2002.

C. semiteres (Benth. ex Stapf) Henr. (Chionachne semiteres (Benth.) Henrard; Chionachne semiteres (Benth. ex Stapf) C.E.C. Fisch., nom. illeg., non Chionachne semiteres (Benth. ex Stapf) Henrard; Chionachne wightii Munro ex Benth. & Hook.f.; Polytoca semiteres Benth.; Polytoca semiteres Benth. ex Stapf; Tripsacum semiteres Wall.)

India, Tamil Nadu, Burma. Fruit cases several and winged, grows along roadsides, on dry hill slopes, see Systema Naturae, Editio Decima 1253, 1261, 1379. 1759, Genera Plantarum 3: 113. 1883, The Flora of British India 7(21): 101. 1897 [1896] and Mededeelingen van’s Rijks-Herbarium 67: 16. 1931, Flora of the Presidency of Madras 3: 1706. 1934, Blumea 47(3): 567. 2002.

Chionacne Bal

Orthographic variant of Chionachne R. Br., see Journal Bot. 4: 78. 1890.

Chionanche Endl

Orthographic variant of Chionachne R. Br., see I.L. Endlicher, Enchiridion botanicum, exhibens classes et ordines plantarum accedit nomenclator generum et officinalium vel usualium indicatio. Lipsiae 1841.

Chionochloa Zoto

From the Greek chion “snow” and chloe, chloa “grass, young grass,” referring to the habitat; see Victor Dmitrievech Zotov (1908-1977), New Zealand Journal of Botany 1: 87. 1963.

About 21-24 species, New Zealand, southeast Australia. Arundinoideae, Danthonieae, Danthoniinae, or Danthonioideae, Danthonieae, perennial, caespitose, solitary, forming large and dense tussocks, erect, coarse, herbaceous, harsh foliage, glabrous nodes, hollow internodes, auricles absent, old leaf sheaths persistent, leaf blades flat or folded and persistent or falling or disarticulating, ligule a fringe of hairs, leaves often pungent, plants nearly always bisexual, all species chasmogamous, inflorescence loose or contracted, erect and open or compact panicle of few to many spikelets of few to several bisexual florets, spikelets flattened, 2 unequal glumes acute or rarely awned, lemmas 2-lobed with the lobes often short-awned, lemma lobes conspicuous, long awns present with flattened and more or less twisted column, palea pubescent or glabrous, hairy callus, 2 ciliate lodicules free and toothed to lobed, stamens 3, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, anthers and stigmas simultaneously exserted at anthesis, reproduction by seeds, tussock grasses, alpine and subalpine grasslands, sea level, valuable summer grazing, useful for slope protection, ornamental when in flower, graceful flower heads, sometimes referred to as Danthonia sensu lato and Rytidosperma Steudel, inter-grading with Cortaderia Stapf and Danthonia DC., type Chionochloa rigida (Raoul) Zotov, see Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 45: 274. 1913, Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 51: 1-9. 1937, New Zealand Journal Agric. Res. 3: 728-733. 1960, New Zealand Journal of Botany 1: 78-136. 1963, Heredity 18: 538-540. 1963, New Zealand Journal of Botany 3: 180-193, 300-319. 1965, New Zealand Journal of Botany 4: 392-397. 1966, New Zealand Journal of Botany 5: 3-16. 1967, Vegetatio 18: 289-306. 1969, New Zealand Journal of Botany 8: 132-152. 1970, New Zealand Journal Agric. Res. 13: 534-554. 1970, New Zealand Journal of Botany 10: 205-224, 515-544. 1972, New Zealand Journal of Botany 14: 315-326. 1976, Phytochem. 15: 1933-1935. 1976, New Zealand Journal of Botany 15: 399-442, 761-765. 1977, New Zealand Journal of Botany 16: 255-260, 435-460, 479-498. 1978, New Zealand Journal of Botany 17: 43-54. 1979, New Zealand Journal of Botany 19: 161-170. 1981, Williams, G.R. & Given, D.R. The Red Data Book of New Zealand: Rare and Endangered Species of Endemic Terrestrial Vertebrates and Vascular Plants. Wellington, N.Z.: Nature Conservation Council 1981, New Zealand Journal of Botany 21: 13-20. 1983, Phytochem. 22: 119-124. 1983, Biochem. Syst. Evol. 11: 247-259. 1983, Aust. J. Chem. 37: 1341-1347. 1984, New Zealand Journal of Botany 24: 529-537. 1986, Briggs, J.D. & Leigh, J.H. Rare or Threatened Australian Plants. revised edition. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service 1988, Phytochem. 27: 3499-3507. 1988, New Zealand Journal of Botany 27: 163-165. 1989, J. Ecol. 77: 704-716. 1989, New Zealand Journal of Botany 28: 59-65. 1990, New Phytologist 116: 555-562. 1990, H.E. Connor, “Chionochloa Zotov (Gramineae) in New Zealand.” New Zealand Journal of Botany 29: 219-283. 1991, Phytochem. 31: 702-703. 1992, New Zealand Journal of Botany 30: 125-133. 1992, Trends in Ecology and Evolution 9: 465-470. 1994, New Zealand Journal of Botany 35: 259-262. 1997, Global Change Biology 4: 591-596. 1998, Am. J. Bot. 86: 1136-1145. 1999, Flora of New Zealand 5: 423-459. 2000, Austral. Ecology 25(4): 402-408. Aug 2000, Freshwater Biology 46(2): 213-226. Feb 2001, Journal of Ecology 89(1): 31-39. Feb 2001, Journal of Applied Ecology 38(2): 233-237. Apr 2001, Global Change Biology vol. 8, issue 4: 345-360. Apr 2002, Austral. Ecology 27(4): 369-384. June 2002, Kelvin M. Lloyd, William G. Lee and J. Bastow Wilson, “Competitive abilities of rare and common plants: comparisons using Acaena (Rosaceae) and Chionochloa (Poaceae) from New Zealand.” Conservation Biology 16(4): 975-985. Aug 2002, Freshwater Biology 48(8): 1363-1378. Aug 2003, Kelvin M. Lloyd, J. Bastow Wilson and William G. Lee, “Correlates of geographic range size in New Zealand Chionochloa (Poaceae) species.” Journal of Biogeography 30(11): 1751-1761. Nov 2003, Oikos 104(3): 540-550. Feb 2004, Journal of Biogeography 31(3): 401-413. Mar 2004, William J. Bond, Katharine J. M. Dickinson and Alan F. Mark, “What limits the spread of fire-dependent vegetation? Evidence from geographic variation of serotiny in a New Zealand shrub.” Global Ecology and Biogeography 13(2): 115-127. Mar 2004, Freshwater Biology 49(4): 448-462. Apr 2004, Oikos 107(3): 505-518. Dec 2004, Flora of Australia vol. 44B, Poaceae 3: 26. 2005, Freshwater Biology vol. 50, issue 5: 839-853. May 2005.

Species

C. acicularis Zotov

New Zealand. Erect, slender, leaf sheath persistent, leaf blade disarticulating at ligule, pointed and deciduous leaves, see New Zealand Journal of Botany 1: 101. 1963.

C. antarctica (Hook.f.) Zotov (Bromus antarcticus Hook.f.; Danthonia antarctica (Hook.f.) Hook.f., nom. illeg., non Danthonia antarctica (G. Forst.) Spreng.; Danthonia flavescens var. hookeri Zotov)

New Zealand. Slender, leaf blade disarticulating at ligule, leaves pungent and deciduous, glumes acute or shortly awned, see Flora Antarctica 1: 97, t. 54. 1845[1844], Flora Novae-Zelandiae 1: 302. 1853 and Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 73(3): 234. 1943, New Zealand Journal of Botany 1: 99. 1963.

C. australis (Buchanan) Zotov (Danthonia australis (Buchanan) Buchanan; Danthonia raoulii subsp. australis Buchanan)

New Zealand. Low growing, mat-forming, alpine, deep green, leaf sheath glabrous and hairy, leaf blade persistent, leaves tightly rolled and pungent tipped, lemma scabrid, occurs in steep alpine slopes, see Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 246. 1854, Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 4: 224. 1872, Manual of the Indigenous Grasses of New Zealand 77, t. 31. 1880 and New Zealand Journal of Botany 1: 103. 1963.

in English: alpine carpet grass, carpet grass

C. beddiei Zotov

New Zealand. Caespitose, leaf blade persistent, glumes shortly awned and prickly, on coastal cliffs, see New Zealand Journal of Botany 1: 90. 1963.

C. bromoides (Hook.f.) Zotov (Danthonia bromoides Hook.f.)

New Zealand. Caespitose, gynodioecious, sheath hairy, leaf blade persistent, prickly glumes acute or shortly awned, on coastal cliffs, see Flora Novae-Zelandiae 1: 303. 1853 and New Zealand Journal of Botany 1: 90. 1963.

C. cheesemanii (Hack. ex Cheeseman) Zotov (Danthonia flavescens var. cheesemanii (Hack. ex Cheeseman) Zotov; Danthonia raoulii var. cheesemanii Hack. ex Cheeseman) (for the New Zealand (born at Hull, Yorks) botanist Thomas Frederic (Frederick) Cheeseman, 1846-1923, explorer, botanical collector, from 1854 to New Zealand, 1873 Fellow of the Linnean Society, he is best known for his Manual of the New Zealand Flora. Wellington 1906, with William Botting Hemsley (1843-1924) wrote Illustrations of the New Zealand Flora. [The plates drawn by Miss Matilda Smith, 1854-1926] Wellington 1914. See J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 1: 338. 1965; J. Lanjouw and F.A. Stafleu, Index Herbariorum. Part II, Collectors A.-D. Regnum Vegetabile vol. 2. 1954; O.E. Schulz, Notizblatt des Botanischen Gartens und Museums zu Berlin-Dahlem. 10: 551. 1929)

New Zealand. Tussocky, leaf blade persistent, sheath densely hairy, scabrid leaves, distant florets, glumes hyaline, lemma scabrid, in forest, grasslands, see Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 246. 1854, Handbook of the New Zealand Flora 332. 1864 and Manual of the New Zealand Flora 887. 1906, Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 73(3): 234. 1943, New Zealand Journal of Botany 1: 95. 1963.

C. conspicua (G. Forst.) Zotov (Agrostis conspicua (G. Forst.) Roem. & Schult.; Agrostis conspicua (G. Forst.) Willd. ex A. Rich., nom. illeg., non Agrostis conspicua (G. Forst.) Roem. & Schult.; Arundo conspicua G. Forst.; Calamagrostis conspicua (G. Forst.) Gmelin; Chionochloa conspicua (G. Forst.) Zotov subsp. cunninghamii (Hook.f.) Zotov; Cortaderia conspicua (G. Forst.) Stapf; Deyeuxia conspicua (G. Forst.) Zotov)

New Zealand. Tall, densely tufted, robust, basal leaves dark green to olive, leaf sheath persistent and fibrous, leaf blade margin hairy below, leaves rigid and flat to concave, drooping leaves tardily deciduous, loose seed heads, erect to pendent and hairy open inflorescence, drooping panicles, spikelets 3- to 7-flowered, glumes apex acute or shortly awned, lemma pilose at the base, awn straight, ornamental, rare species, pioneer, used by Maoris for thatching, high wind tolerance, alpine and subalpine habitats, see Florulae Insularum Australium Prodromus 9. 1786, Systema Naturae ... editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata 2: 172. 1791, Essai d‘une Nouvelle Agrostographie 20, 142, 146, 152. 1812, Systema Vegetabilium 2: 364. 1817, Voyage de découvertes de l’Astrolabe ... Part [1]: Essai d’une flore de la NouvelleZélande 127. Paris 1832 and Hand-list Herbaceous Plants Cultivated Royal Bot. Gard. Kew, edition 2, 137, 333. 1902, Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 73(3): 234. 1943, New Zealand Journal of Botany 1: 92. 1963.

in English: Hunangamoho grass, broad-leaved bush tus-sock, plume tussock grass, plumed tussock grass, bush tus-sock, brown tussock, snow grass, snow tussock

in New Zealand: toetoe, toitoi

C. conspicua (G. Forst.) Zotov subsp. conspicua

New Zealand. Leaf sheath and leaf blade hairy.

C. conspicua (G. Forst.) Zotov subsp. cunninghamii (Hook.f.) Zotov (Danthonia antarctica var. laxiflora Hook.f.; Danthonia antarctica var. parviflora Hook.f.; Danthonia cunninghamii Hook.f.; Danthonia pentaflora Colenso)

New Zealand. Leaf sheath and leaf blade glabrous, see Flora Novae-Zelandiae 1: 302. 1853, Handbook of the New Zealand Flora 332. 1864, Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 16: 343. 1884 and New Zealand Journal of Botany 1: 92, 94. 1963.

C. crassiuscula (Kirk) Zotov (Chionochloa pungens (Cheeseman) Zotov; Danthonia crassiuscula Kirk; Danthonia pungens Cheeseman)

New Zealand. Small tawny green tussock, sheath stout and stiff, leaf blade hairy, leaves pungent with thick tips, leaves curl spirally when dry or dead, inflorescence hairy, occurs in the higher rainfall mountains, leached or boggy soils, deep wet hollows, see Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 17: 224. 1885 and Manual of the New Zealand Flora 887. 1906, New Zealand Journal of Botany 1: 103. 1963.

in English: curly-leaved snow tussock, curly snow tussock

C. crassiuscula (Kirk) Zotov subsp. crassiuscula (Chionochloa pungens (Cheeseman) Zotov; Danthonia pungens Cheeseman)

New Zealand. Stout, robust, tussocky, pungent leaf blades curved and coriaceous, in meadows, boggy meadows, see Manual of the New Zealand Flora 887. 1906, New Zealand Journal of Botany 1: 103. 1963.

C. crassiuscula (Kirk) Zotov subsp. directa Connor

New Zealand. Prostrate, slender, wet grassland, boggy grassland, inundated and poorly drained areas, see New Zealand Journal of Botany 1: 103. 1963, New Zealand Journal of Botany 29(3): 236, f. 5. 1991.

C. crassiuscula (Kirk) Zotov subsp. torta Connor

New Zealand. Stout, robust, tussocky, alpine, leaf sheaths glabrous or hairy, leaf blades curled or twisting, see New Zealand Journal of Botany 1: 103. 1963, New Zealand Journal of Botany 29(3): 237, f. 6. 1991.

C. defracta Connor

New Zealand. Tussocky, hairy to scabrid, variable, leaf blades hairy, leaves narrow or long, inflorescence hairy, glumes acute or shortly awned, open slopes, see New Zealand Journal of Botany 25(1): 164. 1987.

C. flavescens Zotov (Danthonia flavescens Hook.f.)

New Zealand. Densely tufted, alpine plant, tough, stout shoots, leaf sheaths glabrous or hairy, leaf blades tapering, glossy leaves drooping and deciduous, dead sheaths break crosswise, glumes acute or shortly awned, growing on rocky coarse textured slopes, on shady slopes, sometimes described under Chionochloa rigida (Raoul) Zotov, see Handbook of the New Zealand Flora 332. 1864 and Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 68: 295. 1938, New Zealand Journal of Botany 1: 97. 1963, New Zealand J. Bot. 29: 253. 1991.

in English: broad leaved snow tussock grass, broad leaved snow tussock

C. flavescens Zotov subsp. brevis Connor

New Zealand. Inflorescence glabrous, grassland, see New Zealand Journal of Botany 1: 97. 1963, New Zealand Journal of Botany 29(3): 240, f. 9. 1991.

C. flavescens Zotov subsp. flavescens

New Zealand. Inflorescence glabrous, grassland, see New Zealand Journal of Botany 1: 97. 1963.

C. flavescens Zotov subsp. hirta Connor

New Zealand. Leaf sheath glabrous, inflorescence very hairy, glumes awned, see New Zealand Journal of Botany 1: 97. 1963, New Zealand Journal of Botany 29(3): 241, f. 10. 1991.

C. flavescens Zotov subsp. lupeola Connor

New Zealand. Leaf sheath glabrous, inflorescence very hairy, see New Zealand Journal of Botany 1: 97. 1963, New Zealand Journal of Botany 29(3): 242, f. 11. 1991.

C. flavicans Zotov (Danthonia antarctica var. elata Hook.f.)

New Zealand. Stout, sprawling, persistent foliage, sheath glabrous, leaf blade margin scabrid, inflorescence dense and compact, distant florets, light-green seed heads, glumes bifid, lemma scabrid, weeping flowers, slow growing, ornamental, occurs in dry areas, see Flora Novae-Zelandiae 1: 302. 1853 and New Zealand Journal of Botany 1: 91. 1963.

in New Zealand: dwarf weeping toi toi, snow tussock

C. flavicans Zotov f. flavicans

New Zealand.

C. flavicans Zotov f. temata Connor

New Zealand. See New Zealand Journal of Botany 29(3): 245, f. 13. 1991.

C. frigida (Vickery) Conert (Danthonia frigida Vickery)

New Zealand, Australia, New South Wales, Kosciuszko district. Perennial, robust, densely caespitose, forming dense stout tussocks, culms smooth and shining, grayish leaves flat or folded, panicles nodding and many-flowered, spikelets 4- to 8-flowered, glumes subequal, central awn geniculate and coarse, anthers yellow-orange, rare species, alpine and subalpine meadows, rocky slopes.

in English: robust wallaby grass, ribbony grass

C. howensis S.W.L. Jacob

Australia, Lord Howe Island. Rare, see Telopea 3(2): 281. 1988.

C. juncea Zotov (Danthonia raoulii var. teretifolia Patrie; Danthonia rigida var. teretifolia (Petrie) Zotov)

New Zealand. Tussocky, swollen bases, leaf sheath entire, leaf blades junceous, old leaf sheaths fibrous and persistent, leaves persistent, glumes glabrous, lemma hairy and glabrous, swampy places, see Annales des Sciences Naturelles; Botanique, sér. 3 2: 116. 1844, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 246. 1854 and Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 54: 571. 1923, Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 73(3): 234. 1943, New Zealand Journal of Botany 1: 101. 1963.

C. lanea Zotov

New Zealand. Slender, tussocky, hairy persistent sheaths, leaf blade tip blunt and leaf blade margin glabrous, deciduous leaves, glumes glabrous, lemma more or less hairy to glabrous, wet ground, boggy sites, grassland, see New Zealand Journal of Botany 25(1): 165. 1987.

C. macra Zotov

New Zealand. Tussock, persistent sheath, leaves narrow flat or loosely rolled, basal sheaths dull purplish brown, inflorescence open and glabrous, glumes subequal, long awn column, alpine areas, harsh climates, see New Zealand Journal of Botany 8: 91. 1970.

in English: slim snow-tussock, slim-leaved snow tussock

C. oreophila (Petrie) Zotov (Chionochloa oreophila var. elata (Petrie) Zotov; Danthonia flavescens var. elata (Petrie) Zotov; Danthonia oreophila Patrie; Danthonia oreophila var. elata Patrie; Danthonia pallida Patrie, nom. illeg., non Danthonia pallida R. Br.)

New Zealand. Small, short and mat-forming, tussock, slender flowering culms, persistent sheaths, inflorescence on flexuous branches, small solitary spikelets, glumes more or less equal, common in snowbanks, grasslands.

in English: snow patch grass, see Handbook of the New Zealand Flora 332. 1864, Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 27: 406. 1895 and Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 45: 274. 1913, Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 73(3): 234. 1943, New Zealand Journal of Botany 1: 104. 1963.

C. ovata (Buchanan) Zotov (Danthonia ovata Buchanan; Danthonia planifolia Petrie)

New Zealand. Tussock, old sheaths fibrous, leaf blade tip pungent and leaf blade margin glabrous, leaf sheaths persistent, inflorescence shortly branched, lemma hairy and glabrous, wet places, grassland, see Manual of the Indigenous Grasses of New Zealand t. 29 (2). 1880 [1879, in Flora of New Zealand 5: 447. 2000]and Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 33: 328. 1901, New Zealand Journal of Botany 1: 104. 1963.

C. pallens Zotov

New Zealand. Green or tawny green tussock, leaf sheaths keeled and glabrous, soft leaves, basal sheaths pale brown to purple, inflorescence glabrous, glumes acute and glabrous, found in the penalpine zone, on rocky well-drained soils, see New Zealand Journal of Botany 1: 99. 1963, W.G Lee, M Fenner, A Loughnan and K.M Lloyd, “Long-term effects of defoliation: incomplete recovery of a New Zealand alpine tussock grass, Chionochloa pallens, after 20 years.” Journal of Applied Ecology 37(2): 348-355. Apr 2000.

in English: mid-ribbed snow tussock

C. pallens Zotov subsp. cadens Connor

New Zealand. Stout, old sheaths hairy and persistent, leaf blade twisting and disarticulating at ligule, see New Zealand Journal of Botany 29(3): 251, f. 17. 1991.

C. pallens Zotov subsp. pallens

New Zealand. Stout, persistent leaf blades, in grassland.

C. pallens Zotov subsp. pilosa Connor

New Zealand. Leaf blade persistent and pilose, in grassland, see New Zealand Journal of Botany 29(3): 252, f. 18. 1991.

C. pallida (R. Br.) S.W.L. Jacobs (Danthonia pallida R. Br.; Notodanthonia pallida (R. Br.) Veldkamp)

New South Wales, Victoria. Perennial, densely caespitose, robust, culms stout and erect, forming erect tussocks, leaves rather rigid and greenish, panicles exserted and spreading, spikelets loosely arranged, glumes subequal and rather narrow, lemma membranous, central awn geniculate and twisted, anthers red-orange, ornamental, grows on poor and acid soils, on upland soils of low fertility.

in English: silvertop wallaby grass, red anther wallaby grass, white-topped wallaby-grass

C. rigida (Raoul) Zotov (Danthonia flavescens Hook.f.; Danthonia raoulii Steud.; Danthonia raoulii var. flavescens (Hook.f.) Hack. ex Cheeseman; Danthonia rigida Raoul; Danthonia rigida Steud., nom. illeg., non Danthonia rigida Raoul)

New Zealand. Erect and spreading, stout, shoots slender, leaf blade deciduous, leaf sheaths pale green to light brown to orange, dead sheaths break crosswise, tough and glossy leaves, inflorescence open, panicle branched and loose, glumes acute or shortly awned, lemma hairy, harsh climate, on poorly drained areas, see Annales des Sciences Naturelles; Botanique, sér. 3 2: 116. 1844, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 243, 246. 1854, Handbook of the New Zealand Flora 332. 1864 and Manual of the New Zealand Flora 886. 1906, New Zealand Journal of Botany 1: 96. 1963, New Zealand J. Bot. 29: 253. 1991.

in English: snow tussock, narrow-leaved snow tussock

C. rigida (Raoul) Zotov subsp. amara Connor

New Zealand. Scabrid or hairy inflorescence, in boggy places, see New Zealand Journal of Botany 29(3): 254, f. 19. 1991.

C. rigida (Raoul) Zotov subsp. rigida

New Zealand. Glabrous inflorescence.

C. rubra Zotov (Danthonia antarctica var. minor Hook.f.; Danthonia raoulii Steudel)

New Zealand. Very tough, slender, upright, dense tussock forming, leaves needle-like red to purple, inflorescence open, glumes acute rarely awned, ornamental, pioneer, high waterlogging tolerance, tolerant of dry or wet conditions, high wind tolerance, seepages and swamps, tussock grassland, bogs, stream banks, see Flora Novae-Zelandiae 1: 302. 1853 and New Zealand Journal of Botany 1: 96. 1963.

in English: red tussock grass, copper tussock, red tussock

C. rubra Zotov subsp. cuprea Connor

New Zealand. Leaf sheath entire, see New Zealand Journal of Botany 29(3): 256, f. 23. 1991.

C. rubra Zotov subsp. occulta Connor

New Zealand. See New Zealand Journal of Botany 29(3): 257, f. 24. 1991.

C. rubra Zotov subsp. rubra

New Zealand. See New Zealand Journal of Botany 1: 96. 1963.

C. rubra Zotov var. inermis Connor

New Zealand. See New Zealand Journal of Botany 29(3): 255, f. 22. 1991.

C. rubra Zotov var. rubra

New Zealand. See New Zealand Journal of Botany 1: 96. 1963.

C. spiralis Zotov

New Zealand, South Island. Vulnerable species, perennial, slender, tussock-forming, leaf sheath glabrous and coiling up, leaves narrow and sharply pointed, narrow inflorescence, branched panicles, spikelets 4- to 6-flowered, glumes acute or shortly awned, lemma hairy and long-awned, in limestone areas, see New Zealand Journal of Botany 1: 100. 1963.

C. teretifolia (Petrie) Zotov (Danthonia teretifolia Petrie)

New Zealand. Tussock, small, leaf blade junceous and dis-articulating at ligule, persistent sheaths, hairy leaves twisting and deciduous, inflorescence open, few solitary spikelets, in grasslands, see Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 46: 36. 1914 and New Zealand Journal of Botany 1: 100. 1963.

C. vireta Connor

New Zealand. Slender, tussock, hairy sheaths entire, leaf blade twisting and disarticulating at ligule, inflorescence glabrous, see New Zealand Journal of Botany 29(3): 261, f. 25. 1991.

Chloachne Stapf = Poecilostachys Hack.

From the Greek chloe, chloa “grass, young grass” and achne “chaff, glume.”

Two species, tropical Africa. Panicoideae, Panicodae, Paniceae, perennial, decumbent, branched, tufted, herbaceous, rhizomatous, rambling, stoloniferous, scrambling, running, trailing, auricles absent, leaf blades lanceolate, ligule a fringed membrane, plants bisexual, inflorescence spicate or paniculate, racemes unilateral, spikelets in pairs or in triplets, 2 glumes unequal or subequal, palea present, 2 free lodicules, 3 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, forest shade, sometimes in Poecilostachys, see Flore d’Oware 2: 14. 1807 [1810], Sitzungsberichte der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Wien. Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftlichen Classe. Abteilung 1 89: 131. 1884, Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 21: 317-353, 407-455. 1884-1885, Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana 6: 141. 1888 and Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 40: 231. 1911, Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de l’État 9(3): 173. 1932, Mémoires de l’Institut Scientifique de Madagascar, Série B, Biologie Végétale 6: 1-272. 1955, W.D. Clayton and S.A. Renvoize, Flora of Tropical East Africa Gramineae 451-898. 1982.

Species

C. oplismenoides (Hack.) Robyns (Chloachne secunda Stapf; Oplismenus anomalus Peter; Panicum oplismenoides Hack.; Poecilostachys flaccidula Stapf ex Rendle; Poecilostachys oplismenoides (Hack.) Clayton)

Africa. See Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana 6: 141. 1888 and Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 40: 231. 1911, Hooker’s Icones Plantarum 31: t. 3072. 1916, Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis, Beihefte 1: 220. 1930 [1931], Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de l’État 9(3): 173. 1932, Kew Bulletin 42: 403. 1987.

C. secunda Stapf (Chloachne oplismenoides (Hack.) Robyns; Panicum oplismenoides Hack.; Poecilostachys oplismenoides (Hack.) Clayton)

Africa. See Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana 6: 141. 1888 and Hooker’s Icones Plantarum 31: t. 3072. 1916, Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de l’État 9(3): 173. 1932, Kew Bulletin 42: 403. 1987.

Chloammia Raf. = Vulpia Gmelin

Perhaps from the Greek chloe, chloa “grass, young grass” and ammos “sand.” Pooideae, Poeae, Loliinae, type Festuca tenella Willd., see Species Plantarum 1: 73-76. 1753, Species Plantarum. Editio quarta 1(1): 419. 1797, Flora Badensis Alsatica 1: 8. 1805, C.S. Rafinesque, Neogenyton 4. 1825, Genera Plantarum 101. 1836, Prodromus Florae Hispanicae 1: 91. 1861, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 2(2): 75. 1887 and E.D. Merrill, Index rafinesquianus 75. 1949, Botaniska Notiser 130: 173-187. 1977 [Morphological and anatomical variation of Vulpia (Gramineae)], Nordic Journal of Botany 1(1): 17-26. 1981, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 234, 690-694. 2003.

Chloamnia Raf. ex Schlecht

Perhaps from the Greek chloe, chloa “grass” and ammos “sand,” see E.D. Merrill, Index rafinesquianus. 75. 1949.

Chloothamnus Büse = Nastus Juss.

From the Greek chloe, chloa “grass” and thamnos “bush, shrub.”

Bambusoideae, Bambusodae, Bambuseae, Bambusinae, Hickeliinae, type Chloothamnus chilianthus Büse, see Genera Plantarum 34. 1789, Systema Naturae ... editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata 2: 580. 1791, Plantae Javanicae Rariores 42. 1848, Plantae Junghuhnianae 386. 1854 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 52: 174. 1914, Blumea 2: 70-71. 1936, Mémoires de l’Institut Scientifique de Madagascar, Série B, Biologie Végétale 6: 1-272. 1955, R.E. Holttum, “The bamboo-genera Nastus and Chloothamnus.” Kew Bulletin 10: 591-594. 1956 [1955], Taxon 6(7): 202, 205. 1957, R.E. Holttum, “The bamboos of New Guinea.” Kew Bulletin 21(2): 263-292. 1967, W.C. Lin, “The species and distribution of bamboos in the Republic of Malagasy (Madagascar), East Africa.” Special Bulletin of Taiwan Forestry Research Institute no. 4. 1967.

Chloridion Stapf = Stereochlaena Hack.

Referring to Chloris.

See Hooker’s Icones Plantarum 28: t. 2640. 1900, Proceedings of the Rhodesia Scientific Association 7(2): 65-66. 1908, Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, Zweite Auflage 14e: 45. 1940, W.D. Clayton, “The genus Stereochlaena (Gramineae).” Kew Bulletin 33(2): 295-297. 1978, Flora of Tropical East Africa Gramineae 451-898. 1982, Kew Bulletin, Additional Series 13: 298, 377. 1986.

Chloridopsis Hack. = Trichloris E. Fourn. ex Benth.

Referring to Chloris.

Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae, Chloridinae, see Nova Genera et Species Plantarum seu Prodromus 1, 25. 1788, Variedades de Ciencias, Literatura y Artes 2(4): 143. 1805, Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 19: 102. 1881, Mexicanas Plantas 2: 142. 1886, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 2(2): 59. 1887, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 771. 1891 and Division of Botany, Circular (United States Department of Agriculture) 32: 7. 1901, U.S. Dept. Agric. Bull. 772: 190. 1920, Adolf Pascher (1881-1945), Die Süsswasser-Flora Deutschlands, Österreichs und der Schweiz 4: 88, 103. 1927, Brigham Young University Science Bulletin: Biological Series 19(2): 1-133. 1974, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 287-289. 1994, Flora of Ecuador 68: 105-106. 2001 [by Laegaard, S. & P.M. Peterson], Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 41: 39-52, 222-223. 2001.

Chloris O. Swartz = Actinochloris Steud., Agrostomia Cerv., Apogon Steud., Chloridopsis Hack., Chloroides Fisch. ex Regel, Chloropsis Kuntze, Chlorostis Raf., Geopogon Steud., Heterolepis Boiss., Heterolepis Cass. (Asteraceae), Heterolepis Ehrenb. ex Boiss., Leptochloris Kuntze, Phacellaria Steud., Phacellaria Willd. ex Steud., Pterochloris (A. Camus) A. Camus, Schultesia Spreng., Trichloris Benth., Trichloris E. Fourn. ex Benth.

After the Greek goddess of flowers, Chloris, daughter of Amphion; Flora was the equivalent Roman goddess; Latin chloris, chloridis “verdant,” Greek chloros “green”; see Olof Peter Swartz, Nova genera et species plantarum seu Prodromus. 25. 1788.

About 35-55 species, tropical and warm temperate regions. Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae, perennial or annual, habitat variable, 2- or 3-awned, herbaceous, slender, erect and decumbent or prostrate, forming spreading tussocks, caespitose, rhizomatous or stoloniferous, long-rhizomatous or long-stoloniferous, auricles absent, leaf sheaths keeled and chartaceous, ligule a fringed membrane, leaves linear and scabrous, plants bisexual, inflorescence spicate and digitate or subdigitate or very rarely single, spikelets laterally flattened and arranged on a short axis, rachilla nonarticulated, hidden cleistogenes absent or present, 1 perfect basal floret, 1 to several sterile florets above, 2 glumes unequal and keeled, upper glume acute or 2-toothed, fertile lemma awned and keeled, palea present, 2 free and fleshy lodicules in bisexual florets, stamens 3, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, small fruit not compressed or trigonous in cross section, weed species aggressive, cultivated useful fodder, valuable for forage, tussock grasses, native pasture species, decorative flower heads, reports of high contents of cyanogenic glycosides, ruderal species on disturbed ground, growing in poor soil, dry open habitats, grassland, pampas, rainforest, related to Eustachys Desv. and Cynodon Rich., often confused with Enteropogon Nees, hybridization with Cynodon Rich., type Chloris cruciata (L.) Sw., see Prod. Veg. Ind. Occ. 25. 1788 [also Nova Genera et Species Plantarum seu Prodromus 25. 1788], Principes Fondamentaux de Somiologie 26, 29. 1814 [1813], Plantarum Minus Cognitarum Pugillus 2: 17. 1815, Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 1820: 26. 1820, Conspectus Regni Vegetabilis 4. 1828, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 352-353. 1840, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 2: 343. 1841, Index Seminum [St. Petersburg] 28. 1863, Naturaleza [Sociedad méxicana de historia natural] 1: 345. 1870, Flora Brasiliensis 2(3): 63. 1878, Flora Orientalis 5: 554. 1884 and Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 91: 63. 1944, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 97: 227. 1950, Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 166-171. 1995, Bulletin du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle sér. 2, 29: 349. 1957, Folia Primatologica 15: 1-35. 1971, D.E. Anderson, “Taxonomy of the genus Chloris (Gramineae).” Brigham Young University Science Bulletin: Biological Series 19(2): 1-133. 1974, Taxon 25: 176-178. 1976, Feddes Repert. 94: 625-630. 1983, Taxon 32(3): 472. 1983, Feddes Repert. 96: 269-277. 1985, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 287-289. 1994, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 41: 39-52, 222-223. 2001, Flora of Australia vol. 44B, Poaceae 3: 269-282. 2005, Journal of Biogeography 32(2): 311-327. Feb 2005, Plant Pathology vol. 54, issue 2: 253-253. Apr 2005, Ecological Management and Restoration vol. 6, issue 1: 43-50, 73-75. Apr 2005, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society vol. 147, issue 4: 399-416. Apr 2005, Qing Liu, Nan-Xian Zhao, Gang Hao, Xiao-Ying Hu and Yun-Xiao Liu, “Caryopsis morphology of the Chloridoideae (Gramineae) and its systematic implications.” Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 148(1): 57-72. May 2005.

Species

C. sp.

in Mexico: escobetilla

C. acicularis Lindl. (Chloris acicularis var. queenslandiae Domin; Enteropogon acicularis (Lindl.) Lazarides)

Australia. Erect or spreading, glaucous, tussock forming, erect flowering stems, radiating spikes, food for finches, see Journal of an Expedition into the Interior of Tropical Australia 33. 1848 and Bibliotheca Botanica 85: 368. 1915, Australian Journal of Botany, Supplementary Series 5: 31. 1972.

in English: curly windmill grass

C. affinis Caro & E.A. Sánchez

Argentina. See Kurtziana 6: 224, f. 2. 1971.

C. amethystea Hochst.

Ethiopia. Perennial, loosely tufted, stoloniferous, leaf blades acute, spikelets 2-flowered and inconspicuously awned, confused with Chloris gayana Kunth, see Flora 38: 205. 1855.

C. andropogonoides Fourn. (Chloris andropogonoides E. Fourn. ex Hemsl.; Chloris tenuispica Nash)

North America, U.S., Mexico. Good forage, see Biologia Centrali-Americana; ... Botany ... 3: 558. 1885, Mexicanas Plantas 2: 143. 1886, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 25: 436. 1898.

in Mexico: verdillo esbelto

in English: slim-spike windmill grass, fingergrass, slim-spike windmillgrass

C. arenaria Hitchc. & Ekman (Chloris eleusinoides var. vestita Greenm. ex Combs)

Cuba. Endangered species, found on white sand, grassy riverbanks, pinelands, see Transactions of the Academy of Science of St. Louis 7: 477, t. 39. 1897 and Manual of the Grasses of the West Indies 131. 1936.

C. barbata Swartz (Andropogon barbatus sensu L. 1771 (also barbata and barbatum); Andropogon polydactylon L.; Chloris barbata (L.) Nash, nom. illeg., non Chloris barbata Sw.; Chloris barbata (L.) Swartz; Chloris barbata var. divaricata Kuntze; Chloris barbata var. formosana Honda; Chloris dandyana C.D. Adams; Chloris inflata Link; Chloris longifolia Steud.; Chloris paraguaiensis Steud.; Chloris paraguayensis Steud.; Chloris polydactyla (L.) Sw.; Chloris rufescens Steud., nom. illeg., non Chloris rufescens Lag.; Miscanthus polydactylos (L.) Voss; Saccharum polydactylum (L.) Thunb.)

Tropics, origin uncertain. Annual or short-lived perennial, stout, glabrous, 3-awned, loosely tufted, simple or only branched at base, stems loosely clumped and ascending, erect or sometimes decumbent, often stoloniferous, base prostrate, sometimes rooting at the lowermost nodes, leaf sheaths compressed and keeled, leaves linear and flat, ligule a ring of hairs or shortly pilose, inflorescence spicate and digitately arranged at the end of a flowering culm, spikelets secund and 3-awned, spikelets purple-red on short stalks in 2 rows alternately on each side of the spike, lowest fertile floret with long-bearded callus, glumes unequal, lower glume lanceolate, upper glume ovate, lemma oval with a purple awn, fertile lemmas bordered with long spreading hairs, palea oblong with folded margins, 2 lodicules, 3 stamens, a common weed species widespread in tropics and subtropics, high food value, fodder and forage, best grazed in mixture with other grasses, unpalatable when old, good fodder up to the time of flowering, young plants grazed by stock, suitable as hay when mixed with legumes, it stands drought well, can thrive on alkaline soils, often growing on road verges, wasteland, levee banks, along roadsides, abandoned fields, pastures, grassy slopes in dry areas, disturbed sites and creek lines, sandy beaches, on lowlands and coastal areas, in dry regions at lower elevations, in disturbed dry and mesic areas, see Voy. Jamaica 111, t. 65, f. 2. 1707, Systema Naturae, Editio Decima 2: 1305. 1759, Species Plantarum, Editio Secunda 2: 1483. 1763, Mantissa Plantarum 302. 1771, Flora Japonica, ... 42. 1784, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum seu Prodromus 26. 1788, Flora Indiae Occidentalis 1: 200, 203. 1797, Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 84, 158, 176. 1812, Enumeratio Plantarum Horti Regii Berolinensis Altera 1: 105. 1821, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 204-206. 1854, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. 5: 371. 1864, Flora Brasiliensis 2(3A): 1-160, t. 1-43. 1878, Flora Australiensis: A Description ... 7: 613. 1878, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 771. 1891, Vilmorin’s Illustrierte Blumengartnerei 1: 1191. 1895, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 25: 443. 1898 and Handb. Fl. Ceylon 5: 275. 1900, Botanical Magazine (Tokyo) 40: 437. 1926, Claves Generum et Specierum Graminearum Primarum Sinicarum Appendice Nomenclatione Systematica 197. 1957, Grasses of Burma ... 465. 1960, Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 44(3): 77-83. 1961, Phytologia 21: 408. 1971, Australian Journal of Botany, Supplementary Series 5: 1-51. 1972, Taxon 25(1): 176-178. 1976, Flora Ilustrada Catarinense 1(Gram.): 1-435. 1981, Fl. Guianas, Ser. A, Phanerogams 8: 136. 1990, Rhodora 94(878): 135-140. 1992, Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 78: 509-540. 1996.

in English: swollen fingergrass, swollen chloris, swollen windmillgrass, purpletop chloris, purple top, peacock-plume grass, airport grass

in Spanish: paraguita morada

in French: herbe cils

in Argentina: pasto borla

in Brazil: capim branco, capim guiamum, pé de galinha

in the Caribbean: ti pyé poul, zèb a bab, petit pied de poule, herbe à barbe in Colombia: pasto blanco, siy, siyi

in Hawaii: mau’u lei

in Japan: murasaki-hige-shiba, shima-hige-shiba

in the Philippines Islands: banoko, korokorosan, koro-korosan, banuko

in India: adavigodhumulu, aptia, bardiya, botya jhara, chanderyot, chhinkri, gandi, gandi gavung, ganni, gavung, gondvel, goshva, hennu ganjalu garike hullu, jargi, jharna, kodai pullu, konda jeri, konda pulla, konda pullu, manchada kaalu hullu, myel kondai pullu, navilu baalada hullu, paluah, palwat, phulkia, phundi, punji, sevarugu pullu, uppa gaddi, uppugaddi, zende balada hullu

in Sri Lanka: kondai pul, mayuru tana

in Thailand: yaa rang nok, ya rang nok

in Ghana: kafar faraki, káfàr fàráki

C. berazainiae Catasus

America. See Acta Botanica Cubana 25: 5. 1985.

C. berroi Arechav. (Chloris accumbens Hack. ex Arechav.) (dedicated to M.B. Berro)

South America, Uruguay, Argentina. Perennial, clumped, cylindric inflorescence spicate and digitate, spikelets densely arranged, growing in dry arid places, see Anales del Museo Nacional de Montevideo 1: 388, t. 44. 1896 and 5: 391. 1896.

in English: giant fingergrass, Uruguay grass

in Spanish: pata de gallo

C. boliviensis Renvoize

Bolivia. Perennial, tufted, leaf blades acuminate, solitary racemes, spikelets 3-flowered, glumes lanceolate and acuminate, lemma acute, dry or wet savannahs, see Gramíneas de Bolivia 347, f. 74. 1998.

C. bournei Rangachariar & Tadulingam

India. See Journal of the Indian Botanical Society 2: 189. 1921, Current Science 57(11): 617-618. 1988.

C. breviaristata (Hack. ex Kütz.) Herter (Chloris polydactyla var. breviaristata Hack. ex Kütz.)

South America. See Boletín de Academia de Ciencias, Bellas Letras y Nobles Artes. Córdoba, Spain 16: 257. 1899 and Revista Sudamericana de Botánica 6: 146. 1940.

C. breviseta Benth. (Chloris virgata var. breviseta (Benth.) Pilger ex Peter)

Africa, Benin. See Niger Flora 566. 1849 and Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis, Beihefte 40: 262. 1931.

C. canterae Arechav. (also canterai ) (Chloris barbata Sw.; Chloris parodiana Rosengurtt & Izaguirre; Chloris polydactyla f. pauciradiata Kurtz; Chloris polydactyla f. stolonifera Parodi) (named for Mr. C.B. Cantera)

South America, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay. Perennial, tufted, erect, leafy, growing along roadsides, grasslands, see Nova Genera et Species Plantarum seu Prodromus 26. 1788, Anales del Museo Nacional de Montevideo 1: 385. 1896 and Boletín de Academia de Ciencias, Bellas Letras y Nobles Artes. Córdoba, Spain 16: 257. 1900, Revista Argentina de Agronomía 20: 24. 1953, Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 12: 124, 128, f. 4. 1968.

in English: Paraguayan windmill grass, windmill grass

in Spanish: pata de gallo

C. canterae Arechav. var. canterae (Chloris parodiana Rosengurtt & Izaguirre)

South America. See Anales del Museo Nacional de Montevideo 1: 385. 1896 and Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 12: 128, f. 4. 1968.

in English: windmill grass

C. canterae Arechav. var. grandiflora (Roseng. & Izag.) D.E. Anderson (Chloris grandiflora Roseng. & Izag.)

America. See Anales del Museo Nacional de Montevideo 1: 385. 1896 and Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 12: 124, f. 3. 1968, Brigham Young University Science Bulletin: Biological Series 19(2): 32. 1974.

C. castilloniana Lillo & Parodi (named for L. Castillon)

Bolivia, Argentina. Annual, bunchgrass, erect, caespitose, glabrous, flat leaves, forage, very palatable, useful for erosion control, see Physis. Revista de la Sociedad Argentina de Ciencias Naturales 4: 176, f. 1-2. 1918.

C. castilloniana Lillo & Parodi var. castilloniana

South America.

C. castilloniana Lillo & Parodi var. pubescens Caro & E.A.

Sánchez

South America. See Kurtziana 6: 230. 1971.

C. cheesemani Hack. ex Cheesem.

Cook Island. Endangered species, see Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae 7: 118. 1870 and Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, Botany, ser. 2, 6: 305. 1903, Kew Bulletin 21: 108. 1967.

C. ciliata Sw. (Andropogon pubescens Aiton; Andropogon pubescens Vis., nom. illeg., non Andropogon pubescens Aiton; Andropogon pubescens Willd. ex Kunth, nom. illeg., non Andropogon pubescens Aiton; Chloris brachyathera (Hack. ex Parodi) Herter; Chloris ciliata var. texana Vasey; Chloris nashii A. Heller; Chloris propinqua Steud.; Chloris texana (Vasey) Nash; Cynodon ciliatus (Sw.) Raspail)

North and South America, West Indies. Perennial, caespitose, erect, branched, leaf blades glabrous or scabrous, good forage, growing in disturbed areas, open habitats, see Nova Genera et Species Plantarum seu Prodromus 25. 1788. Hortus Kewensis; or, a catalogue ... 3: 423. 1789, Annales des Sciences Naturelles (Paris) 5: 303. 1825, Flora 12(Erganz. 1): 3. 1829, Enumeratio Plantarum Omnium Hucusque Cognitarum 1: 498. 1833, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 204. 1854, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Division of Botany. Bulletin 12(1): t. 30. 1890, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 25: 441. 1898 and Boletín de Academia de Ciencias, Bellas Letras y Nobles Artes. Córdoba, Spain 16: 257. 1900, Muhlenbergia: A Journal of Botany 5: 120. 1909, Revista de la Facultad de Agronomia y Veterinaria 2: 271. 1919, Revista Sudamericana de Botánica 6: 146. 1940.

in English: fringed windmill grass, fringed chloris, false Rhodes grass

in Mexico: verdillo de fleco, yok-t’ut-suuk

C. ciliata Sw. f. breviseta Hack.

America.

C. ciliata Sw. f. ciliata

America.

C. ciliata Sw. var. ciliata (Chloris brachyathera (Hack. ex Parodi) Herter; Chloris ciliata var. brachyathera Hack. ex Parodi; Chloris ciliata var. brachyathera Hack.)

America. See Boletín de Academia de Ciencias, Bellas Letras y Nobles Artes. Córdoba, Spain 16: 257. 1900, Revista de la Facultad de Agronomia y Veterinaria 2: 271. 1919, Revista Sudamericana de Botánica 6: 146. 1940.

C. cruciata (L.) Sw. (Agrostis cruciata L.; Chloris breviglumis C. Wright; Chloris humboldtiana Steud.; Cynodon cruciatus (L.) Raspail; Rhabdochloa cruciata (L.) P. Beauv.; Vilfa cruciata (L.) P. Beauv.)

America. See Systema Naturae, Editio Decima 2: 873. 1759, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum seu Prodromus 25. 1788, Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 16, 84, 158, 161, 176. 1812, Annales des Sciences Naturelles (Paris) 5: 303. 1825, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 205. 1854, Anales de la Academia de Ciencias Medicas ... 8: 200. 1871 and Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 12: 120. 1908.

C. cubensis A.S. Hitchc. & Ekman (Chloris cubensis Hitchc. & Ekman ex A.S. Hitchc.; Chloris sagraeana subsp. cubensis (Hitchc. & Ekman) Cat. Guerra)

Cuba. See Manual of the Grasses of the West Indies 131. 1936, Acta Botanica Cubana 25: 6. 1985, Fontqueria 44: 145. 1996.

in English: Cuban windmill grass

C. cucullata Bisch.

North America, Mexico, U.S., Texas, New Mexico. Perennial, caespitose, tall, erect, simple, sometimes with short stolons, flat bluish green stems and sheaths, leaves scabrous and acuminate, purplish terminal spikes, ornamental, fair forage value for both livestock and wildlife, growing in waste ground, arid soils, deserts and xeric shrublands, in flat sandy soils, on upland sandy soils, see Annales des Sciences Naturelles; Botanique, sér. 3 19: 357. 1853.

in English: hooded windmill grass, hooded windmillgrass, windmill grass, hooded fingergrass

in Mexico: papalote, verdillo, verdillo papalote

C. dandyana C.D. Adams (Andropogon barbatus L.; Andropogon polydactylon L.; Chloris arundinacea Nees ex Steud.; Chloris barbata Sw.; Chloris barbata (L.) Swartz; Chloris barbata (L.) Nash, nom. illeg., non Chloris barbata Sw.; Chloris castilloniana Lillo & Parodi; Chloris consan-guinea Kunth; Chloris elata Desv.; Chloris polydactyla Sw.; Chloris polydactyla (L.) Sw.; Chloris polydactyla f. stolonifera Parodi)

U.S., Florida, Cuba, Argentina. Annual or perennial, erect bunchgrass, stemmy, leaf blade acuminate, inflorescence brown, lower lemma ciliate on the margins and keel, good forage, drought-tolerant, rhizomes against uterine disorders, common in disturbed places, dry sites, see Systema Naturae, Editio Decima 2: 1305. 1759, Species Plantarum, Editio Secunda 2: 1483. 1763, Mantissa Plantarum 302. 1771, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum seu Prodromus 26. 1788, Flora Indiae Occidentalis 1: 200. 1797, Révision des Graminées 1: 89. 1829, Mémoires de la Société d’Agriculture, Sciences et Arts d’Angers 1: 177. 1831, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 207. 1854, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 25: 443. 1898 and Revista Argentina de Agronomía 20: 24. 1953, Phytologia 21: 408. 1971, Taxon 25(1): 176-178. 1976, Fl. Guianas, Ser. A, 8: 136. 1990.

in Brazil: capim branco, capim guiamum, pé de galinha

C. dichanthioides Everist (Austrochloris dichanthioides (Everist) Lazarides)

Australia. See Queensland Agricultural Journal 49(5): 432, t. 155. 1938, Australian Journal of Botany, Supplementary Series 5: 35. 1972.

C. diluta Renvoize

South Africa, Transvaal. Perennial, wiry, erect, ascending, branching above the base, rhizomatous and rarely stoloniferous, leaf blades acuminate, inflorescence digitate to subdigitate, slender spikes, 2 florets, spikelets spaced, glumes lanceolate and membranous, awned, lemma elliptic, common on riverbanks, scrub forest, very similar to Chloris pycnothrix Trin., see Kew Bulletin 31(4): 844. 1977.

C. divaricata R. Br. (Chloris cynodontoides Balansa; Chloris divaricata var. cynodontoides (Balansa) Lazarides)

Queensland, New South Wales. Perennial, erect or decum-bent, slender, creeping, mostly glabrous, simple or freely branching at lower joints, tufted to shortly stoloniferous, creeping runners, upright flower stalks, spikes digitate and spreading at maturity from a common center, spikelets imbricate and crowded, 2 florets, glumes very narrow-lanceolate, fertile lemma toothed at the apex and scabrous, upper lemma glabrous and deeply 2-lobed, noxious weed, alluvial areas, floodplains and areas subject to periodic flooding, dry regions, see Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae 186. 1810, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 19: 318. 1872, Flora Australiensis: A Description ... 7: 612. 1878 and Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 9: 553. 1911, Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of South Australia 37: 124, t. 5. 1913, Australian Journal of Botany, Supplementary Series 5: 18. 1972, Brigham Young University Science Bulletin: Biological Series 19(2): 85. 1974.

in English: spreading windmill grass, star windmill grass, star grass, slender chloris

C. divaricata R. Br. var. cynodontoides (Balansa) Lazarides

Australia. Rigid inflorescence branches.

C. divaricata R. Br. var. divaricata

Australia. Flexible inflorescence branches.

C. ekmanii Hitchc.

West Indies, Cuba. Pastures, see Manual of the Grasses of the West Indies 129. 1936.

C. elata Desv. (Andropogon barbatus L.; Andropogon polydactylon L.; Chloris arundinacea Nees ex Steud.; Chloris barbata (L.) Nash, non Sw.; Chloris dandyana C.D. Adams; Chloris polydactyla (L.) Sw.)

Bolivia, Brazil. Annual, dark green, caespitose, erect, herbaceous, inflorescence flexuous, along roadsides, see Systema Naturae, Editio Decima 2: 1305. 1759, Species Plantarum, Editio Secunda 2: 1483. 1763, Mantissa Plantarum 302. 1771, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum seu Prodromus 26. 1788, Flora Indiae Occidentalis 1: 200. 1797, Révision des Graminées 1: 89. 1829, Mémoires de la Société d’Agriculture, Sciences et Arts d’Angers 1: 177. 1831, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 207. 1854, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 25: 443. 1898 and Revista Argentina de Agronomía 20: 24. 1953, Phytologia 21: 408. 1971, Taxon 25(1): 176-178. 1976, Fl. Guianas, Ser. A, 8: 136. 1990.

in English: tall windmill grass, manyspiked chloris, manyspike fingergrass

C. exilis Renvoize

Brazil. Annual, slender, erect, decumbent, leaf blades linear, inflorescence subdigitate, spikelets oblong, glumes ovate, in cerrado or caatinga, on sandy soils, see Kew Bulletin 37(2): 323, f. 2. 1982.

C. ferruginea Renvoize (Tetrapogon ferrugineus (Renvoize) S.M. Phillips)

Africa, Kenya. Rare species, see Kew Bulletin 28(2): 195, f. 1. 1973, Kew Bulletin 42(2): 478. 1987.

C. filiformis Poiret (Bouteloua simplex Lag.; Chloris filiformis (Vahl) Poir.; Chloris tenuis Poir.)

Mauritius. Vulnerable species, second floret occasionally fertile, see also Cynosurus filiformis Vahl, see Symbolae Botanicae, ... 2: 20. 1790, Variedades de Ciencias, Liter-atura y Artes 2(4): 141. 1805, Encyclopédie Méthodique. Botanique ... Supplément 2: 237-238. 1811, Systema Vegetabilium 2: 579. 1817, Encyclopédie Méthodique. Botanique ... Supplément 5: 614. 1817.

C. flabellata (Hack.) Launert (Chloris pubescens Peyr., nom. illeg., non Chloris pubescens Lag.; Tetrapogon flabel-latus Hack.)

South Africa. Perennial, stoloniferous, woody and stout stolons, sward-forming, spikes stout and curved, upper glume with silky edge, useful for erosion control, common on saline marshes, flats, coastal regions, sandy places, muddy sites, see Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Sitzungsberichte, Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, Abteilung 1 38: 385. 1860, Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier 4: 810. 1896 and Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatssammlung München 8: 147-163. 1970.

C. gabrielae Domin (Chloris virgata Sw.)

Australia. See Flora Indiae Occidentalis 1: 203. 1797 and Bibliotheca Botanica 85: 368, f. 83. 1915.

C. gayana Kunth (Chloris abyssinica Hochst. ex A. Rich.; Chloris gayana f. genuina Maire & Weiller; Chloris gayana f. oligostachys (Barratte & Murb.) Maire & Weiller; Chloris gayana subsp. oligostachys Barratte & Murb.; Chloris glabrata Andersson; Chloris multiradiata var. ragazzii Pirotta; Chloris repens Hochst.; Eustachys gayana Mundy)

Tropical and southern Africa. Short-lived perennial or annual, very variable, leafy, glabrous, erect or ascending, culms often decumbent at the base then erect, simple or usually branched, tall and robust, tough and wiry, vigorous root system, sometimes forming tufts, usually strongly stoloniferous, rooting stolons, ligule membranous with hairy margins, leaf sheaths compressed and keeled, blades flat or folded, leaves linear and tapering, spikes or racemes subdigitate and spreading to somewhat erect, spikelets crowded or densely imbricate, spikelets rather coarse, 2 awns, florets 3 or 4, lowest floret fertile, upper florets awnless, glumes membranous and unequal, lemma tips truncate, fertile lemma lanceolate and ciliate on the margins and keel, 2 lodicules, 3 stamens, weed species widely naturalized and grown in tropical countries, escaped from cultivation, suitable for silage and hay, thatching, pasture grass in subtropical areas, cultivated fodder, relished by livestock, high grazing value, a valuable forage species, young growth very palatable, fairly drought resistant, usually will not survive prolonged drought or flooding, it does not grow well in shade, withstands trampling and recovers quickly, salt-tolerant, ground cover for erosion control, useful as a sand binder and soil stabilizer, grows on road margins and pastures, irrigated terraces, open bushland, disturbed sites, along roadsides in dry areas, vleis, riverbanks, lake margins, waste places, seasonally waterlogged plains, fields, open woodland and grassland, sown pastures, clay and clay-loam soils, red clay soil, infertile sands, in coastal and subcoastal areas, red loams, alluvial loam, alluvial soils, allied to Chloris inflata, see Révision des Graminées 1(6): 89. 1829, Révision des Graminées 2: 293, t. 58. 1830, Tentamen Florae Abyssinicae ... 2: 406. 1850, Flora 38: 204. 1855, Naturwissenschaftliche Reise nach Mossambique ... 2: 557. 1864, Annuario del Reale Istituto Botanico di Roma 6: 157. 1896 and Acta Universitatis Lundensis, Sect. 2, 36: 8, t. 13. 1900, Rhodesian Agricultural Journal 14: 142. 1922, Flore de l’Afrique du Nord: 2: 204. 1953, Grasses of Ceylon 89. 1956, Ceylon J. Sci. Biol. Sci. 2(2): 126. 1959, Grasses of Burma ... 466, f. 51. 1960.

in English: Hunyani grass, Rhodes grass, Rhodesgrass, Rhodesian blue grass, Rhodes chloris

in French: chloris, herbe de Rhodes

in Portuguese: capim-de-Rhodes

in Spanish: grama de Rodas, pasto de Rodas, pasto Rhodes, grama Rhodes

in Colombia: pasto rhodes

in Costa Rica: zacate gordura

in Mexico: pasto rodes, pasto rhodes, zacate rhodes

in East Africa: apwoyo

in Nigeria: garaaji, kauarin dooki, kauarin duki, pagamri

in Southern Africa: bruinvingergras, Rhodes chloris, Rhodes-gras, Rhodesgras, rooiklossiesgras; nyankomo (Zulu)

in the Philippines Islands: banuko, koro-korosan, Rhodes grass

in Thailand: ya rot

in Vietnam: tucgiéân

C. halophila Parodi (Gymnopogon beyrichianus (Kunth) Parodi)

Argentina. Racemes at maturity divergent to reflexed, fertile lemma awned, see Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 41, 164. 1812, Révision des Graminées 1: 89, 289. 1829 and Revista del Centro de Estudiantes de Agronomía y Veterinaría. Buenos Aires 18: 148, f. 55. 1925, Revista Argentina de Agronomía 12(1): 45. 1945.

C. halophila Parodi var. halophila

America.

C. halophila Parodi var. humilis Christa Müller

Argentina to Ecuador, Peru, high Andes. Perennial, stoloniferous or rhizomatous, rooting and branching from nodes, mat-forming, flowering culms erect, leaf sheaths keeled, leaf blades linear, inflorescence of digitate or subverticillate racemes, glumes unequal and lanceolate, fertile lemma lanceolate with a straight awn, sterile lemma with a subapical awn, palea membranous, 2 lodicules, 3 stamens, open grassland, in disturbed ground, along roads, see Feddes Repert. 94(9-10): 627. 1983.

C. inflata Link (Andropogon barbatus sensu L. 1771 (also barbata and barbatum); Chloris barbata Sw.; Chloris paraguayensis Steud.)

Pantropical. Annual, stout, glabrous, tussocks, often procumbent and rooting from basal nodes, auricles hairy, ligule a ciliate membrane, leaf blades linear long-attenuate, inflorescence of 8-16 digitate racemes erect, spikelets with 2-4 rudimental florets, 3-4 weak and flexuous awns, glumes lanceolate, lemma of fertile floret ovate, sterile lemmas inflated, 2 lodicules, 3 stamens, dry grassland, roadsides, coastal lowland, see Systema Naturae, Editio Decima 2: 1305. 1759, Mantissa Plantarum 302. 1771, Enumeratio Plantarum Horti Regii Berolinensis Altera 1: 105. 1821, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 204-206. 1854.

C. jubaensis Cope

Somalia. Perennial, erect or ascending, tufted or stoloniferous, leaves obtuse and oblong, a head of digitate or subdigitate racemes, spikelets 2-3 awned, fertile lemma glabrous, see Kew Bulletin 50(1): 113, f. 2A-B. 1995.

C. lamproparia Stapf

Africa. Annual, tufted, erect or spreading, ascending, sometimes rooting at the nodes, leaf blades flat and acuminate, spikes paired or closely digitate, spikelets 3- to 4-flowered and 2-awned, inflated uppermost leaf sheaths embracing the spikes, glumes acuminate, lower glume papery, upper glume membranous, fertile lemma bearded at the margins, edible grains, good grazing for stock, possibly a source of minerals, found on dry soil, savannah, open places, rocky areas, dry bare soils, shallow sandy soil, see Mémoires de la Société Botanique de France, sér. 4, 8: 220. 1912.

in English: donkey’s grass

in Arabic: aba malih

in Mali: dugu kunsingui

in Nigeria: gergera

in Upper Volta: bunagau

C. lobata Lazarides

Australia. Annual, erect or prostrate, stolons absent, inflorescence branches erect or spreading, spikelets pedicellate 2- to 3-flowered, deeply lobed second lemma, similar to Chloris pumilio, see Australian Journal of Botany, Supplementary Series 5: 20. 1972.

C. mensensis (Schweinf.) Cufod. (Chloris somalensis Rendle; Gymnopogon mensensis Schweinf.)

Eastern Africa, Ethiopia, Somalia. Perennial, tufted, long straggling stems, leaf blades linear and tapering to an acute apex, basal leaf sheaths flattened, open inflorescence, digitate or subdigitate racemes, spikelets long-awned, 2 florets, rudimentary second floret, glumes linear-lanceolate, fertile lemma lanceolate and glabrous, rocky areas, hillsides, dry open scrubland, grassland, see Journal of Botany, British and Foreign 37: 66. 1899 and Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique 38. 1968.

C. montana Roxb. (Chloris decora Thw., non Nees; Chloris montana var. glauca Hook.f.)

India, Sri Lanka. Perennial or sometimes annual, glabrous, strongly compressed, branched or simple, compact, ascending and rooting at the lower nodes, leaf sheaths folded and keeled, leaf blades pointed and acuminate, leaves folded and imbricate, spicate inflorescence erect and appressed, 5-awned spikelets, 5 florets, lowest floret bisexual, glumes mucronate, found in overgrazed areas, coastal, savannah, grassland, woodland, sandy dunes, wasteland, see Fl. Ind. 1: 331. 1820, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. 5: 371. 1864 and Handb. Fl. Ceylon 5: 276. 1900, Grasses of Ceylon 89. 1956, Ceylon J. Sci. Biol. Sci. 2(2): 126. 1959, Grasses of Burma ... 466. 1960.

in India: gonde javara hullu

C. mossambicensis K. Schum. (Tetrapogon mossambicensis (K. Schum.) Chippind. ex B.S. Fisher)

Tropical Africa, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, Mozambique. Perennial, erect or ascending, tufted, robust, stoloniferous and rhizomatous, shortly rhizomatous or stoloniferous, culms compressed, basal sheaths strongly compressed or keeled, leaves oblong and obtuse, coarse inflorescence, digitate spikes or racemes straw to purplish colored, spikelets 2-awned, fertile lemma ciliate on the margins, fairly palatable, little grazing value, useful for erosion control, extremely drought-tolerant, growing on sandy soil, on clay and waterlogged soil, heavy clay soils, loose sandy soils, consolidated dunes, shady places, seasonal pans, grassland and open bush, in wet areas, riverbanks, see Notizblatt des Botanischen Gartens und Museums zu Berlin-Dahlem 1: 104. 1895 and Grasses and Pastures of South Africa 198. 1955.

in English: perennial spiderweb grass

in South Africa: meerjarige spinnerakgras

C. orthonoton Döll (Chloris guaranitica Parodi)

Brazil, Argentina. See Flora Brasiliensis 2(3): 64. 1878 and Revista Argentina de Agronomía 28: 106, f. 2. 1961 [1962].

C. paniculata Scribn.

Costa Rica. Bunchgrass, see Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 38: 262. 1902.

C. parvispicula Caro & E.A. Sánchez

Argentina. See Kurtziana 6: 227, f. 3. 1971.

C. pectinata Benth. (Chloris divaricata R. Br. var. minor J. Black; Chloris divaricata R. Br. var. muelleri Domin; Chloris pectinata var. fallax Domin; Chloris pectinata var. typica Domin)

Queensland, Northern Territory, South Australia, Western Australia, New South Wales. Annual, glabrous, erect or ascending, geniculate at the base, usually simple, leaves flat, purplish spike-like racemes erect to slightly reflexed, spikelets packed and diverging, 2 florets, upper floret empty, glumes narrow-lanceolate membranous or hyaline, lemmas cartilaginous, fertile lemma 2-lobed and usually smooth, moderately palatable, grows in temporarily wet places, clayey soils, floodplains, waterholes and depressions, see Flora Australiensis: A Description ... 7: 612. 1878 and Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 9: 553. 1911, Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of South Australia 37: 124, t. 5. 1913, Bibliotheca Botanica 85: 366. 1915.

in English: comb windmill grass, comb chloris

C. pilosa Schumach. (Chloris breviseta Benth.; Chloris nigra Hack.)

Tropical Africa. Annual, tufted, erect, ascending or geniculately ascending, slender to robust, often rooting at the lower nodes, spreading by lateral runners, sheaths rolled, hairy auricles, leaf blades finely pointed, inflorescence more or less erect with few loosely digitate spikes, spikelets 3-flowered, 2 upper florets reduced to lemma, lowest floret bisexual, first lemma obovate and gibbous, 2nd lemma cuneate and inflated, glumes 2, awn length variable, grain translucent, good forage, pasture, good quality hay, along roadsides margins, disturbed places, related to Chloris virgata, see Beskrivelse af Guineeiske planter 55-56. 1827 [also in Kongel. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Naturvidensk. Math. Afh. 3: 75-76. 1828], Niger Flora 566. 1849 and Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana 21: 179. 1906, Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis, Beihefte 40: 262. 1931, Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique 57(3-4): 455. 1987.

in English: goat’s beard

in Gambia: kending na’kurto

in Liberia: duo su, duo suo

in Mali: babunsi, bakoron mbonsi, keenie geu, ngolo ntéguélé

in Niger: darambua, karam faryé, kata-kutey asadiora, kwai engermaka

in Nigeria: eéran, eríran, kafan gauraka, kafan pakara, kafar fakaràà, kafar gauraka, kafar tsuntsuu, kerkole, kila silum, kilasilim, kwoyde kumare, sawun gauraka, tafin gauraka, taphin gauraka, tiksha digo

in Senegal: babunsi, bakoron mbonsi, guendjar, ngolo ntéguélé, sivandan ngoromdom, tiokol, tiokol peul

in Yoruba: eéran, eríran

C. polystachya Roxb. (Chloris polystachya Lag.)

America, Asia. See Hortus Bengalensis, or a catalogue ... 82. 1814, Genera et species plantarum 4. 1816, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum 1: 167-168, pl. 50. 1815 [1816], Flora Indica; or Descriptions ... 1: 332. 1820.

C. pumilio R. Br. (Chloris pallida Hack., nom. illeg., non Chloris pallida Willd.; Chloris ruderalis Domin; Chloris ruderalis f. biaristulata Domin; Chloris ruderalis f. robusta Domin; Chloris ruderalis var. ruderalis; Chloropsis pumilio (R. Br.) Kuntze)

Australia. Annual, erect or decumbent, see Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae 186. 1810, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 6: 244. 1885, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 771. 1891 and Bibliotheca Botanica 85: 365. 1915, Brigham Young Univ. Sci. Bull., Biol. Ser. 19(2): 82. 1974.

C. pycnothrix Trin. (Chloris beyrichiana Kunth; Chloris beyrichiana Steud.; Chloris crinita Salzm. ex Döll, nom. illeg., non Chloris crinita Lag.; Chloris humilis Kunth; Chloris intermedia A. Rich.; Chloris leptostachya Hochst. ex A. Rich.; Chloris leptostachya var. intermedia (A. Rich.) T. Durand & Schinz; Chloris obtusifolia Desv., nom. illeg., non Chloris obtusifolia Trin.; Chloris radiata (L.) Swartz; Chloris radiata Ekm. non (L.) Swartz; Chloris radiata var. beyrichiana (Kunth) Hack. ex Stuck.; Chloris radiata var. beyrichiana (Kunth) Hack.; Chloris salzmannii Steud.; Gymnopogon beyrichianus (Kunth) Parodi; Gymnopogon haumanii Parodi; Gymnopogon radiatus var. beyrichiana (Kunth) Parodi) (Chloris salzmannii Steud. Dedicated to the German botanist Philipp Salzmann, 1781-1851, physician, entomologist, plant collector and traveler (Brazil and North Africa), wrote Enumeratio plantarum rariorum, in Gallia australi sponte nascentium. Monspelii 1818. See John Hendley Barnhart (1871-1949), Biographical notes upon botanists. Boston 1965; H.N. Clokie, Account of the Herbaria of the Department of Botany in the University of Oxford. 237. Oxford 1964; A. Lasègue, Musée botanique de Benjamin Delessert. Paris 1845; E.M. Tucker, Catalogue of the library of the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. Cambridge, Mass. 1917-1933) (Gymnopogon haumanii Parodi for the Belgian botanist Lucien Hauman, 1880-1965, studied under Leo (-Abram) Errera (1858-1905), from 1904 to 1926 Faculty of Agronomy in Buenos Aires (Argentina), 1928-1950 professor of botany at Bruxelles, author of La végétation des hautes Cordillères de Mendoza. Buenos Aires 1919, Buenos Aires 1917-1923 Catalogue des phanérogames de l’Argentine jointly written with G. Vanderveken and Luis H. Irigoyen; see J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 2: 139. 1965; R. Zander, F. Encke, G. Buchheim and S. Seybold, Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen. 14. Aufl. Stuttgart 1993; Ida Kaplan Lang-man, A Selected Guide to the Literature on the Flowering Plants of Mexico. Philadelphia 1964)

Tropical Africa, South America, Venezuela to Argentina. Annual or perennial, loosely tufted, erect or bent at the nodes and ascending, sometimes stoloniferous and spreading with short stolons, often rooting at the lower nodes, flattened leafy shoots, fibrous roots, ligule membranous with hairy margin, leaf sheath strongly compressed, leaf blades flat and blunt to bluntly acute, inflorescence a star-shaped whorl of 2-8 narrow spikes or digitate racemes, 2-flowered, purplish awn, glumes linear-lanceolate and acuminate-mucronate, lemmas glabrous, lowest lemma acuminate, 1 to 2 awns, a common weed species of annual and perennial crops, palatable, fodder, forage, good hay, very low grazing value, colonizer, useful for erosion control, found in wasteland on light and heavy soils, fields borders, high rainfall areas, weedy places, lawns, shallow stony soils, red and stony soils, gardens and roadsides, woodland margins, in disturbed places, edge of sidewalk, riverbanks, cultivated lands, limestone hillsides, grasslands, fallows, margins of irrigation ditches, irrigated grassland, see Systema Naturae, Editio Decima 873. 1759, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum seu Prodromus 26. 1788, De Graminibus unifloris et sesquifloris 234. Petropoli 1824, Révision des Graminées 1: 89, 289. 1829, Mémoires de la Société d’Agriculture, Sciences et Arts d’Angers 1: 177. 1831, Nomenclator Botanicus (edition 2.) 1: 353. 1840, Tentamen Florae Abyssinicae ... 2: 407. 1850, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 206. 1854, Flora Brasiliensis 2(3): 64. 1878, Conspectus Florae Africae 5: 861. 1894 and Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires 13: 489. 1906, Physis. Revista de la Sociedad Argentina de Ciencias Naturales 4: 173, 180, 183. 1918, Revista del Centro de Estudiantes de Agronomía y Veterinaría. Buenos Aires 18: 148, f. 55. 1925.

in English: orchard grass, radiate fingergrass, spiderweb chloris, spider-web grass, spiderweb grass, false stargrass

in Spanish: zacate estrella

in East Africa: apama, ekode

in Nigeria: eéran, eríran, kerkole, kilasilim, kila silum, kiri kiri, sawun gauraka, tafin gauraka, taphin gauraka, tiksha digo, tsawko, zankon gauraka, zanzon gauraka

in Somalia: harfo, domar

in South Africa: spinnerakchloris, spinnerakgras

C. radiata (L.) Swartz (Agrostis radiata L.; Chloris biflora Regel; Chloris crinita Salzm. ex Döll, nom. illeg., non Chloris crinita Lag.; Chloris durandiana Schult.; Chloris glaucescens Steud.; Chloris gracilis P. Durand; Chloris pallescens Regel; Chloris pycnothrix Trin.; Chloris radiata Heyne ex Roth, nom. illeg., non Chloris radiata (L.) Sw.; Chloris radiata var. longiaristata Christa Müller; Chloris scoparius (Lam.) Desf.; Chloris scoparius Regel, nom. illeg., non Chloris scoparius (Lam.) Desf.; Chloris tacnensis Steud. ex Lechler; Cynosurus scoparius Lam.; Gymnopogon radiatus (L.) Parodi) (Chloris durandiana Schult. possibly dedicated to Philippe Durand, fl. 1798-1807, French clergyman and botanical collector in Morocco and South Spain; the Belgian botanist Théophile Alexis Durand (1855-1912), with the Swiss botanist Hans Schinz (1859-1941) wrote Conspectus florae Africae, ou, Enumération des plantes d’Afrique. Bruxelles (Jardin botanique de l’État), Berlin (R. Friedlaender & Sohn), Paris (Paul Klincksieck) 1895-1898 and Études sur la flore de l’État indépendant du Congo. Bruxelles (Hayez) 1896, with his daughter Hélène (1883-1934) wrote Sylloge florae congo-lanae [Phanerogamae]. Bruxelles (Albert De Boeck) 1909; see J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 1: 485. 1965)

Tropical America, Mexico. Annual, very variable, loosely tufted, erect, ascending, often with procumbent base, usually spreading and much branched at the base, rooting at nodes and often purplish at the nodes, ligule a short membrane, leaves flat or folded with apex blunt, leaf sheaths flattened and glabrous or slightly inflated, inflorescence spicate and digitate, racemes erect to divergent, flexuous lateral branches clustered near the tip of a straight central rachis, spikelets erect, slender rudimental floret linear, glumes unequal, lemma lanceolate, 2 lodicules, 3 stamens, weed, good forage, growing in disturbed sites, wetlands, dry wastelands, reservoir banks, abandoned fields and roadsides, dry or muddy soil, cultivated areas, pastures, ditches, see Systema Naturae, Editio Decima 873. 1759, Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 2: 188. 1786, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum seu Prodromus 26. 1788, Tableau de l’École de Botanique 14. 1804, De Quibusdam Chloridis Speciebus 10. 1808, Novae Plantarum Species 61. 1821, Mantissa 2: 341. 1824, De Graminibus unifloris et sesquifloris 234. Petropoli 1824, Révision des Graminées 1: 89, 289. 1829, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 206. 1854, Berberides Americae Australis 56. 1857, Annotationes Botanic. Index Seminum 28. 1863, Flora Brasiliensis 2(3): 64. 1878 and Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires 13: 489. 1906, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 12: 120. 1908, Physis. Revista de la Sociedad Argentina de Ciencias Naturales 4: 180. 1918, Feddes Repertorium 94(9-10): 625, f. 2. 1983.

in English: bearded lawn-grass, radiate fingergrass, plush-grass

in Spanish: grama de costa

in Japan: hige-shiba

C. robusta Stapf

Tropical Africa. Perennial, robust, woody, geniculate, rooting at the nodes, a source of minerals, growing on sandy places, sandy banks, sandy riverbeds, see Mémoires de la Société Botanique de France, sér. 4, 8: 221. 1912.

in Nigeria: eru luludo, kaasaraa

in Yoruba: eru luludo

C. roxburghiana Schult. (Chloris myriostachya Hochst.; Chloris myriostachya Hochst. var. minor Chiov.; Chloris polystachya Roxb., nom. illeg., non Chloris polystachya Lag.) (for the Scottish (b. Ayrshire) botanist William Roxburgh, 1751-1815 (d. Edinburgh), physician, M.D. Edinburgh, traveler and plant collector, 1776-1780 with the East India Company in the Madras Medical Service, from 1781 Superintendent of the Samalkot Botanic Garden, 1793-1813 Superintendent of the Calcutta Botanic Garden and Chief Botanist of East India Company, from 1798 to 1799 at Cape, 1799 Fellow of the Linnean Society, 1814 St. Helena, among his writings are Account of the Chermes Lacca ... from the Philosophical Transactions. [London 1791], Flora Indica; or Descriptions of Indian Plants, etc. [Edited by William Carey, 1761-1834] Serampore 1832, Plants of the Coast of Coromandel. London 1795-1820 and Hortus bengalensis. Serampore 1814. See Joseph François Charpen-tier-Cossigny de Palma, Essai sur la fabrique de l’indigo. Isle de France 1779 and Memoir Containing an Abridged Treatise, on the Cultivation and Manufacture of Indigo. [Process of Making Indigo on the Coast of Ingeram, by William Roxburgh.] Calcutta 1789; D.G. Crawford, A History of the Indian Medical Service, 1600-1913. London 1914; M. Hadfield et al., British Gardeners: A Biographical Dictionary. London 1980; Stafleu and Cowan, Taxonomic literature. 4: 954-958. 1983; Leonard Huxley, Life and Letters of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker. London 1918; G. Murray, History of the collections contained in the Natural History Departments of the British Museum. 1: 46, 178. 1904; Ray Desmond, Dictionary of British & Irish Botanists and Horticulturists. 597-598. 1994; R. Zander, F. Encke, G. Buchheim and S. Seybold, Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen. 14. Aufl. 1993; N. Hall, Botanists of the Eucalypts. 1978 and Supplement 1980; J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 3: 187. 1965; K. Biswas, editor, The Original Correspondence of Sir Joseph Banks Relating to the Foundation of the Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta and The Summary of the 150th Anniversary Volume of the Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta. Calcutta 1950; Alice Margaret Coats, The Quest for Plants: A History of the Horticultural Explorers. London 1969; Mary Gunn and L.E. Codd, Botanical Exploration of Southern Africa. 303. A.A. Balkema Cape Town 1981; Mariella Azzarello Di Misa, editors, Il Fondo Antico della Biblioteca dell’Orto Botanico di Palermo. 237. Regione Siciliana, Palermo 1988; K. Lemmon, Golden Age of Plant Hunters. London. 1968; A. White and B.L. Sloane, The Stapelieae. Pasadena 1937; Blanche Henrey, British Botanical and Horticultural Literature before 1800. 1975; M. Archer, Natural History Drawings in the India Office Library. London 1962; R. Desmond, The European Discovery of the Indian Flora. Oxford 1992; T.W. Bossert, Biographical dictionary of botanists represented in the Hunt Institute portrait collection. 341. 1972; Ethelyn Maria Tucker, Catalogue of the library of the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. Cambridge, Mass. 1917-1933; Jonas C. Dryander, Catalogus bibliothecae historico-naturalis Josephi Banks. London 1800; A. Lasègue, Musée botanique de Benjamin Delessert. Paris 1845; Emil Bretschneider (1833-1901), History of European Botanical Discoveries in China. Leipzig 1981)

Tropical Africa, Arabia, eastern and southern Africa, Angola, India. Perennial bunchgrass, erect or procumbent, tufted to densely tufted, coarse, tussocky, flat shoot bases, tough spreading stolons, rhizomatous, young growth very succulent, basal sheaths strongly keeled, lowest leaf sheaths usually white or straw-colored, leaves linear tapering to an acute apex, dense feathery inflorescence, spikes or racemes numerous and arranged on a long central axis, feathery panicles straw-colored or purple, spikelets long-awned, 3 or 4 awns, fertile lemma elliptic and ciliate to sparsely ciliate, grains and leaves eaten by baboons, ornamental, excellent for dry flower arrangements, a good fodder, readily grazed, drought-tolerant, useful for erosion control, often a pioneer grass, grows in arid and semiarid areas, amongst bushes, stony slopes, in shallow clay loam, loose sandy soils, abandoned cultivation, old termite nesting grounds, red gravelly soil, savannah, open grassland, open scrub, desert woodland, shrubland, loams and alluvial silts, on sandy or alluvial soils, see Flora Indica; or Descriptions ... 1: 332. 1820, Mantissa 2: 339. 1824, Flora 38: 204. 1855 and Annuario del Reale Istituto Botanico di Roma 8(1): 54. 1903, Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 22(2): 491-494. 1998.

in English: horsetail grass, plumed chloris

in India: bamna, hika gadi, mathaniya, salakodam gadi

in Somalia: anekuduk, anadug

C. rufescens Lag. (Agrostomia aristata Cerv.; Chloris aristata (Cerv.) Swallen; Chloris peregrina P. Durand; Chloris rufescens Llanos, nom. illeg., non Chloris rufescens Lag.; Chloris rufescens Steud., nom. illeg., non Chloris rufescens Lag.)

Mexico. See Variedades de Ciencias, Literatura y Artes 2(4): 143. 1805, Philippe Durand [l’abbé] (fl. 1795-1815), De Quibusdam Chloridis Speciebus 11, 22. Monspelii 1808, Fragmentos de Algunas Plantas Filipinas 31. 1851, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 206. 1854, Naturaleza [Sociedad méxicana de historia natural] 1: 345. 1870 and North American Flora 17(8): 596. 1939, Taxon 50: 846. 2001.

C. sagraeana A. Rich. (Chloris eleusinoides Griseb.; Chloris morales-coelloi León ex Britton) (named for Ramon de la Sagra, 1798-1871)

North America, the Caribbean, Cuba. Growing in waste places, sandy areas, see Historia Fisica Politica y Natural de la Isla de Cuba, Botánica 11: 315. 1850, Flora of the British West Indian Islands 539. 1864 and Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 53: 458. 1926, Acta Botanica Cubana 25: 1-6. 1985, Fontqueria 46: [i-ii], 1-259. 1997.

in English: roadside windmill grass

C. sagraeana A. Rich. subsp. cubensis (Hitchc. & Ekman) Catasus (Chloris cubensis Hitchc. & Ekman)

America. See Manual of the Grasses of the West Indies 131. 1936, Acta Botanica Cubana 25: 6. 1985, Fontqueria 44: 145. 1996.

C. sagraeana A. Rich. subsp. sagraeana

America.

C. scariosa F. Muell. (Chloris scariosa P. Beauv.; Oxychloris scariosa (F. Muell.) Lazarides)

Australia. Annual or short-lived perennial, stiff, glabrous, erect, densely tufted, simple or branched, spikes erect, whit-ish spikelets, glumes hyaline, lemmas with broad scarious wings, this grass appears not to be grazed to any extent, often occurs in areas of high salinity, on red-earth soils under mulga, on low rocky hills, creek banks and on heavy soils under gidgee, water courses, see Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 79, 158. 1812, Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae 6: 85. 1867 and Nuytsia 5(2): 283. 1984[1985].

in English: winged windmill grass, winged chloris, wing chloris

C. sesquiflora Burkart

Argentina. See Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 12: 287, f. 2. 1968.

C. spathacea Hochst. ex Steud. (Chloris spathacea Baill., nom. illeg., non Chloris spathacea Hochst. ex Steud.; Cryptochloris spathacea (Hochst. ex Steud.) Benth.; Tetrapogon cenchriformis (A. Rich.) Clayton; Tetrapogon macranthus var. spathaceus (Hochst. ex Steud.) Chiov.; Tetrapogon spathaceus (Hochst. ex Steud.) Hack. ex T. Durand & Schinz; Tetrapogon spathaceus (Hochst. ex Steud.) Macloskie, nom. illeg., non Tetrapogon spathaceus (Hochst. ex Steud.) Hack. ex T. Durand & Schinz)

Africa. See Tentamen Florae Abyssinicae ... 2: 422, t. 101. 1850, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 204. 1854, Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 19: 106. 1881, Hooker’s Icones Plantarum 14: t. 1376. 1882, Bulletin Mensuel de la Société Linnéenne de Paris 2: 1070. 1893, Conspectus Florae Africae 5: 864. 1894 and Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, Volume viii, 1 [2], Botany 8(1,5,1): 211. 1904, Annuario del Reale Istituto Botanico di Roma 8(3): 352. 1908, Kew Bulletin 16: 247-250. 1962.

C. subaequigluma Rendle (Bracteola subaequigluma (Rendle) C.E. Hubb.; Chrysochloa subaequigluma (Rendle) Swallen)

Africa. See Catalogue of the African Plants Collected by Dr. F. Welwitsch in 1853-61 2(1): 222. 1899 and Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1934: 117. 1934, Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 54: 44. 1941.

C. submutica Kunth (Agrostomia mutica Cerv.; Chloris inermis Trin.; Chloris polystachya Lag.; Chloris pratensis Lesible ex Steud.; Chloris subbiflora Steud.; Eustachys polystachya (Lag.) Kunth; Eustachys submutica (Kunth) Roem. & Schult.; Phacellaria panicea Willd. ex Steud.)

North America, New Mexico, Mexico. Perennial, erect, simple, tussock, caespitose or shortly stoloniferous, lower nodes geniculate and rooting, leaves glabrous, leaf sheaths slightly inflated and keeled, ligule a short membrane, leaf blades linear, subverticillate racemes, glumes lanceolate and unequal, fertile lemma with mucro or awnlet, forage, found in cultivated areas, along roadsides, see Nova Genera et Species Plantarum 1: 167-168, pl. 50. 1815 [1816], Genera et species plantarum 4. 1816, Systema Vegetabilium 2: 614. 1817, De Graminibus unifloris et sesquifloris 232. Petropoli 1824, Révision des Graminées 1: 88. 1829, Nomenclator Botanicus 1: 353. 1840, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 2: 313. 1841, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 206-207. 1854, Naturaleza [Sociedad méxicana de historia natural] 1: 345. 1870.

in English: Mexican windmill grass

in Mexico: pata de gallo, pato de gallo mexicano, tupikua, zacate

C. suringarii Hitchc.

West Indies. See Symbolae Antillarum 7: 167. 1912.

C. tenella J. König ex Roxb. (Chloris tenella Roxb.; Chloris triangulata Hochst. ex A. Rich.; Ctenium indicum Spreng.; Lepidopironia triangulata (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Hochst. ex Schumach.; Tetrapogon tenellus (J. König ex Roxb.) Chiov.; Tetrapogon triangularis (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Hochst.; Tetrapogon triangulatus (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Schweinf.; Tetrapogon triangulatus var. agowensis Chiov.; Tetrapogon triangulatus var. sericatus Chiov.)

India. Erect, decumbent, smooth, leaves smooth and soft, spikes solitary or in pairs, 3- to 5-flowered, good fodder grass, see Hortus Bengalensis, or a catalogue ... 82. 1814, Flora Indica: or Descriptions ... 1: 330. 1820, Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 1: 274. 1825, Tentamen Florae Abyssinicae ... 2: 409. 1850, Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier 2: App. 2: 97. 1894, Annuario del Reale Istituto Botanico di Roma 6: 171, t. 15. 1896, Fl. Br. Ind. 7: 291. 1896 and Annuario del Reale Istituto Botanico di Roma 8(3): 352. 1908, Grass. Saudi Arabia 302. 1989.

in India: kagya, morbhaga ghas

C. texensis Nash (Chloris nealleyi Nash) (named for Green-leaf Cilley Nealley, 1846-1896)

U.S., Texas. Rare vulnerable endangered species, growing in sandy to sandy loam soils, coastal prairie grasslands, see Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 23: 151. 1896, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 25: 435. 1898.

in English: Texas windmill grass, Texas windmillgrass

C. transiens Pilg. (Schoenefeldia transiens (Pilg.) Chiov.)

Africa. See Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 51(3-4): 418. 1914, Resultati Scientifici della Missione Stefanini-Paoli nella Somalia Italiana 1: 186. 1916.

C. triangulata Hochst. ex A. Rich. (Lepidopironia triangulata (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Hochst. ex Schumach.; Tetrapogon tenellus (J. König ex Roxb.) Chiov.; Tetrapogon triangularis (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Hochst.; Tetrapogon triangulatus (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Schweinf.)

Africa. See Flora Indica; or Descriptions ... 1: 330. 1820, Tentamen Florae Abyssinicae ... 2: 409. 1850, Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier 2: App. 2: 97. 1894 and Annuario del Reale Istituto Botanico di Roma 8(3): 352. 1908.

C. truncata R. Br. (Chloris elongata Poir.; Chloris megastachya Schrad. ex Schult.; Chloris truncata f. abbreviata Thell.)

Queensland, New South Wales, South Australia, Western Australia. Annual or perennial, small, usually simple or unbranched, leafy, coarse, oblique or erect, slender, glabrous, forming compact tufts, sometimes stoloniferous with short and branched stolons, leaves flat or folded with apex obtuse, dull green basal leaves, inflorescence spicate and branched, racemes widely spreading at maturity, spikes digitate and spreading horizontally when in flower, spikes arranged like the vanes of a windmill, spikelets rather distant, florets often black to bright purple when mature, upper floret empty, glumes unequal with or without a short point, lemmas cartilaginous, fertile lemma narrow-elliptic with apex truncate, long and roughened awns, moderate fodder value, readily grazable when young, unpalatable with age, decorative when in flower, cultivated as an ornamental plant, ingestion of this plant is said to produce photosensitisation in animals, a colonizer of some eroded soils and scalded areas, suitable for rehabilitation, useful for landscaping, provides excellent habitat for the Common Froglett, grows on heavy clay soils, wasteland, in pastures, stony or sandy ground, disturbed places, in open fields and river settings, on plains, gray clays, on red or black earths, see Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae 186. 1810, Encyclopédie Méthodique. Botanique ... Supplément 2: 236. 1811, Mantissa 2: 340. 1824 and Vierteljahrsschrift der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Zürich 64: 706. 1919.

in English: stargrass, umbrella grass, umberalla grass, windmill grass, creeping windmill grass, Australian fingergrass

C. ventricosa R. Br. (Chloris sclerantha Lindl.; Chloris ventricosa var. tenuis Benth.)

Queensland, Victoria, New South Wales, South Australia. Perennial, dull green, stoloniferous, forming spreading tufts, stems variable but usually branched, prostrate or spreading to erect, leaves close to the ground, inflorescence spicate and spreading like a windmill, spikes flexible and digitate, spikelets closely packed along the branches and shortly awned, 2 or 3 florets, glumes scarious, upper lemma blunt, awns glabrous, callus pubescent, pioneer grass, suitable for revegetation and pasture, cultivated as an ornamental, very hardy, attractive and decorative, grows in woodland on good soil, see Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae 186. 1810, Journal of an Expedition into the Interior of Tropical Australia 31. London 1848, Flora Australiensis: A Description ... 7: 613. 1878.

in English: Australian weeping grass, windmill grass, Australian windmill grass, tall windmill grass, tall chloris

C. verticillata Nutt.

North America, U.S., New Mexico, Texas. Perennial bunch-grass, low, in small tufts, blue-green, erect, strongly flattened stems usually branched at the base and rooting at the lower nodes, small fringed ligule, auricles absent, leaf blades narrow and folded, leaf sheaths compressed and very flat, inflorescence windmill-like and terminal, spikelets alternate and awned, poor economic value, grows in heavy sand and gravelly soils, old fields, waste places, on railroad tracks, on disturbed rocky sites, dry prairies and plains, disturbed ground, on roadsides, lawns, on the sandy riverbanks, in developed land and successional field, see Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, new series, 5: 150. 1835, Pacif. Railr. Rep. 2: 176. 1855, Botanische Zeitung. Berlin 19(46): 341. 1861, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 2(3): 528. 1894, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 25: 439. 1898.

in English: tumble windmill grass, tumble windmillgrass, windmill grass

C. virgata Swartz (Agrostomia barbata Cerv.; Andropogon curtipendulum (Michx.) Spreng. ex Steud.; Atheropogon curtipendulus (Michx.) E. Fourn.; Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.; Chloris alba J. Presl; Chloris alba var. aristulata Torr.; Chloris albertii Regel; Chloris barbata var. decora (Nees ex Steudel) Benth.; Chloris brachystachys Andersson; Chloris caudata Trin. ex Bunge; Chloris compressa DC.; Chloris curtipendula Michx.; Chloris decora Nees ex Steudel; Chloris elegans Kunth; Chloris gabrielae Domin; Chloris gracilis P. Durand; Chloris madagascar-iensis Steud.; Chloris meccana Hochst. ex Steud.; Chloris multiradiata Hochst.; Chloris notocoma Hochst.; Chloris penicillata Jan. ex Trin., nom. illeg., non Chloris penicillata (Vahl) Pers.; Chloris penicillata Willd. ex Steud., nom. illeg., non Chloris penicillata (Vahl) Pers.; Chloris polydactyla subsp. multiradiata (Hochst.) Chiov.; Chloris pubescens Lag.; Chloris rogeoni A. Chev.; Chloris tetrastachys Hack. ex Hook.f.; Chloris tibestica Quézel; Chloris virgata P. Durand, nom. illeg., non Chloris virgata Sw.; Chloris virgata var. elegans (Kunth) Stapf; Cynodon curtipendula (Michx.) Raspail; Dinebra curtipendula (Michx.) P. Beauv.; Eutriana curtipendula (Michx.) Trin.; Lepeocercis serrata (Retz.) Trin.; Rabdochloa virgata (Sw.) P. Beauv.; Rhabdochloa virgata (Sw.) P. Beauv.) (Chloris albertii Regel possibly named for the Swiss-born Russian physician [Johann] Albert von Regel, 1845-1908, botanist, traveler, oldest son of Edward August von Regel (1815-1892), in 1875 appointed District Physician at Kuldja in Ili, explorer of Turkestan and Eastern Asia (1876-1888); see J.H. Barn-hart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 3: 138. 1965; Emil Bretschneider, History of European Botanical Discoveries in China. Leipzig 1981; E.M. Tucker, Catalogue of the library of the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. Cambridge, Mass. 1917-1933; I.C. Hedge and J.M. Lamond, Index of Collectors in the Edinburgh Herbarium. Edinburgh 1970)

Tropics. Annual or short-lived perennial, variable, weak, ascending to erect or geniculate, spreading, clumped, tufted or rarely slightly stoloniferous, open-tufted, often decum-bent, often or occasionally rooting from the lower nodes, much-branched and soft-stemmed, shallow root system, ligule an inconspicuous short membrane, sheaths inflated and keeled, leaf blades very acute to acuminate and hispid, inflorescence digitate and erect, ripe spikelets black, soft spikelets pubescent to feathery, spikelets densely crowded and 2-flowered, lower floret fertile, upper floret imperfect and reduced to a lemma, 2 awns, glumes lanceolate, lemmas cartilaginous, fertile lemma entire or notched or keels slightly gibbous, second lemma truncate, tuft of hairs on the lemma tips, 2 lodicules, 3 stamens, a cover plant rapidly growing, seeds easily transported by wind and water, low palatability, native pasture species, good fodder for horses and cattle, valuable as forage, palatable grazing when young, weed species, usually will not survive prolonged flooding, a decoction of the plant or of the roots used for colds and rheumatisms, leaves applied on wound to prevent bacterial infection, pioneer grass used for reseeding denuded rangeland, found in areas where water lies after rain, dry tidal mudflats, tropical lowland, tropical coasts, hind dunes, desert steppe, in gardens, grasslands, along coast, desert washes and swales, on bare compacted and disturbed soil, sandy places, very dry areas, in pure sand, in saline areas, edges of the desert, disturbed sites along roads, cultivated and disturbed areas, disturbed agricultural area, along field margins, grass steppe, waste places, open habitats, black cracking clays, heavy soils, shallow gravelly soil, in ditch along highway, along roadsides and creeks, banks of water courses, see Observationes Botanicae 5: 21. 1789, Flora Indiae Occidentalis 1: 203. 1797, Flora Boreali-Americana 1: 59. 1803, Variedades de Ciencias, Liter-atura y Artes 2(4): 143. 1805, De Quibusdam Chloridis Speciebus 10. 1808, Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 84, 98, 158, 160, 176. 1812, Catalogus plantarum horti botanici monspeliensis 94. 1813, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum 1: 166-167, t. 49. 1815 [1816], Fundamenta Agrostographiae 161, 203, t. 18. 1820, De Graminibus unifloris et sesquifloris 231. Petropoli 1824, Annales des Sciences Naturelles (Paris) 5: 303. 1825, Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 289. 1830, Enumeratio Plantarum, quas in China Boreali 70. 1833, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 90, 353. 1840, Notes of a Military Reconnoissance 153. 1848, Niger Flora 566. 1849, Exploration of the Red River of Louisiana 300. 1853, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 205-206. 1854, Flora 38: 204. 1855, Pacif. Railr. Rep. 4: 155. 1857, Naturwissenschaftliche Reise nach Mossambique ... 556. 1864, Naturaleza [Sociedad méxicana de historia natural] 1: 346. 1870, Flora Australiensis: A Description ... 7: 613. 1878, Acta Horti Petrop. 7: 650. 1881, Mexicanas Plantas 2: 138. 1886, The Flora of British India 7: 291. 1896 and Flora Capensis 7: 642. 1900, Annuario del Reale Istituto Botanico di Roma 8(1): 54. 1903, Bibliotheca Botanica 85: 368, f. 83. 1915, Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis, Beihefte 40: 262. 1931, Revue internationale de botanique appliquée et d’agriculture tropicale 14(150): 127. 1934, Bulletin de la Société d’Histoire Naturelle de l’Afrique du Nord 48: 84. 1957.

in English: windmill grass, feather windmill grass, showy windmill grass, feathertop, feathertop chloris, feather-top chloris, showy chloris, feathered chloris, feathertop Rhodes, feathertop Rhodes grass, feathery Rhodes grass, feather fingergrass, feather finger grass, woolly-top, old land grass, old land’s grass, sweet grass, sweet hay grass, haygrass, blackseed, blackseed grass, blue grass, white grass

in India: bhothia jara, chota sailria, ganjali hullu, gharaniagas, gudi hullu, pandhad, phundna

in Spanish: verdillo plumerito, zacate pluma, zacate mota, zacate

in Mexico: barba de chivo, barba de indio, barbas de indio, cebadilla, cola de zorra, huak-top’suuk, meex-mascual, motita, paraguitas, pata de gallo, verdillo plumerito, zacate cola de zorra, zacate lagunero, zacate mota, zacate motilla

in Madagascar: antocazo, antokazo

in Niger: asghal, azghal, buta’n kurégé, gabarédilabé, garago, tasbat n-ejemar, toesbat najemâr

in Somalia: ausdug, agar

in S. Rhodesia: Wuwu

in Southern Africa: blougras, hooigras, katstertgras, vleyquirlgras, klossiesgras, klossiegras, kwasgras, oulandegras, paardgras, perdegras, witgras, soetgras, spinnekopgras, witpluimchloris, wollerigegras; amafusine (Zulu); sehabane, lehola-la-dipere (Sotho); umadolwana (Xhosa)

in Upper Volta: garbere

C. x subdolichostachya Müll. Hal. [cucullata x verticillata] (Chloris brevispica Nash; Chloris latisquamea Nash; Chloris verticillata var. aristulata Torr. & A. Gray; Chloris verticillata var. intermedia Vasey)

North America, U.S., Texas. Perennial, good forage, growing on sandy sites, on disturbed sandy sites in drier soil conditions, see Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, new series, 5: 150. 1835, Pacif. Railr. Rep. 2: 176. 1855, Botanische Zeitung. Berlin 19(46): 341. 1861, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 2(3): 528. 1894, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 25: 438-439. 1898 and Phytologia 37(4): 317-407. 1977, Las Gramíneas de México 2: 1-344. 1987, Phytologia 74(4): 336-338. 1993.

in English: short-spike windmill grass, shortspike wind-millgrass, shortspiked windmillgrass, Nash windmill grass

in Mexico: verdillo norteño

Chlorocalymma W.D. Clayto

From the Greek chloros “green, pale green” and kalymma “a covering, hood.”

One species, Tanzania. Panicoideae, Panicodae, Paniceae, annual, herbaceous, auricles absent, ligule an unfringed membrane, plants bisexual, inflorescence spicate, rhachis tough, spikelets subtended by a spiny elongated involucre, 2 glumes unequal to very unequal, lower lemma laterally winged, palea present, 3 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, open habitats, dry areas, bushland, type Chlorocalymma cryptacanthum Clayton, see Kew Bulletin 24: 461. 1970.

Species

C. cryptacanthum Clayton

Africa.

Chloroides Regel = Chloris Sw., Chloroides Fisch. ex Regel, Eustachys Desv.

Greek chloroeides “of a greenish appearance,” resembling Chloris.

Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae, Chloridinae, see Nova Genera et Species Plantarum seu Prodromus 1, 25. 1788, Nouveau Bulletin des Sciences, publié par la Société Philomatique de Paris 2: 188-189. 1810, Index Seminum [St. Petersburg] 28. 1863 and Flora Mesoamericana 6: 288-289. 1994, A.M. Molina, “Revisión taxonómica del género Eustachys Desv. (Poaceae: Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae) de Sudamérica.” Candollea 51(1): 225-272. 1996, Gramíneas de Bolivia 353-355. 1998, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 41: 39-52, 117-118, 222-223. 2001.

Chloropsis Kuntze = Chloropsis Hack. ex Kuntze, Trichloris E. Fourn. ex Benth.

From the Greek chloros “green, pale green, yellow-green” and opsis “aspect, appearance, resemblance,” resembling Chloris.

Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae, Chloridinae, see Nova Genera et Species Plantarum seu Prodromus 1, 25. 1788, Variedades de Ciencias, Literatura y Artes 2(4): 143. 1805, Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 19: 102. 1881, Mexicanas Plantas 2: 142. 1886, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 2(2): 59. 1887, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 771. 1891 and Division of Botany, Circular (United States Department of Agriculture) 32: 7. 1901, U.S. Dept. Agric. Bull. 772: 190. 1920, Adolf Pascher (1881-1945), Die Süsswasser-Flora Deutschlands, Österreichs und der Schweiz 4: 88, 103. 1927, Brigham Young University Science Bulletin: Biological Series 19(2): 1-133. 1974, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 287-289. 1994, Flora of Ecuador 68: 105-106. 2001, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 41: 39-52, 222-223. 2001.

Chlorostis Raf. = Chloris Sw.

Referring to Chloris Sw.

Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae, Chloridinae, see C.S. Rafinesque (1783-1840), Princ. Fond. Somiol. 26, 29. 1813 [1814], Flora Telluriana. 1: 84. 1836 [1837] and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 41: 39-52, 222-223. 2001.

Chondrachyrum Nees = Briza L., Chascolytrum Desv.

Greek chondros “cartilage, gristle” and achyron “chaff, husk.”

Pooideae, Poeae, Brizinae, type Chondrachyrum scabrum Nees ex Steud., see Species Plantarum 1: 66-67, 70-71. 1753, Nouveau Bulletin des Sciences, publié par la Société Philomatique de Paris 2: 190. 1810, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum 1: 164. 1815 [1816], A Natural System of Botany 449. 1836, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 276, 288. 1854, Genera Plantarum 3(2): 1194-1195. 1883 and Arkiv för Botanik utgivet av K. Svenska Vetenskapsakademien 13(10): 53. 1913, Revista de la Facultad de Agronomia y Veterinaria 3: 120. 1920, Feddes Repertorium 84(7-8): 541. 1973, Willdenowia, Beih. 8: 77. 1975, Boletim do Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul 41: 1-191. 1987, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 229. 1994, Flora Mediterranea 5: 340-345. 1995, Bothalia 27: 75-82. 1997, Cladistics 14: 287-296. 1998 [N.D. Bayón, Cladistic analysis of the Briza Complex (Poaceae, Poeae).], Opera Botanica 137: 1-42. 1999, Lagascalia 21(1): 235-240. 1999, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 146-151, 233-234. 2003.

Chondrochlaena Kuntze = Prionachne Nees ex Lindl., Prionanthium Desv.

From the Greek chondros “cartilage, lump, groats of wheat” and chlaena, chlaenion “cloak.”

Chondrolaena Nees = Prionachne Nees ex Lindl., Prionanthium Desv.

Greek chondros “cartilage, lump, groats of wheat” and chlaena, chlaenion, laina “cloak, blanket,” Latin laena, ae “a cloak, mantle.”

Arundinoideae, Danthonieae, see Mémoires de la Société d’Agriculture, Sciences et Arts d’Angers 1: 168-169, t. 7, f. 3. 1831, An Introduction to the Natural System of Botany 447. 1836, Florae Africae Australioris Illustrationes Monographicae 1: 133. 1841 and G. Davidse, “A revision of the genus Prionanthium (Poaceae: Arundineae).” Bothalia 18: 143-153. 1988, South African Journal of Botany 60: 285-292. 1994.

Chondrosum Desv. = Actinochloa Willd. ex Roem. & Schult., Antichloa Steud., Bouteloua Lag., Erucaria Cerv.

Greek chondros “cartilage, wheat, grain of wheat.”

About 14 species or 0, Canada to Argentina, U.S., Mexico. Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae, Boutelouinae, annual or perennial, caespitose, leaf blades linear, spikelets laterally compressed with 1-2 sterile florets, glumes lanceolate, lemma keeled and 3-awned, lower lemma fertile, upper lemmas sterile, open habitats, plains, often included in Bouteloua as a subgenus, type Chondrosum procumbens (P. Durand) Desv., see Variedades de Ciencias, Literatura y Artes 2(4,21): 134. 1805, Nouveau Bulletin des Sciences, publié par la Société Philomatique de Paris 2: 188. 1810, Systema Vegetabilium 2: 22, 417. 1817, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 108. 1840, A Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States. second edition 553. 1856, Naturaleza [Sociedad méxicana de historia natural] 1: 347. 1870, Genera Plantarum 3(2): 1168. 1883 and Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 66(3): 348-416. 1979 [1980], Kew Bulletin 37(3): 417-420. 1982, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 292-293, 296. 1994, Sida 17: 111-114. 1996, Aliso 17(2): 99-130. 1998, Aliso 18: 61-65. 1999, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 41: 20-33. 2001.

Chretomeris Nutt. ex J.G. Sm. = Elymus L, Sitanion Raf.

Pooideae, Triticeae, Hordeinae, see Species Plantarum 1: 83-84. 1753, C.S. Rafinesque, Journal de Physique, de Chimie, d’Histoire Naturelle et des Arts 89: 103. 1819, Annals of Natural History 1: 284. 1838, Genera Plantarum 3(2): 1207. 1883, Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 18: 10, 12-13, 15, 17, 19-20, t. 3. 1899 and E.D. Merrill, Index rafinesquianus 76. 1949, Canad. J. Bot. 42: 554. 1964, M.E. Barkworth & D.R. Dewey, “Genomically based genera in the perennial Triticeae of North America: identification and membership.” Amer. J. Bot. 72: 767-776. 1985, Taxon 41: 562-563. 1992, Taxon 44: 611-612. 1995, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 279-307. 2003.

Chrysochloa Swallen = Bracteola Swallen

From the Greek chrysos “gold” and chloe, chloa “grass.”

About 4-5 species, tropical Africa. Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae, annual or perennial, unarmed, tufted, herbaceous, caespitose, stoloniferous, leafy, leaves mainly basal, auricles absent, ligule a fringed membrane, plants bisexual, inflorescence spicate digitate or subdigitate, racemes single or digitate, spikelets imbricate compressed, 2 florets, upper floret male or sterile, 2 glumes more or less equal, upper glume deciduous and keeled, fertile lemma mucronate or shortly awned, palea present, 2 free and fleshy lodicules, 3 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, open habitats, seasonally flooded places, lowlands, damp sites, seasonally water-logged soils, see Catalogue of the African Plants Collected by Dr. F. Welwitsch in 1853-61 2(1): 222. 1899 and American Journal of Botany 20: 118, f. 1. 1933, Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1934: 117. 1934, Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 54: 44. 1941.

Species

C. hindsii C.E. Hubbard (Chrysochloa annua C.E. Hubbard; Chrysochloa caespitosa Clayton)

Tropical Africa. Annual, stoloniferous, caespitose, variable, see Kew Bulletin 4: 349. 1949, Kew Bulletin 12: 59. 1957, Kew Bulletin 14: 239. 1960.

in Upper Volta: petrepin ragha

C. hubbardiana Germain & Risopoulos

Tropical Africa. See Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de l’État 22: 71. 1952.

C. lucida (Swallen) Swallen (Bracteola lucida Swallen)

Tropical Africa, Angola. See American Journal of Botany 20: 118, f. 1. 1933, Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 54: 44. 1941.

C. orientalis (C.E. Hubbard) Swallen (Bracteola orientalis C.E. Hubb.)

Tanzania. See Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1934: 117. 1934, Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 54: 44. 1941.

C. subaequigluma (Rendle) Swallen (Chloris subaequigluma Rendle)

Tropical Africa. See Catalogue of the African Plants Collected by Dr. F. Welwitsch in 1853-61 2(1): 222. 1899 and Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1934: 117.

1934, Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 54: 44. 1941.

Chrysopogon Trin. = Centrophorum Trin., Chalcoelytrum Lunell, Lenormandia Steud., Mandelorna Steud., Pollinia Spreng., Pollinia Trin., Rhaphis Lour., Trianthium Desv.

From the Greek chrysos “gold” and pogon “a beard,” referring to the color of the awns or to the golden brown callus hairs of some species; see Carl Bernhard von Trinius (1778-1844), Fundamenta Agrostographiae. 187. Viennae (Jan) 1820.

About 25-45 species, tropical and subtropical, warm regions, mainly in Asia and Australia. Panicoideae, Andropogonodae, Andropogoneae, Andropogoninae, or Panicoideae, Andropogoneae, Sorghinae, annual or perennial, herbaceous, usually unbranched, sometimes decumbent or slightly bent, mostly tufted, solid culm internodes, leaves often harsh and glaucous in a basal tussock, leaf blades narrow, auricles absent, ligule a fringed membrane or a ciliate rim, rhizomatous or stoloniferous, deep-rooting, plants bisexual, inflorescence loosely paniculate and fili-form usually with terminal triads of spikelets or spikelets in pairs, spikelets at the ends of the branches of the panicle, 1 sessile bisexual spikelet and 2 pedicellate male or sterile spikelets, 1 sessile awned spikelet and 2 pedicelled unawned spikelets developed or rudimentary, fertile spikelets compressed laterally, male spikelets often purplish and compressed dorsally, tuft of long hairs on the branches below the spikelets, lower glume cartilaginous and rounded on the back, upper glume often awned, lower floret reduced, upper lemma hyaline often 2-toothed and awned, palea present or absent, 2 glabrous lodicules free and fleshy, stamens 3, anthers yellow, ovary glabrous, fruit yellow and compressed, cultivated fodder, weed species resistant to drought and heavy grazing, native pasture species, lawns, playing fields, common in disturbed ground, heavy soils, open habitats, poor soils or subdesert, rainforest, floodplains, desert, humid tropics, intergrades with Vetiveria, type Chrysopogon gryllus (L.) Trin., see Species Plantarum 1: 61-63, 82. 1753, Species Plantarum 2: 1045, 1047. 1753, Flora Cochinchinensis 538, 552. 1790, Pl. Pugill. 2: 10. 1815, Fundamenta Agrostographiae 187-188. 1820, Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 1822: 43. 1822, Flora 33: 229. 1850, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 359. 1854 [1855], Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 2(2): 28. 1887 and American Midland Naturalist 4: 212. 1915, Bulletin de l’Institut Française d’Afrique Noire 22: 106. 1960, Boissiera. Mémoires du Conservatoire de Botanique et de l’Institut de Botanique Systématique de l’Université de Genève 9: 291. 1 and Genetics 25: 140-143, 322-323. 1990, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 383. 1994, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 81(4): 775-783. 1994, J.F. Veldkamp, “A revision of Chrysopogon Trin. including Vetiveria Bory (Poaceae) in Thailand and Malesia with notes on some other species from Africa and Australia.” Austrobaileya 5(3): 503-533. 1999, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 151, 156, 159-161, 283, 285, 541-542, 544-545. 2003, Federico Selvi and Massimo Bigazzi,“Revision of genus Anchusa (Boraginaceae-Boragineae) in Greece.” Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 142(4): 431-454, Aug 2003.

Species

C. aciculatus (Retz.) Trin. (Andropogon acicularis Willd.; Andropogon acicularis Retz. ex Roem. & Schult.; Andropogon aciculatus Retzius; Andropogon aciculatus Willd.; Andropogon gryllus L.; Andropogon javanicus Steud.; Andropogon subulatus J. Presl; Apluda gryllus (L.) C. Presl; Centrophorum chinense Trin.; Chloris gryllus (L.) Honck.; Chrysopogon acicularis Duthie; Chrysopogon aciculatus var. longifolius Büse; Chrysopogon gryllus (L.) Trin.; Chrysopogon subulatus (J. Presl) Trin. ex Steud.; Chrysopogon trivialis Arn. & Nees; Holcus aciculatus (Retz.) R. Br.; Holcus gryllus (L.) R. Br.; Pollinia gryllus (L.) Spreng.; Rhaphis acicularis (Retz. ex Roem. & Schult.) Desv.; Rhaphis aciculatus (Retz.) Desv., also spelled aciculata; Rhaphis aciculatus (Retz.) Honda; Rhaphis gryllus (L.) Desv.; Rhaphis gryllus (L.) Trin.; Rhaphis javanica Nees ex Steud.; Rhaphis javanica Nees; Rhaphis trivialis Lour.; Rhaphis zizanioides var. aciculatus (Retz.) Roberty)

Tropics, Southeast Asia, China, India, Japan, Indonesia, Philippines, Nepal. Perennial, terrestrial, variable, vigorous, solid, glabrous, often branching, stoloniferous, extensively creeping, prostrate and mat-forming, spreading, ascending or erect from a decumbent base, nodal rooting, forming a short turf, woody creeping rhizome, leaves mostly basal, auricles present, sheaths striate, ligule a shallow rim or shortly membranous, erect flowering culm unpalatable when in fruit, inflorescence a rigid and erect panicle, small panicles reddish purple with several slender branches, triad of spikelets, pedicellate spikelets purple, erect naked peduncle, 1 sessile awned spikelet and 2 pedicelled awnless spikelets, lower bisexual spikelet, upper male spikelets, 2 glumes, palea hyaline and oblong-acute, stamens 3, sharp-pointed seeds cause extensive ulceration, ripe fruits with sharp basal callus, diaspores adhere to clothing and hair very readily, aggressive and noxious weed species, a serious persistent pest, a weed of tea in India, straw used for making hats and mats, culms woven into cigarette-cases and used to make brushes, can stand heavy grazing, fairly drought-tolerant, useful fodder grass, cultivated, forage to worthless as forage flowering culms and spikelets have low palatability, leaves highly palatable, naturalized, ornamental, lawns and playing fields, soil binder, erosion control, useful for stabilizing embankments, withstands trampling and poor soils, responds to burning, a vigorous coloniser of denuded ground, prefers moist soils, open areas, rocky slopes, waste areas, common on abandoned cultivations on poor sandy soils, pastures, overgrazed soil, humid tropics, sandy loams, neutral soils, heavy soil, rangelands, intergrades with Vetiveria Bory, taxonomy of the genus remains confused, see Centuria II. Plantarum ... 2: 33. 1756, Amoen. Acad. 4: 332. 1759, Obs. Bot. 5: 22. 1789, Flora Cochinchinensis 2: 553. 1790, Synopsis Plantarum Germaniae 1: 437. 1792, Species Plantarum. Editio quarta 4: 906. 1806, Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae 199. 1810, Plantarum Minus Cognitarum Pugillus 2: 10. 1815, Cyperaceae et Gramineae Siculae 55. 1820, Fund. Agrost. 106, 188, t. 5. 1820, Narrative of Travels and Discoveries in Northern and Central Africa Appendix: 244. 1826, Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 341. 1830, Mémoires de la Société d’Agriculture, Sciences et Arts d’Angers 1: 172-173. 1831, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 360. 1840, Gramineae 50. 1841, Nova Acta Phys.-Med. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 19 (Suppl. 1): 182. 1843, Hooker’s Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany 2: 99. 1850, Plantae Jung-huhnianae 3: 361. 1854, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 360, 396. 1854, Genera Plantarum 3(2): 1127. 1883, A List of the Grasses of N.W. India, Indigenous and Cultivated 22. 1883 and Handb. Fl. Ceylon 5: 234. 1900, Botanical Magazine (Tokyo) 40: 103. 1926, Handb. Fl. Ceylon 6: 333. 1931, Petite Flore de l’Ouest-Africain 403-404. 1954, Grasses of Ceylon 186. 1956, Grasses of Burma ... 115. 1960, Bot. Macaronesica 6: 64. 1980, Austrobaileya 5(3): 510. 1999.

in English: golden beard grass, golden false beard grass, spear grass, love grass, love torn, grass seed, seed grass, seedy grass, Mackie’s pest, small needled goldbeard, Port Harcourt grass

in Spanish: amorseco

in French: herbe plate, herbe à piquant, chiendent grenille

in Hawaii: manienie ‘ula, pi’pi’i, pilipili ‘ula, pilipiliula

in Micronesia: rehtakai

in Pacific: mosie fisi

in New Guinea: knalbru

in Cambodia: smao kan troeng, smao kantreill, smau kântraëy

in China: ji gu cao

in Japan: Okinawa-michishiba

in India: chora kanta, chorakanta, chorapushpee, chorapushpi, chorkanta, ganji garike hullu, kaeshini, katle chettu, katle gaddi, kava, kawa, keshinee, kheti, kudira pullu, lampa, puttligaddi, sans, senra, shankapushpi chettu, shun-kini, shuntnee, sikola, surwala in Indonesia: jukut domdoman, rumput kemuncup, salohot

in Malaysia: kemuchut, kemunchup, temuchut

in the Philippines Islands: amorseco, amorseko, dalekedek, dalukduk, lakut-lapas, marisekos, mariskos, pagippi, pangrot, tinloi

in Sri Lanka: ottu pul, tuttiri

in Thailand: ya chaochu, yaa chaochuu, yaa ka troei, yaa khee khrok, ya khitroei, yaa khee troei, ya khikh rok, yaa klon, yaa kon, yaa nam luek, yaa nokkhum

in Vietnam: co may, co’ may, co’ bông, bong co

C. argutus (Steud.) Trin. ex Jackson (Andropogon argutus Nees ex Steud.; Chrysopogon argutus (Nees ex Steud.) Trin. ex B.D. Jacks.; Vetiveria arguta (Nees ex Steud.) C.E. Hubb.)

Mauritius, Rodrigues. Pungent and hairy callus, 1-6 spikelet groups per branch, see Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 391. 1854, Index Kewensis 1: 124, 530. 1893 and Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1939: 654. 1940.

C. aucheri (Boiss.) Stapf (Andropogon aucheri Boiss.; Chrysopogon ciliolatus var. aucheri (Boiss.) Boiss.; Chrysopogon fulvus var. migiurtinus (Chiov.) Chiov.; Chrysopogon montanus var. migiurtinus Chiov.; Chrysopogon serrulatus var. aucheri (Boiss.) Boiss. ex Parsa)

Eastern Arabia, Iran, Pakistan, India. Perennial, slender, densely tufted, basal sheaths often silky-villous, leaves pubescent and glaucous, panicle ovate, a triplet spikelet, sessile spikelet elliptic to oblong, pedicelled spikelets usually 1-awned, upper glume and upper lemma shortly awned, spikelet dispersal occurs primarily by wind, awn of pedi-celled spikelet glabrous, found in desert and semidesert, rocky hills, costal, grassland, very rare in East Africa, mainly in Somalia, see Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint Pétersbourg. Sixième Série. Sciences Mathématiques, Physiques et Naturelles 2(3): 318. 1832, Diagnoses plantarum orientalium novarum 5: 77. 1844, Flora Orientalis 5: 458. 1884 and Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 6: 211. 1907, Flora Somala 328. 1929, Flora of Iran [Parsa] 5: 538. 1950.

in Niger: akarasha, kébulu, kéwulu, taghatemt, toeghatimt

C. borneensis Henr.

East Borneo. Perennial, very similar to Chrysopogon tenuiculmis Henr., see Blumea 4(3): 534. 1941.

C. celebicus Veldk.

Celebes. Perennial, obtuse and hairy callus, 4-7 spikelet groups, on sandy soil, similar to Chrysopogon lawsonii (Hook.f.) Veldk. and Chrysopogon nemoralis (Balansa) Holtt., see Austrobaileya 5(3): 511-512. 1999.

C. elongatus (R. Br.) Benth. (Andropogon elongatus (R. Br.) Spreng.; Holcus elongatus R. Br.; Rhaphis elongatus (R. Br.) Chase; Sorghum elongatus (R. Br.) P. Beauv.; Vetiveria elongata (R. Br.) Stapf ex C.E. Hubb.)

Australia. Pungent and hairy callus, see Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae 1: 200. 1810, Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 131, 164, 178. 1812, Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 1822: 43. 1822, Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 1: 287. 1825, Flora Australiensis: A Description ... 7: 538-539. 1878 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 24: 205. 1925, Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1934: 444. 1934, Austrobaileya 5(3): 513. 1999.

in English: long golden beard grass.

C. fallax S.T. Blake (Andropogon gryllus sensu J. Black, non L.; Chrysopogon gryllus sensu Benth., non (L.) Trin.)

South Australia, Western Australia, Queensland, Northern Territory, New South Wales. Perennial, tufted, stems erect, sheath not keeled, leaves smooth and hairy in a dense basal tussock, inflorescence a loose panicle with whorled simple branches, tall flower heads, narrow spikelets on long and slender stalks, pedicellate spikelets sterile or male, a more or less valuable pasture species and grass, eaten when young, an indicator of good range condition, very hardy and drought resistant, a decreaser species, can be removed by overgrazing, found on heavy soils, floodplains, in open sandy places, see Flora South Australia (edition 2) 1: 60. 1943, University of Queensland Papers: Department of Biology 2(3): 9. 1944.

in English: golden beard grass

C. festucoides (J. Presl) Veldkamp (Andropogon anias Llanos; Andropogon festucoides Presl; Andropogon muricatus Retz.; Andropogon muricatus var. aristatus Büse; Andropogon squarrosus auct. non L.f.; Andropogon squarrosus var. nigritanus auct. non Hack.; Andropogon zizanioides auct. non Urban; Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty; Chrysopogon zizanioides var. nigritanus auct. non Roberty; Phalaris zizanioides L.; Vetiveria festucoides (Presl) Ohwi; Vetiveria lawsonii auct. non Blatter & McCann; Vetiveria nigritana auct. non (Benth.) Stapf)

Asia tropical, India, Philippines. Perennial, unpalatable, grows on rice fields, swampy soils, inundated areas, flood-plains, see Mantissa Plantarum 2: 183. 1771, Observationes Botanicae 3: 43. 1783, Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 340. 1830, Fragmentos de Algunas Plantas Filipinas 29. 1851, Plantae Indiae Batavae Orientalis 104. 1857 and Bulletin of the Tokyo Science Museum 18: 4. 1947, Bulletin de l’Institut Française d’Afrique Noire 22: 106. 1960, Austrobaileya 5(3): 512-513. 1999.

C. fulvus (Spreng.) Chiov. (Andropogon fulvus Spreng.; Andropogon montanus Trin.; Andropogon montanus J. König ex Trin., nom. illeg., non Andropogon montanus Roxb.; Andropogon monticola Schult.; Andropogon monticola Roem. & Schult.; Andropogon sprengelii Kunth; Chrysopogon montanus Trin. ex Spreng.; Chrysopogon montanus Trin.; Chrysopogon monticola (Schult.) Haines; Chrysopogon monticola (Roem. & Schult.) Haines; Pollinia fulva Spreng.)

Southeast Asia, southern India to Thailand. Perennial, tufted to densely tufted, variable, slender, cylindrical, simple or branched, forming short turf, erect or ascending from a shortly geniculate base, ligule a short ciliolate membrane, leaves mostly basal, panicle ovate, sessile spikelets oblong, lower glume compressed or keeled, shortly pungent callus, upper lemma bidentate, palatable, a useful pasture grass, used as fodder when young and tender, relished by the bullocks, on stony soils, along roadsides, dry sandy soils, open glades, similar to Chrysopogon serrulatus Trin., see Plantarum Minus Cognitarum Pugillus. 2: 8, 10. 1815, Neue Entdeckungen im ganzen Umfang der Pflanzenkunde 2: 93. 1821, Mantissa 3: 665. 1827, Revis. Gramin. 1: 166. 1829 and Fl. Ceylon 5: 236. 1900, Indian For. 40: 495. 1914, Flora Somala 1: 327. 1929, Handb. Fl. Ceylon 6: 333. 1931, Grasses of Ceylon 185. 1956, Grasses of Burma ... 116. 1960.

in English: red false beard grass, Guria grass

in India: agiva, chalo sanna kannee hullu, chickua, dand, dhaulu, ganjigarike, ghatera, ghora, gogad, gogar, goria, gorka, gorkha, guria, gurla, kare hullu, karni, pandhari kusal, phulkia, sani khidi, shili ghas, sunthia khad, thigori

in Sri Lanka: kuru vi

C. gryllus (L.) Trin. (Andropogon glabratus (Trin.) Steud., nom. illeg., non Andropogon glabratus (Brongn.) Steud.; Andropogon gryllus L.; Andropogon gryllus subsp. glabratus (Trin.) Hack.; Andropogon royleanus Steud.; Apluda gryllus (L.) C. Presl; Chloris gryllus (L.) Honck.; Chrysopogon benthamianus Henrard; Chrysopogon glabratus Trin.; Chrysopogon gryllus Benth.; Chrysopogon gryllus subsp. glabratus (Trin.) Tzvelev; Chrysopogon royleanus (Steud.) W. Watson; Holcus gryllus (L.) R. Br.; Pollinia gryllus (L.) Sprengel; Pollinia pallida (R. Br.) Roemer & Schultes; Rhaphis gryllus (L.) Desv.; Rhaphis gryllus (L.) Trin.)

Africa, Eurasia. Perennial, unbranched or simple, robust, cylindrical, forming large dense tufts, leaf sheaths keeled above, inflorescence a large panicle with spreading branches, at the tip of the branches the spikelets are in threes, sessile spikelet awned, peduncles with bearded apices, used for brushes, good fodder, thatching grass, erosion control, usually on stony soils, dry areas, see Centuria II. Plantarum ... 2: 33. 1756, Amoen. Acad. 4: 332. 1759, Obs. Bot. 5: 22. 1789, Flora Cochinchinensis 2: 553. 1790, Synopsis Plantarum Germaniae 1: 437. 1792, Species Plantarum. Editio quarta 4: 906. 1806, Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae 199. 1810, Plantarum Minus Cognitarum Pugillus 2: 10. 1815, Cyperaceae et Gramineae Siculae 55. 1820, Fund. Agrost. 106, 188, t. 5. 1820, Narrative of Travels and Discoveries in Northern and Central Africa Appendix: 244. 1826, Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 341. 1830, Mémoires de la Société d’Agriculture, Sciences et Arts d’Angers 1: 172-173. 1831, Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint Pétersbourg. Sixième Série. Sciences Mathématiques, Physiques et Naturelles 2(4): 318. 1832, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 360. 1840, Gramineae 50. 1841, Nova Acta Phys.-Med. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 19 (Suppl. 1): 182. 1843, Hooker’s Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany 2: 99. 1850, Plantae Junghuhnianae 3: 361. 1854, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 360, 395-397. 1854, Genera Plantarum 3(2): 1127. 1883, A List of the Grasses of N.W. India, Indigenous and Cultivated 22. 1883 and Handb. Fl. Ceylon 5: 234. 1900, Botanical Magazine (Tokyo) 40: 103. 1926, Handb. Fl. Ceylon 6: 333. 1931, Blumea 4(3): 532. 1941, Petite Flore de l’Ouest-Africain 403-404. 1954, Grasses of Ceylon 186. 1956, Grasses of Burma ... 115. 1960, Bot. Macaronesica 6: 64. 1980, Austrobaileya 5(3): 510. 1999.

in English: French whisk

in India: kus, sailma, salima, salum

C. gryllus (L.) Trin. subsp. echinulatus (Nees) Cope (Andropogon echinulatus Nees ex Steud.; Chrysopogon echinulatus (Boiss.) Stapf; Chrysopogon echinulatus var. filipes (Steud.) W. Watson; Chrysopogon gryllus subsp. echinulatus (Nees ex Steud.) Cope; Rhaphis echinulata Nees)

India, Pakistan, Nepal, Asia temperate and tropical. See Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 397. 1854 and Kew Bulletin 35(3): 701. 1980.

C. lancearius (Hook.f.) Haines (Andropogon lancearius Hook.f.)

India, Sikkim. A good fodder grass, see The Flora of British India 7(21): 190. 1897 [1896] and The Botany of Bihar and Orissa Pt. 5: 1036. 1924.

in India: korpo bimbu, korpo dumbau

C. latifolius S.T. Blake

Australia, Western Australia. Useful for grazing of sheep in Australia, see University of Queensland Papers: Department of Biology 2(3): 7. 1944.

C. macleishii Cope

Oman. Vulnerable species, see Kew Bulletin 49(3): 533, f. 1. 1994.

C. nodulibarbis (Steud.) Henrard (Andropogon nodulibarbis Steud.; Andropogon zeylanicus Steud.; Chrysopogon zeylanicus (Steud.) Thw.)

Southern India, Sri Lanka. Perennial, tussocky, basal leaf sheaths strongly keeled, ligule a rim of hairs, leaf blades stiff and acuminate, panicle ovate, racemes with 1-3 sessile spikelets oblong with an acute callus, upper glume mucro-nate with a geniculate awn, pedicelled spikelets acuminate, used for thatching, see Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 396-397. 1854, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. 366. 1864, Mon. Phan.

6: 553. 1889 and Handb. Fl. Ceylon 5: 235. 1900, Handb. Fl. Ceylon 6: 333. 1931, Blumea 4: 543. 1941, Grasses of Ceylon 185. 1956, Grasses of Burma ... 119. 1960.

in Sri Lanka: gavara

C. orientalis (Desv.) A. Camus (Andropogon aristulatus Hochst. ex Steud.; Andropogon breviaristatus Steud.; Andropogon orientalis (Desv.) Druce; Andropogon wightianus Nees ex Steud.; Andropogon wightianus Steud.; Chrysopogon verticillatus var. orientalis (Desv.) Roberty; Chrysopogon wightianus (Steud.) Thwaites; Chrysopogon wightianus (Nees ex Steud.) Thwaites; Microstegium breviaristatum (Steud.) Keng; Rhaphis orientalis Desv.)

Asia tropical, Southeast Asia, southern India, Thailand, Vietnam. Perennial, tufted to densely tufted, creeping, branching, shortly stoloniferous, foliage basal, ligule a short ciliolate membrane, leaves acute to linear-acuminate, loose inflorescence paniculate, terminal panicle with whorls of slender branches, triad of spikelets, sessile spikelet bisexual and with an acute pungent callus, upper glume obtuse, upper lemma entire with a geniculate awn, green forage, palatable, can be cut and fed to animals, not suitable for silage making, useful for wind erosion, tolerates heavy grazing and fire, found in open grassland, infertile soils, open fields, sandy soils, old plantations, heavy soils, sandy coastal areas, see Mémoires de la Société d’Agriculture, Sciences et Arts d’Angers 1: 173. 1831, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 395-397. 1854, Enumeratio Plantarum Zeylaniae 366. 1864 and Flore Générale de l’Indo-Chine 7: 332. 1922, Sinensia 3: 92. 1932, Grasses of Burma ... 118. 1960, Taxon 34: 159-164. 1985, Austrobaileya 5(3): 518. 1999.

in India: karappa gaddi

in Indonesia: rukut dukut, salsapot, tinloy

in Laos: hnha:z khwa:k

in Thailand: yaa khaoo nok khao, yaa phungchuu, ya phungchu

in Vietnam: co’ may dông

C. parviflorus (R. Br.) Benth. (Anatherum parviflorum (R. Br.) Spreng.; Andropogon micranthus Kunth; Andropogon parviflorus (R. Br.) Domin, nom. illeg., non Andropogon parviflorus Roxb.; Bothriochloa parviflora (R. Br.) Ohwi; Bothriochloa pauciflora (R. Br.) Quart.; Capillipedium parviflorum (R. Br.) Stapf; Chrysopogon parviflorus (R. Br.) Nees; Holcus parviflorus R. Br.)

Australia. See London Journal of Botany 2: 411. 1843 and Bibliotheca Botanica 85(2): 263. 1915, Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 169. 1917, Journal of Taiwan Museum 10: 58. 1957.

in English: scented golden beard

C. pauciflorus (Chapman) Benth. ex Vasey (Andropogon pauciflorus (Chapm.) Hack.; Andropogon wrightii Munro ex C. Wright; Chrysopogon pauciflorus (Chapm.) Roberty, nom. illeg., non Chrysopogon pauciflorus (Chapm.) Benth.

ex Vasey; Chrysopogon wrightii Munro ex Vasey; Rhaphis pauciflora (Chapman) Nash; Sorghum pauciflorum Chapm.)

U.S., Florida. Annual, see Botanical Gazette 3(3): 20. 1878.

in English: Florida false beard grass

C. perlaxus Bor

Thailand. Indeterminate species, see Dansk Botanisk Arkiv 23: 157. 1965.

C. plumulosus Hochst. (Andropogon aristidoides Steud.;

Andropogon aucheri Boiss. var. quinqueplumis (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Hack.; Andropogon quinqueplumis (A. Rich.)

Steud.; Andropogon quinqueplumis (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Steud.; Andropogon quinqueplumis Hochst. ex A. Rich.; Aristida chrysopila Steud.; Chrysopogon aucheri (Boiss.) Stapf var. pulvinatus Stapf; Chrysopogon aucheri var. quinqueplumis (A. Rich.) Stapf; Chrysopogon aucheri var. quinqueplumis (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Stapf; Chrysopogon quinqueplumis A. Rich.)

East Africa, Somalia, western Arabia. Perennial bunchgrass, slender and wiry culms, desert grass, glaucous, tufted, leafy, erect or ascending, low cushions forming, basal sheaths flattened or compressed, panicle ovate and spreading, orange spikelets in triads on slender peduncles, pedicelled spikelets green, sessile spikelets with a geniculate awn and from the upper glume a straight plumose bristle, a poor seeder, excellent drought tolerance, grass of high nutritive value and highly palatable, grains and leaves eaten by baboons, arid and dry regions, areas of low rainfall, alkaline soils, overgrazed areas, rocky ground and rocky hillsides, sandy and alluvial plains, wooded grassland, dry open stony hills, Acacia bushland, see Nomenclator Botanicus edition 2 1: 131. 1840, Diagnoses plantarum orientalium novarum 5: 77. 1844, Tentamen Florae Abyssinicae ... 2: 450. 1850, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 397-398. 1854, Monographiae Phanerogamarum 6: 561. 1889 and Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 6: 211. 1907 [also Kew Bulletin 1907: 211. 1907].

in English: Aucher’s grass

in Somalia: daremo, dareemo

C. serrulatus Trin. (Andropogon caeruleus Steud.; Andropogon ciliolatus Nees ex Steud.; Andropogon monticola Roem. & Schult.; Andropogon monticola var. trinii (Steud.) Hook.f.; Andropogon serrulatus Link; Andropogon tremulus Hack.; Andropogon trinii Steud.; Andropogon trinii var. increscens Hack.; Chrysopogon caeruleus (Steud.) W. Watson; Chrysopogon ciliolatus (Nees ex Steud.) Boiss.; Chrysopogon fulvus var. serrulatus (Trin.) R.R. Stewart; Chrysopogon fulvus var. serrulatus (Trin.) Roberty; Chrysopogon montanus Trin.; Chrysopogon montanus var. serrulatus (Trin.) Stapf; Chrysopogon montanus var. tremulus (Hack.) Stapf; Chrysopogon trinii (Steud.) W. Watson;

Chrysopogon wightianus var. leucanthus Thw.; Rhaphis montana var. tremula (Trin.) E. Phillips)

East Africa, Asia. Perennial, tufted, generally unbranched, erect, robust, sometimes shortly rhizomatous, leaf sheaths compressed and keeled, ligule membranous with a hairy margin, leaves mostly cauline, open or contracted ovate panicles, whorls of lax branches, spikelets in group of 3, 1 spikelet sessile and narrowly oblong with a shortly pungent callus, lower glume laterally compressed, upper glume glabrous, upper lemma 2-dentate, pedicelled spikelets awned, a sand binder, palatable, good fodder grass, very high grazing value, cut before flowering, used as thatching grass, medicinal value, the seeds vermifuge, found on stony slopes, shallow stony soil, on clay and loam soil, rocky hillsides, similar to Chrysopogon fulvus (Spreng.) Chiov., see Neue Entdeckungen im ganzen Umfang der Pflanzenkunde 2: 93. 1821, Hortus Regius Botanicus Berolinensis 1: 241. 1827, Mantissa 2: 665. 1827, An Introduction to the Study of the South African Grasses ... 219, t. 14. 1831, Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint Pétersbourg. Sixième Série. Sciences Mathématiques, Physiques et Naturelles. Seconde Partie: Sciences Naturelles 2(3): 318. 1832, Sp. Gram. 621, pl. 331. 1836, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 395-396. 1854, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. 366. 1864, Himalayan Districts of the North-western Provinces of India 10: 392. 1882, Gaz. N. W. India 392. 1882, Flora Orientalis 5: 458. 1884, Monographiae Phanerogamarum 6: 558. 1889, The Flora of British India 7(21): 193. 1897 [1896] and Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier II 1: 764. 1901, Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 159, 160. 1917, Flora Somala 1: 327. 1929, Brittonia 5: 466. 1945, Grasses of Burma ... 118. 1960, Boissiera. Mémoires du Conservatoire de Botanique et de l’Institut de Botanique Systématique de l’Université de Genève 9: 284. 1960.

in English: golden beard grass

in India: agiva, ballak, chellosankanni, chickua, dhaula, dhaulian, dholu, ghweia, gogada gaddi, goria, gurla, gurra battokelu, jhingraka-jhara, karehullu, khar, khidi, kohigayab, palla paggar gadi, tigri

in South Africa: gouebaardgras, krulgras

C. sylvaticus C.E. Hubb.

Australia, Queensland, Northern Territory, New South Wales. Perennial, densely tufted, sheath glabrous and keeled, panicle loose and ovate with whorled branches, lower glume truncate, upper glume obtuse, lower lemma with a geniculate awn, pedicellate spikelets sterile or male and often rudimentary, in eucalypt woodland, see Hooker’s Icones Plantarum 4: pl. 3365. 1938.

C. velutinus (Hook.f.) Bor (Andropogon velutinus Hook.f.; Chrysopogon velutinus Arn. ex Hook.f.)

India, Andhra Pradesh. Indeterminate species, see The Flora of British India 7(21): 194. 1897 [1896] and Grasses of

Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan (excluding Bambuseae) 119. 1960.

C. verticillatus (Roxb.) Trin. ex Steud. (Andropogon verticillatus Roxb.; Chrysopogon verticillatus St.-Lag.; nom. illeg., non Chrysopogon verticillatus (Roxb.) Trin. ex Steud.)

India, Asia. See Flora Indica; or Descriptions ... 1: 267. 1820, Mémoires de la Société d’Agriculture, Sciences et Arts d’Angers 1: 173. 1831, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 2(1): 360. 1840 and Boissiera. 9: 283, 285. 1960.

C. zeylanicus (Nees ex Steud.) Thwaites (Andropogon nodulibarbis Hochst. ex Steud.; Andropogon peninsulae Steud.; Andropogon zeylanicus Nees ex Steud.; Chrysopogon nodulibarbis (Hochst. ex Steud.) Henrard)

India, Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka. Useful for erosion control, in South India food for Nilgiri tahr (Hemitragus hylocrius), see Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 396-397. 1854, Enumeratio Plantarum Zeylaniae 366. 1864 and Blumea 4(3): 534. 1941.

C. zizanioides (L.) Roberty (Agrostis verticillata Lam., nom. illeg., non Agrostis verticillata Vill.; Anatherum muricatum (Retz.) P. Beauv.; Anatherum zizanioides (L.) Hitchc. & Chase; Andropogon festucoides J. Presl; Andropogon muricatum Retz.; Andropogon muricatus Retz.; Andropogon zizanioides (L.) Urb.; Chamaeraphis muricata (Retz.) Merr.; Chrysopogon festucoides (J. Presl) Veldkamp; Holcus zizanioides (L.) Kuntze ex Stuck.; Phalaris zizanioides L.; Rhaphis zizanioides (L.) Roberty; Sorghum zizanioides (L.) Kuntze; Vetiveria arundinacea Griseb.; Vetiveria festucoides (J. Presl) Ohwi; Vetiveria muricata (Retz.) Griseb.; Vetiveria odorata Virey; Vetiveria odoratissima Bory; Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash; Vetiveria zizanioides var. genuina A. Camus)

Asia, America. See Mantissa Plantarum 2: 183. 1771, Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 1: 59. 1783, Observationes Botanicae 3: 43 [31]. 1783, Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae 193. 1810, Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 128, 150, atlas 15, t. 22, f. 10. 1812, Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 340. 1830, Flora of the British West Indian Islands 559-560. 1864, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 791. 1891 and Symbolae Antillarum 4: 79. 1903, Flora of the Southeastern United States ... 67, 1326. 1903, Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires 11: 48. 1904, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 18(7): 285. 1917, Bulletin du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle 25: 673. 1919, An Enumeration of Philippine Flowering Plants 1(1): 75. 1922, Bulletin of the Tokyo Science Museum 18: 4. 1947, Petite Flore de l’Ouest-Africain 404. 1954, Bulletin de l’Institut Française d’Afrique Noire 22: 106. 1960, Boissiera. 9: 291. 1960, Molecular Ecology

vol. 7, issue 7: 813-818. July 1998, Austrobaileya 5(3): 512-513. 1999.

Chrysurus Pers. = Lamarckia Moench

From the Greek chrysos “gold” and oura “a tail.”

Pooideae, Poeae, Dactylidinae, see Species Plantarum 1: 73. 1753, Methodus Plantas Horti Botanici ... 201. 1794, Syn. Pl. 1: 80. 1805, Descr. Gram. 376. 1812, Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 1: 296. 1825, Stirpium Sardoarum Elenchus 1: 50. 1827 and Flora Mesoamericana 6: 229. 1994, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 420-421. 2003.

Chumsriella Bor = Germainia Balansa & Poitrasson

Named for Chai Anan [Chaianan] Chumsri, b. 1930, agrostologist, botanist in Thailand.

One species, Thailand. Panicoideae, Andropogonodae, Andropogoneae, Andropogoninae, annual, herbaceous, ligule a fringe of hairs, plants monoecious, inflorescence loosely racemose, bractiform involucres, all the fertile spikelets unisexual, male and female fertile spikelets mixed in the inflorescence, sessile spikelets chartaceous, 2 glumes more or less equal or subequal, palea present, lodicules absent, no stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, desert and arid places, often included in Germainia, type Chumsriella thailandica Bor, see Bulletin de la Société d’Histoire Naturelle de Toulouse 7: 344, f. 1-9. 1873, Flora Australiensis: A Description ... 7: 518. 1878, Journal de Botanique (Morot) 4: 83. 1890 and Lexikon Generum Phanerogamarum 247. 1903 [1904], Bulletin du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle 25: 285. 1919, O. Stapf and Charles Edward Hubbard, Hooker’s Icones Plantarum. Ser. 5. 3, t. 3262. 1935, Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, Zweite Auflage 14e: 124. 1940, Australian Journal of Botany 2: 108. 1954, Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 44(3): 77-83. 1961, Dansk Botanisk Arkiv 23(4): 467-471. 1968, Thai Forest Bulletin. Botany 6: 29-59. 1972, Blumea 45: 443-475. 2000.

Specie

C. thailandica Bor (Germainia thailandica (Bor) ChaiAnan)

Thailand. Lower glume chartaceous, see Dansk Botanisk Arkiv 23: 467. 1968, Thai Forest Bulletin. Botany 6: 37. 1972.

Chusquea Kunth = Coliquea Bibra, Coliquea Steud. ex Bibra, Dendragrostis Jackson, Dendragrostis Nees ex B.D. Jackson, Dendragrostis Nees, Mustelia Cav. ex Steud., Mustelia Steud., Rettbergia Raddi, Swallenochloa McClure

From a South American (Colombia) native name, chusque.

About 100-135-137 species, Central and South America. Bambusoideae, Bambuseae, Chusqueinae, solid, slender, mostly sympodial, sometimes monopodial, woody and branching, shrubby or climber, mostly scandent or strongly arching, at each node 1 large branch and several small leafy branches, dimorphic bud-branches, inflorescence an open or condensed capitate panicle, 1 fertile floret, 4 glumes, the 2 lower glumes small or rudimentary, stamens 3, stigmas 2, found in rain forest, understory, páramos and subpáramos, forest, dense woods, pastures, wet montane forest, mountain slopes, edge of woods, cloud forest, montane woodlands, moist shady banks, a difficult genus, type Chusquea scandens Kunth, see Species Plantarum 1: 81-82. 1753, Genera Plantarum 34. 1789, Flora Boreali-Americana 1: 73. 1803, Journal de Physique, de Chimie, d’Histoire Naturelle et des Arts 95: 151. 1822, Synopsis Plantarum 1: 254. 1822, Agrostografia Brasiliensis 17, 18, t. 1, f. 1. 1823, Linnaea 9(4): 467, 487. 1835[1834], Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 2: 168. 1841, Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse 5(2): 115. 1853, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 19: 31. 1881, Index Kewensis 727. 1893 and Contributions from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University 184: 1-223. 1958, Brittonia 23(3): 293-324. 1971, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 9: 1-48. 1973, Ceiba 19(1): 1-118. 1975 [Enumeración de las plantas de Honduras], Brittonia 30: 154-164, 297-312. 1978, Brittonia 31: 433-445. 1979, J. Bamb. Res. 1: 15-18. 1982, Gayana, Bot. 42: 1-157. 1985, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 72(4): 864-873. 1985, Iowa State Journal of Research 61(1): 99-102. 1986, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 74(2): 424-428. 1987, Grass Systematics and Evolution 225-238. 1987, Systematic Botany Monographs 27: 1-127. 1989, National Geographic Research 5: 459-476. 1989, Systematic Botany 15(4): 617-634. 1990, Nordic Journal of Botany 11: 323-331. 1991 [Miscellaneous new taxa of bamboo (Poaceae: Bambuseae) from Colombia, Ecuador, and Mexico], Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 78(1): 164-171. 1991 [New species of Chusquea (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) from Costa Rica], Cuscatlania 1(6): 1-29. 1991, R.W. Pohl and L.G. Clark, “New chromosome counts for Chusquea and Aulonemia (Poaceae: Bambusoideae).” American Journal of Botany 79(4): 478-480. 1992, L.G. Clark, “Chusquea sect. Swallenochloa (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) and allies in Brazil.” Brittonia 44(4): 387-422. 1992, Novon 3(3): 228-238. 1993, Ruizia 13: 1-480. 1993, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 202-210. 1994, Brittonia 48(2): 250-262. 1996 [Four new species of Chusquea (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) from Brazil and Ecuador.], Veblen, T.T., C. Donoso, T. Kitzberger and A.J. Rebertus, “Ecology of southern Chilean and Argentinian Nothofagus forests.” in T.T. Veblen, R.S. Hill and J. Read [editors], The Ecology and Biogeography of Nothofagus Forests, 293-353. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT. 1996, S.A. Kelchner and L.G. Clark, “Molecular evolution and phylogenetic utility of the chloroplast rpl16 intron in Chusquea and the Bambusoideae (Poaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 8: 385-397. 1997, Systematic Botany 22(2): 219-228. 1997, The Bamboos 33-44. 1997 [Diversity, biogeography and evolution of Chusquea.], Randall L. Small, Julie A. Ryburn, Richard C. Cronn, Tosak Seelanan and Jonathan F. Wendel, “The tortoise and the hare: choosing between noncoding plastome and nuclear Adh sequences for phylogeny reconstruction in a recently diverged plant group.” Am. J. Bot. 85: 1301-1315. 1998, Emmet J. Judziewicz et al., American Bamboos 199-223. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London 1999, Susanne S. Renner, “Circumscription and phylogeny of the Laurales: evidence from molecular and morphological data.” Am. J. Bot. 86: 1301-1315. 1999, Am. J. Bot. 86: 447-455, 554-562, 1597-1605. 1999, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 39: 36-52. 2000, Am. J. Bot. 87: 259-272, 273-292. 2000, Am. J. Bot. 88: 1103-1117, 1675-1687. 2001, Scot A. Kelchner, “Group II introns as phylogenetic tools: structure, function, and evolutionary constraints.” Am. J. Bot. 89: 1651-1669. 2002, Am. J. Bot. 89: 1342-1359, 1967-1972. 2002, Am. J. Bot. 90: 445-460. 2003, Am. J. Bot. 91: 274-284, 601-614, 1086-1098, 1709-1725. 2004, Joey Shaw et al., “The tortoise and the hare II: relative utility of 21 noncoding chloroplast DNA sequences for phylogenetic analysis.” Am. J. Bot. 92: 142-166. 2005.

Species

C. sp.

in Central America: crimichaca, rosetilla, vara de botoncillo

in Colombia: carrizo, chusque

in Ecuador: carrizo

in Peru: caña-brava

in Venezuela: puru-puru

C. abietifolia Griseb. (Arundinaria microclada Pilg.)

The Caribbean. See Fl. Brit. West Indies 529. 1864 and Symb. Antill. 5: 289. 1907.

C. acuminata Döll (Chusquea tenuis Glaz. ex E.G. Camus)

Brazil. See Flora Brasiliensis 2(3): 204. 1880 and Les Bambusées 1: 90. 1913.

C. affinis Munro ex Camus (Chusquea ramosissima Lindm.)

Brazil. See Kongliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Hand-lingar 34(6): 24, t. 14. 1900, Les Bambusées 1: 80, t. 60, f. B. 1913, Revista Argent. Agron. 8: 338. 1941.

C. albilanata L.G. Clark & Londoño

Ecuador, Colombia. See Nordic Journal of Botany 11(3): 323. 1991.

C. amistadensis L.G. Clark, Davidse & R.P. Ellis

Costa Rica, Panama. Páramos, see National Geographic Research 5(4): 462, f. 1, 2Aa, 3-4, 5, 6C, 7C, 8C. 1989.

C. andina Phil. (Chusquea culeou E. Desv.)

Chile. See Flora Chilena 6: 450, t. 83, f. 2. 1854, Linnaea 29(1): 103. 1858 and Rev. Argent. Agron. 8(4): 343. 1941, Economic Botany 55(2): 243-254. 2001.

C. anelythra Nees (Dendragrostis anelytra Nees ex Munro)

Brazil. See Linnaea 9(4): 491. 1835, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 63. 1868, Flora Brasiliensis 2(3B): 161-242, t. 44-58. 1880.

C. anelytroides Rupr. ex Döll

Brazil. See Flora Brasiliensis 2(3): 206. 1880.

C. angustifolia (Soderstr. & C.E. Calderón) L.G. Clark (Swallenochloa angustifolia Soderstr. & C.E. Calderón)

Venezuela, Colombia. Páramos, see Brittonia 30(3): 303. 1978, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 74(2): 428. 1987.

C. antioquensis L.G. Clark & Londoño

Colombia. See Novon 8(4): 423, f. 6. 1998.

C. aperta L.G. Clark

Mexico. See Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 74(2): 426-427, f. 1E-H. 1987.

C. arachniforme L.G. Clark & Londoño (Chusquea arachniformis L.G. Clark & Londoño)

Colombia. See Novon 8(4): 425-428. 1998.

C. argentina Parodi (Chusquea culeou E. Desv.)

Chile, Argentina. See Flora Chilena 6: 450, t. 83, f. 2. 1854 and Revista Argent. Agron. 8(4): 339, t. 24, f. 4. 1941, Flora Patag. 3: 1-583. 1978, Gayana, Bot. 42: 1-157. 1985.

C. aspera L.G. Clark

Peru. See Iowa State Journal of Research 61(1): 113, f. 4fi. 1986.

C. attenuata (Döll) L.G. Clark (Arundinaria attenuata Döll)

Brazil. See Flora Brasiliensis 2(3): 170. 1880 and Novon 3(3): 237. 1993.

C. baculifera Silveira

Brazil. See Arq. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro 22: 99, t. 1. 1919.

C. bahiana L.G. Clark (Chusquea bambusoides (Raddi)

Hack.)

Brazil. See Ergebnisse der Botanischen Expedition nach Südbrasilien 1: 20. 1906, Brittonia 48(2): 250-253, f. 1. 1996.

C. bambusoides (Raddi) Hack. (Chusquea bahiana L.G. Clark; Chusquea gaudichaudii Kunth; Nastus brunneus Desv.; Rettbergia bambusoides Raddi) (named for the French naturalist Charles Gaudichaud-Beaupré, 1789-1854, plant collector, circumnavigator, accompanied Freycinet in his voyage round the world, wrote “Rapport sur la flore des iles Malouines.” Ann. Sci. Nat. 5: 89-110. Paris 1825; see J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 2: 33. 1965; John Dunmore, Who’s Who in Pacific Navigation. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1991; Paul Henri Lecomte, Flore générale de l’Indo-Chine. Paris 1907-1950; Emil Bretschneider (1833-1901), History of European Botanical Discoveries in China. 809-811. [Reprint of the original edition 1898] Leipzig 1981; Charles GaudichaudBeaupré, [Botany of the Voyage.] Voyage autour du Monde ... sur ... l’Uranie et la Physicienne, pendant ... 1817-1820. 48. Paris 1826 [-1830]; Günther Schmid, Chamisso als Naturforscher. Eine Bibliographie. Leipzig 1942)

Brazil. See Agrostografia Brasiliensis 18, t. 1, f. 1. 1823, Révision des Graminées 1: 331, t. 78. 1830, Mémoires de la Société d’Agriculture, Sciences et Arts d’Angers 1: 211. 1831, Opusc. Sci. Phys. Nat. 211. [reprint] 1831-1833 and Ergebn. Bot. Exp. Südbras. 1: 20. 1906, Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 79: 81. 1908, Brittonia 48(2): 250-253, f. 1. 1996.

C. bambusoides (Raddi) Hack. var. minor McClure & L.B. Sm.

Brazil. See Fl. Il. Catarin. Gram. Suppl. 25, t. 5, f. g-i. 1967.

C. barbata L.G. Clark

Peru. See Novon 3(3): 232-233, f. 2. 1993.

C. bilimekii E. Fourn. (Arundinaria flabellata (E. Fourn.) McClure; Guadua flabellata E. Fourn.) (for Dominik Bilimek, 1812/1813-1884/1887, scientist, priest, botanical and zoological collector, naturalist, followed Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian (1832-1867) to Mexico, 1866 made the first biospeleological visit to the Grutas de Cacahuamilpa, collected and described for the first time numerous cave animals. See Irving William Knobloch, compiled by, “A preliminary verified list of plant collectors in Mexico.” Phytologia Memoirs. VI. Plainfield, N.J. 1983; P. Herman Josef Roth, “Dominik Bilimek: Leben und Werk eines österreichischen Naturforschers sur mexikanischen Expedition der Österreicher vor hundert Jahren.” Sudhoffs Arch. 49: 338-354. 1965; Paul Carpenter Standley, 1884-1963, Trees and Shrubs of Mexico. 1920-1926)

Mexico. Used for making baskets, see Biologia Centrali-Americana; ... Botany ... 3(20): 588. 1885, Mexic. Pl. 2: 132. 1886 and Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 10(5): 162. 1964, Phytologia 37(4): 317-407. 1977.

in Mexico: otate

C. bradei L.G. Clark (for A.C. Brade, 1881-1971)

Brazil. See Brittonia 48(2): 254-256, f. 2. 1996.

C. breviglumis Phil.

Argentina. See Linnaea 29(1): 103. 1858.

C. caparaoensis L.G. Clark

Brazil, Parque Nacional do Caparao. See Brittonia 44(4): 408, f. 9H, I. 1992.

C. capitata Rupr. (Rettbergia capitata Nees ex Döll)

Brazil. See Linnaea 9(4): 489. 1834, Fl. Bras. 2(3): 196. 1880.

C. capituliflora Trin.

Brazil. See Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint Pétersbourg. Sixième Série. Sciences Mathématiques, Physiques et Naturelles. Seconde Partie: Sciences Naturelles 3,1(6): 613. 1835.

C. capituliflora Trin. var. capituliflora

Brazil.

C. capituliflora Trin. var. pubescens McClure & L.B. Sm.

Brazil. See Fl. Il. Catarin. Gram. Suppl. 28-29, t. 6, f. a-c. 1967.

C. ciliata Phil. (Chusquea tenuiflora Phil.)

Chile. See Linnaea 30(2): 206. 1859, Linnaea 33(3-4): 299. 1864.

C. circinata Soderstr. & C.E. Calderón

Mexico. Used for making baskets, see Brittonia 30(2): 156, f. 1. 1978.

in Mexico: otate, otate chino

C. coronalis Soderstr. & C.E. Calderón

Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica. See Brittonia 30(2): 158, f. 2. 1978, Am. J. Bot. 89: 1967-1972. 2002.

C. culeou E. Desv. (Chusquea andina Phil.; Chusquea argentina Parodi; Chusquea breviglumis Phil.; Chusquea culeou f. culeou; Chusquea culeou f. longiramea Parodi)

Chile, Argentina. Shoots eaten, moist woods, see Flora Chilena 6: 450, t. 83, f. 2. 1854, Linnaea 29(1): 103. 1858 and Revista Argentina de Agronomía 8(4): 339, 343, t. 24, f. 4. 1941, Economic Botany 55(2): 243-254. 2001.

in Argentina: quila, caña

C. culeou E. Desv. f. longiramea Parodi

Chile, Argentina. See Revista Argentina de Agronomía 8(4): 339, 343, t. 24, f. 4. 1941.

C. cumingii Nees (Arundo canila Molina ex Steud.; Chusquea parvifolia Phil.) (after Hugh Cuming, 1791-1865 (d. London), British traveler and plant collector in South America and in the Philippines, Fellow of the Linnean Society 1832, shell collector. See A. Lasègue, Musée botanique de Benjamin Delessert. Paris 1845; Ray Desmond,

Dictionary of British & Irish Botanists and Horticulturists. 183-184. London 1994; Gordon Douglas Rowley, A History of Succulent Plants. 1997; Sebastian Vidal y Soler (1842-1889), Phanerogamae Cumingianae Philippinarum; ó, Indice numèrico y catálogo sistemático de las plantas fanerogamas coleccionadas en Filipinas por Hugh Cuming, con características de algunas especies no descritas y del género Cumingia (Malvaceas) por Sebastian Vidal y Soler. Publicada por superior decreto. Manila, Tipo-litográfico de M. Pérez Hijo, 1885)

Chile. See Linnaea 9(4): 487. 1834, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 336. 1854, Linnaea 33(3-4): 299. 1864.

C. decolorata Munro ex Parodi (Chusquea decolorata L. Parodi)

Peru. See Revista Univ. Santiago 30: 65. 1945.

C. deficiens Parodi

Argentina. See Revista Argent. Agron. 8(4): 335, t. 22, f. 2-3. 1941.

C. deflexa L.G. Clark

Guatemala, Honduras. See Iowa State J. Res. 61(1): 102, f. 1d-f. 1986.

C. delicatula Hitchc.

Peru, Bolivia. See Contrib. U.S. National Herbarium 24(8): 309. 1927.

C. depauperata Pilg. (Swallenochloa depauperata (Pilg.) McClure)

Peru. See Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 1(10): 149. 1905, Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 9: 106, 112, f. 43-45. 1973.

C. discolor Hack. (Chusquea oligophylla Rupr.; Chusquea wettsteinii Hack.)

Brazil. See Bambuseae 34, t. 7, f. 23. 1839 and Oesterr. Bot. Z. 53(4): 155. 1903, Ergebnisse der Botanischen Expedition nach Südbrasilien 1: 21. 1906, Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 79: 82. 1908.

C. dombeyana Kunth (Chusquea pubispicula Pilg.; Chusquea scandens Kunth; Nastus chusque Kunth) (after the French botanist Joseph Dombey, 1742-1796 (he died in prison, Montserrat, West Indies) (there is still no certainty with respect to the year of death, Pritzel accepts 1793, Brummitt and Powell 1796, D.S.B. 1794, etc.), plant collector, physician, naturalist, explorer and traveler, between 1777-1788 in Chile and Peru with H. Ruíz López (1754-1815, Spanish scientist and traveler, author of a never published supplement to a dictionary of the Quechua language spoken by the Indians of Peru) and José Antonio Pavón (1754-1844). See Joseph Dombey, médecin, naturaliste, archéologue, explorateur du Pérou, du Chili et du Brésil, 1778-1785 ... Paris 1905; J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 1: 463. 1965; Diego de Torres Rubio, Arte de la lengua quichua. Lima 1619; J. Lanjouw and F.A. Stafleu, Index Herbariorum. Part II, Collectors A-D.

Regnum Vegetabile vol. 2. 1954; James Lockhart, Men of Cajamarca: A Social and Biographical Study of the First Conquerors of Peru. Austin 1972; R.B. Cunninghame Graham, Pedro de Valdivia: Conqueror of Chile. London 1927; E. Alvarez López, “Dombey y la expedición al Perú y Chile.” Anales Inst. Bot. Cavanilles. 14: 31-129. 1956; Francisco Guerra, in D.S.B. 4: 156-157. [d. 1794] 1981; F. Boerner & G. Kunkel, Taschenwörterbuch der botanischen Pflanzennamen. 4. Aufl. 94. 1989; Frans A. Stafleu, Linnaeus and the Linnaeans: The Spreading of Their Ideas in Systematic Botany, 1735-1789. Utrecht 1971)

Peru. See Nova Genera et Species Plantarum 1: 201. 1815 [1816], Synopsis Plantarum 1: 254. 1822, Révision des Graminées 2: 553, t. 191. 1832 and Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 1(10): 148. 1905.

C. effusa Renv. (Aulonemia lanciflora McClure & L.B. Sm.;

Colanthelia lanciflora (McClure & L.B. Sm.) McClure

Brazil. Glumes absent, see Flora Ilustrada Catarinense 1(GRAM-Supl.): 47-50, t. 9, f. d-l. 1967, Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 9: 77, 79, f. 32. 1973, Kew Bulletin 42(2): 924. 1987.

C. elegans Renvoize (Chusquea mimosa McClure & L.B.

Sm.)

Brazil. Glumes absent, see Flora Ilustrada Catarinense 1(GRAM-Supl.): 37-40, t. 8, f. a-c. 1967, Kew Bulletin 42(2): 924. 1987.

C. erecta L.G. Clark

Brazil. See Brittonia 44(4): 397, f. 1. 1992.

C. exasperata L.G. Clark

Ecuador, Peru. See Syst. Bot. 15(4): 627, f. 5-6, 11A-G. 1990.

C. falcata L.G. Clark

Ecuador. See Novon 3(3): 228, f. 1A-D. 1993.

C. fasciculata Döll

Brazil. See Flora Brasiliensis 2(3): 202, t. 54. 1880.

C. fendleri Munro (named for the German-born explorer August Fendler, 1813-1883, plant collector in North and South America, with Asa Gray (1810-1888) wrote Plantae fendlerianae novi-mexicanae. [Philadelphia 1849]; see J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 1: 534. 1965)

Venezuela. See Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 61. 1868.

C. fernandeziana Phil. (Chusquea ligulata Munro)

Chile, Juan Fernandez Islands. See R.A. Philippi, “Observaciones sobre la flora de Juan Fernández.” in Anales Univ. Chile. 13: 157-169. (May) 1856, “Bemerkungen über die Flora der Insel Juan Fernandez.” in Bot. Zeitung. 14: 625-636, 641-650. 1856, Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 26(1): 62. 1868, Anales Univ. Chile 43: 577. 1873, Friedrich (Federico) Richard Adalbert (Adelbart) Johow, 1859-1933, “Los helechos de Juan Fernández.” Anales Univ. Chile. 82: 741-757. 1892 and 977-1004. 1893, “Las plantas de cultivo en Juan Fernández.” Anales Univ. Chile. 84: 939-970. 1893 and The Natural History of Juan Fernandez and Easter Island 1: 95-240. 1922, The Natural History of Juan Fernandez and Easter Island 2(28): 763-792. 1951, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 19: 41. 2000, Brittonia 54(3): 154-163. 2002 [Notes on the Poaceae of the Robinson Crusoe (Juan Fernández) Islands, Chile].

C. foliosa L.G. Clark

Mexico, Costa Rica. See Iowa State Journal of Research 61(1): 115, f. 4a-e. 1986.

C. galeottiana Rupr. ex Munro (Chusquea galeottiana Rupr. ex Galeotti) (for the French-born Belgian botanist Henri-Guillaume Galeotti, 1814-1858, explorer in Central America, director of the botanic garden of Bruxelles; see J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 2: 24. 1965; R. Zander, F. Encke, G. Buchheim and S. Seybold, Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen. 14. Aufl. 713. Stuttgart 1993; Rogers McVaugh, “Galeotti’s Botanical Work in Mexico: The Numbering of his Collections and a Brief Itinerary.” Contr. Univ. Mich. Herb. 11(5): 291-297. 1972; Michael Joseph Scheidweiler (1799-1861), “Descriptio diagnostica nonnullarum Cactearum quae a domino Gale-otti in provinciis Potosi et Guanaxato regni Mexicani inveniuntur. Genus Ariocarpus.” in Bull. Acad. Sci. Brux. 5: 491-492. 1838; Ida Kaplan Langman, A Selected Guide to the Literature on the Flowering Plants of Mexico. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia 1964)

Mexico. See Bulletin de l’Académie Royale des Sciences et Belles-lettres de Bruxelles 9(2): 246. 1842, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 59. 1868.

in Mexico: carrizo

C. glauca L.G. Clark

Mexico. See Syst. Bot. Monogr. 27: 95. 1989.

C. gracilis McClure & L.B. Sm.

Brazil. See Flora Ilustrada Catarinense 1(GRAM-Supl.): 43-44, t. 8, f. i-k. 1967.

C. grandiflora L.G. Clark

Panama, Colombia. See Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 74(2): 424-426, f. 1A-D. 1987.

C. heterophylla Nees (Chusquea heterophylla var. elongata Döll; Chusquea heterophylla var. heterophylla; Chusquea heterophylla var. microphylla Döll; Chusquea heterophylla var. squamosa Döll; Chusquea pinifolia (Nees) Nees; Chusquea pinifolia var. heterophylla (Nees) Hack.)

Brazil. See Linnaea 9: 488, 490. 1835, Symbolae ad Floram Argentinam 285. Göttingen 1879, Flora Brasiliensis 2(3): 207. 1880 and Ergebn. Bot. Exp. Südbras. 1: 21. 1906, Brittonia 44: 417, 420. 1992, Willdenowia 22: 268. 1992.

C. huantensis Pilg.

Peru, Huanta. See Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 56(Beibl. 123): 29. 1920.

C. ibiramae McClure & L.B. Sm.

Brazil, Santa Catarina, Ibirama. See Flora Ilustrada Catarinense 1(GRAM-Supl.): 40-42, t. 8, f. d-f. 1967.

C. inamoena Pilg. (Chusquea serrulata Pilg.)

Peru. See Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 25(5): 719-720. 1898 and Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 1(10): 150. 1905.

C. juergensii Hack. (Chusquea swallenii McClure & L.B.

Sm.)

Uruguay, Brazil. See Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 7(149-151): 325. 1909, Flora Ilustrada Catarinense 1(GRAM-Supl.): 44-45, t. 9, f. a-c. 1967.

C. lanceolata Hitchc.

Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala. See Phytologia 1(4): 145-146. 1935.

C. latifolia L.G. Clark

Colombia. See Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 72(4): 868-870, f. 3. 1985.

C. lehmannii Pilg. (Chusquea pilgeri E.G. Camus)

Ecuador, Colombia. See Botanische Jahrbücher für System-atik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 27(1-2): 35-36. 1899 and Les Bambusées 1: 83. 1913, Lorenzo Raimundo Parodi, “Robert Pilger.” Revista Argent. Agron. 20(2): 107-114. 1953, Nordic Journal of Botany 11: 325. 1991.

C. lehmannii Pilg. subsp. farinosa L.G. Clark & Londoño

Ecuador, Colombia. See Nord. J. Bot. 11(3): 326. 1991.

C. lehmannii Pilg. subsp. lehmannii

Ecuador, Colombia.

C. leonardiorum L.G. Clark

Ecuador. See Brittonia 48(2): 256-260, f. 3. 1996.

C. leptophylla Nees (Arthrostylidium leptophyllum (Nees)

Döll; Arundinaria leptophylla (Nees) Hack.)

Brazil. See Linnaea 9(4): 489. 1835, Flora Brasiliensis 2(3): 175. 1880 and Österreichische Botanische Zeitschrift 53: 69, 516. 1903.

C. liebmannii E. Fourn. (Chusquea heydei Hitchc.;

Chusquea liebmannii Fournier ex Hemsley)

Mexico, Guatemala. See Biologia Centrali-Americana; ...

Botany ... 3(20): 587. 1885, Mexic. Pl. 2: 132. 1886 and Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 40: 80. 1927.

C. ligulata Munro (Chusquea fernandeziana Phil.)

Colombia. See Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 62. 1868, Anales de la Universidad de Chile 43: 577. 1873 and The Natural History of Juan Fernandez and Easter Island 1: 95-240. 1922, The Natural History of Juan Fernandez and Easter Island 2(28): 763-792. 1951, Syst. Bot. 15: 628. 1990, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 19: 41. 2000, Brittonia 54: 156. 2002.

C. linearis N.E. Br.

Brazil, Venezuela, Guyana. See Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 6(1): 76. 1901.

C. londoniae L.G. Clark

Colombia. See Syst. Bot. 15(4): 628, f. 3-4, 12A-D. 1990.

C. longifolia Swallen

Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Panama. See J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 30(5): 210. 1940, Syst. Bot. Monogr. 27: 105. 1989.

C. longiligulata (Soderstr. & C.E. Calderón) L.G. Clark (Swallenochloa longiligulata Soderstr. & C.E. Calderón)

Costa Rica. See Brittonia 30(3): 305, f. 3, 4. 1978, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 74(2): 428. 1987.

C. longipendula Kuntze (Chusquea uniflora Steud.)

Bolivia. See Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 337. 1854, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(2): 348. 1893.

C. longiprophylla L.G. Clark

Colombia. See Syst. Bot. 15(4): 626, 631, f. 1-2, 14F-I. 1990.

C. lorentziana Griseb. (for the German botanist Paul Günther Lorentz, 1835-1881, bryologist, professor of botany in Argentina and Uruguay, explorer, plant collector, owner of a moss herbarium. See P.G. Lorentz and Gustavo Niederlein, Enumeración sistemática de las plantas colectadas durante la expedición. Informe oficial de la Comisión Científica agregada al Estado Mayor General de la expedición al Rio Negro (Patagonia), realizada en los meses de abril, mayo y junio de 1879, bajo las órdenes del Gral. Julio A. Roca. Buenos Aires. Entrega segunda. Botánica. 173-294. 1881; Stafleu and Cowan, Taxonomic literature. 3: 157-160. 1981; August Heinrich Rudolph Grisebach (1814-1879), Plantae lorentzianae. Göttingen 1874; J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 2: 402. 1965)

Argentina. See Abhandlungen der Königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen 19: 249-250. 1874.

C. loxensis L.G. Clark

Ecuador, Loja. See Brittonia 48(2): 260-262, f. 4. 1996.

C. maclurei L.G. Clark (also spelled macclurei )

Ecuador. See Iowa State J. Res. 61(1): 109, f. 3. 1986.

C. macrostachya Phil.

Chile. See Anales Univ. Chile 94: 350. 1896.

C. maculata L.G. Clark

Colombia, Venezuela. See Syst. Bot. 15: 632, f. 7, 14A-E. 1990.

C. meyeriana Rupr. ex Döll (Chusquea meyeriana Döll;

Chusquea meyeriana var. meyeriana)

Brazil. Glumes absent, see Fl. Bras. 2(3): 203. 1880.

C. microphylla (Döll) L.G. Clark (Chusquea heterophylla var. microphylla Döll)

Brazil. See Flora Brasiliensis 2(3): 207. 1880 and Brittonia 44(4): 420, f. 16G-K. 1992.

C. mimosa McClure & L.B. Sm. (Chusquea elegans Renvoize)

Brazil. See Flora Ilustrada Catarinense 1(GRAM-Supl.): 37-40, t. 8, f. a-c. 1967, Kew Bulletin 42(2): 924. 1987.

C. mimosa McClure & L.B. Sm. subsp. australis L.G. Clark

Brazil. See Brittonia 44(4): 414, f. 14G-I. 1992.

C. mimosa McClure & L.B. Sm. subsp. mimosa

Brazil.

C. montana Phil. (Chusquea nigricans Phil.)

Argentina, Chile. See Linnaea 33(3-4): 298. 1864, Anales de la Universidad de Chile 27: 323. 1865.

C. muelleri Munro (Chusquea carinata E. Fourn.;

Chusquea mexicana Hack.; Chusquea mulleri Munro)

Mexico. See Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 65. 1868, Mexic. Pl. 2: 132. 1886.

C. nelsonii Scribn. & J.G. Sm. (for the American naturalist Edward William Nelson, 1855-1934, explorer, in Mexico and Guatemala, plant collector, from 1890 to 1929 with the USDA, his writings include Descriptions of New Genera, Species and Subspecies of Birds from Panama, Colombia and Ecuador. Washington 1912, The Eskimo about Bering Strait. Washington 1881, “Lower California and its natural resources.” Mem. Natl. Acad. Sci. 16: 1-194. Washington 1922, “A winter expedition in southwestern Mexico.” Natl. Geog. Mag. 15(9): 339-356. 1904 and Wild Animals of North America. Washington 1930. See [edited by H.W. Henshaw] Report upon Natural History Collections made in Alaska between the years 1877 and 1881 by E.W. Nelson. 1887; E.A. Goldman, “Edward William Nelson, naturalist, 1855-1934.” Auk. 52: 135-148. 1935; J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 2: 544. 1965; H. Robinson & R.D. Brettell, in Phytologia. 27(1): 54. 1973; Irving William Knobloch, compiled by, “A preliminary verified list of plant collectors in Mexico.” Phytologia Memoirs. VI. Plainfield, N.J. 1983; Ida Kaplan Langman, A Selected Guide to the Literature on the Flowering Plants of Mexico. 1964; Joseph Ewan, Rocky Mountain Naturalists. The University of Denver Press 1950)

Mexico, Guatemala. Used for making baskets, see U.S.D.A.

Div. Agrostol. Bull. 4: 16. 1897 [also Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 4: 16. 1897].

in Mexico: ojotate

C. neurophylla L.G. Clark

Peru, Ecuador. See Iowa State J. Res. 61(1): 105, f. 2a-f. 1986.

C. nigricans Phil.

Chile. See Anales Univ. Chile 27: 323. 1865.

C. nudiramea L.G. Clark

Brazil. See Brittonia 44(4): 415, f. 15. 1992.

C. nutans L.G. Clark

Brazil. See Brittonia 44(4): 398, f. 3A-F, 4, 5. 1992.

C. oligophylla Rupr. (Chusquea discolor Hack.; Chusquea wettsteinii Hack.) (for the Austrian botanist Richard Wettstein von Westersheim, 1863-1931, traveler, plant collector, phylogenist, father of the Austrian botanist and plant physiologist Fritz (Friedrich) Wettstein von Westersheim (1895-1945); see T.W. Bossert, Biographical dictionary of botanists represented in the Hunt Institute portrait collection. 433. 1972; E.M. Tucker, Catalogue of the library of the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. Cambridge, Mass. 1917-1933; R. Zander, F. Encke, G. Buchheim and S. Seybold, Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen. 14. Aufl. 1993; Stafleu and Cowan, Taxonomic literature. 7: 219-235. 1988)

Brazil. See Bambuseae 34, t. 7, f. 23. 1839 and Österreichische Botanische Zeitschrift 53(4): 155. 1903, Ergebn. Bot. Exp. Südbras. 1: 21. 1906.

C. oxylepis (Hack.) Ekm. (Chusquea bambusoides subsp. oxylepis Hack.)

Brazil. See Ergebn. Bot. Exp. Südbras. 1: 20. 1906, Ark. Bot. 13(10): 65. 1913.

C. oxyphylla Freng. & Parodi

Argentina. Fossil, see Notas Mus. La Plata, Paleontol. 6 (Paleont. 32): 236. [t.] f. 1.2. 1941.

C. palenae Philippi (Chusquea valdiviensis E. Desv.)

Chile. See Flora Chilena 6: 446. 1854, Anales de la Universidad de Chile 94: 350. 1896.

C. pallida Munro (Chusquea hispida McClure)

Venezuela. See Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 65. 1868 and J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 32(6): 179, f. 7. 1942.

C. paludicola L.G. Clark

Costa Rica. See Iowa State J. Res. 61(1): 101, f. 1a-c. 1986.

C. parviflora Philippi

Chile. See Anales de la Universidad de Chile 94: 349. 1896.

C. patens L.G. Clark

Panama, Costa Rica. See Iowa State J. Res. 61(1): 119, f. 5. 1986.

C. perligulata (Pilg.) McClure (Guadua perligulata Pilg.)

Ecuador. See Biblioth. Bot. 29(116): 57. 1937, Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 9: 69. 1973.

C. perotensis L.G. Clark, G. Cortés & Chazaro

Mexico. See Syst. Bot. 22(2): 225, f. 1-4. 1997.

C. peruviana E.G. Camus (Chusquea ramosissima Pilger;

Chusquea sandiensis Pilger) (Peru, Sandia)

Peru, Bolivia. See Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 1(10): 149. 1905, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 56(Beibl. 123): 29. 1920.

C. picta Pilg.

Peru. See Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 1(10): 151. 1905.

C. pinifolia (Nees) Nees (Arundinaria pinifolia Nees;

Chusquea heterophylla Nees; Chusquea heterophylla Griseb., nom. illeg., non Chusquea heterophylla Nees; Chusquea heterophylla var. elongata Döll; Chusquea heterophylla var. microphylla Döll; Chusquea heterophylla var. squamosa Döll; Chusquea microphylla (Döll) L.G. Clark; Chusquea pinifolia var. heterophylla (Nees) Hack.; Chusquea pinifolia var. pinifolia; Ludolfia pinifolia (Nees) A. Dietr.; Ludolphia pinifolia (Nees) A. Dietr.)

Brazil. See Familles des Plantes 2: 244. 1763, Flora Brasiliensis seu Enumeratio Plantarum 2: 525. 1829, Species Plantarum. Editio sexta 2: 25. 1833, Linnaea 9(5): 488, 490. 1834[1835], Symbolae ad Floram Argentinam 285. 1879, Flora Brasiliensis 2(3): 207. 1880 and Ergebnisse der Botanischen Expedition nach Südbrasilien 1: 21. 1906, Syst. Bot. Monogr. 27: 51. 1989, Brittonia 44(4): 417, 420, f. 16G-K. 1992, Willdenowia 22: 268. 1992.

C. pittieri Hack. (Chusquea maurofernandeziana Hack. ex E.G. Camus)

Mexico, Guatemala. See Oesterr. Bot. Z. 53(4): 153. 1903, Syst. Bot. Monogr. 27: 74. 1989.

C. pohlii L.G. Clark

Panama, Costa Rica. Climbing, hanging, see Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 72(4): 867-868, f. 2B-f. 1985.

C. polyclados Pilg.

Peru. See Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 1(10): 147. 1905.

C. pubescens Steud.

South America. See Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 337. 1854.

C. pubispicula Pilg.

Peru. See Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 1(10): 148. 1905.

C. pulchella L.G. Clark

Brazil. See Novon 3(3): 236, f. 3F-J. 1993.

C. purdieana Munro (for the Scottish botanist William Purdie, 1817-1857 (Trinidad), plant collector in tropical South America, gardener, 1846-1857 Botanical Garden Trinidad, wrote “Journal of Botanical Mission to West Indies in 1843-1844.” in London J. Bot. 3: 501-533. 1844 and 4: 14-27. 1845. See J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 3: 115. 1965; Ray Desmond, Dictionary of British & Irish Botanists and Horticulturists. 567. London 1994; Mea Allan, The Hookers of Kew. London 1967; Henri François Pittier, Manual de las Plantas Usuales de Venezuela y su Suplemento. Caracas 1971; F.N. Hepper and Fiona Neate, Plant Collectors in West Africa. 66. 1971; Joseph Vallot, “Études sur la flore du Sénégal.” in Bull. Soc. Bot. de France. 29: 191-192. Paris 1882; I.C. Hedge and J.M. Lamond, Index of Collectors in the Edinburgh Herbarium. Edinburgh 1970)

Colombia. See Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 56. 1868.

C. quila Kunth (Arundo quila Molina; Chusquea intermedia Steud.; Chusquea parvifolia Phil.; Chusquea quila var. laxiflora E. Desv.; Chusquea quila var. longipila E.G. Camus; Chusquea quila var. quila; Chusquea valdiviensis E. Desv.; Coliquea quila (Molina) Steud. ex Bibra; Cortaderia quila (Molina) Stapf; Gynerium quila (Molina) Nees & Meyen; Moorea quila (Molina) Stapf; Nastus productus (Pilg.) Holttum; Nastus prolifer Desv.; Nastus quila (Kunth) Schult.f.; Oreiostachys producta Pilg.)

Chile. See Giovanni Ignazio Molina (1737-1829), Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chili. 154-155. Bologna 1782, Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 138, 153, t. 24. 1812, Systema Vegetabilium 7: 1361. 1830, Révision des Graminées 1: 329, t. 77. 1830, Mémoires de la Société d’Agriculture, Sciences et Arts d’Angers 1: 211. 1831, Gramineae 153-154. 1841, Novorum Actorum Academiae Caesareae Leopoldinae-Carolinae Naturae Curiosorum (Suppl. 1): 153. 1843, Nova Acta Phys.-Med. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 19(Suppl. 1): 21-22. 1843, Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse 5(2): 115. 1853, Flora Chilena 6: 446-447. 1854, Berberides Americae Australis 52. 1857, Linnaea 33(3-4): 299. 1864, Gardener’s Chronicle, ser. 3 22(571): 396. 1897 and Gardener’s Chronicle, ser. 3 34: 400. 1903, Les Bambusées 1: 198, f. 61a. 1913, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 62: 460. 1929, Kew Bulletin 10: 594. 1956, Taxon 23: 599. 1974.

C. ramosissima Lindm. (Chusquea affinis Munro ex Camus; Chusquea phacellophora Pilg.; Chusquea ramosissima Pilg., nom. illeg., non Chusquea ramosissima Lindm.)

Brazil, Argentina. Solid, leaning, scrub forming, grazed, medicinal and magical uses, primary forest, rocky soil, forest margins, see Kongliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar 34(6): 24, t. 14. 1900, Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 1(10): 149. 1905, Notizblatt des Botanischen Gartens und Museums zu Berlin-Dahlem 8(76): 456. 1923, Revista Argentina de Agronomía 8: 338. 1941, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 77(1): 125-201. 1990, H.A. Keller, “Mythical origin of Chusquea ramosissima (Poaceae), the ancient knife of the Guaranis.” Economic Botany 57(4): 461-471. 2003.

C. repens L.G. Clark & Londoño

Mexico. See Nordic Journal of Botany 11(3): 327. 1991.

C. repens L.G. Clark & Londoño subsp. oaxacacensis L.G. Clark & Londoño

Mexico. See Nordic Journal of Botany 11(3): 328. 1991.

C. repens L.G. Clark & Londoño subsp. repens

Mexico.

C. riosaltensis L.G. Clark

Brazil. See Brittonia 44(4): 403, f. 6. 1992.

C. scabra Soderstr. & C.E. Calderón

Costa Rica. See Brittonia 30(3): 300, f. 2. 1978.

C. scandens Kunth (Bambusa chusque Poir.; Chusquea jamesonii Steud.; Chusquea meyeriana var. patentissima (Hack.) E.G. Camus; Chusquea quitensis Hack.; Chusquea quitensis var. patentissima Hack.; Nastus chusque Kunth) (after the Scottish botanist William (Guilielmo) Jameson, 1796-1873 (d. Ecuador), physician, M.D. Edinburgh 1818, traveler, 1820 South America, from 1826 at Quito, plant collector, 1827 professor of chemistry and botany, author of Synopsis plantarum aequatoriensium, exhibens plantas praecipue in regione temperata et frigida crescentes, etc. Quito 1865. See Companion to Curtis’s Botanical Magazine. 111-116. 1835; J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 2: 244. 1965; R. Zander, F. Encke, G. Buchheim and S. Seybold, Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen. 14. Aufl. Stuttgart 1993; T.W. Bossert, Biographical dictionary of botanists represented in the Hunt Institute portrait collection. 194. 1972; H.N. Clokie, Account of the Herbaria of the Department of Botany in the University of Oxford. 189. Oxford 1964; A. Lasègue, Musée botanique de Benjamin Delessert. Paris 1845; Ignatz Urban, Geschichte des Königlichen Botanischen Museums zu Berlin-Dahlem (1815-1913). Nebst Aufzählung seiner Sammlungen. 303, 360. Dresden 1916)

Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia. Erect, solid and pliable stems, trailing over trees and shrubs, used for making baskets, mountain forest, see Nov. Gen. Sp. 1: 201. 1816, Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 337. 1854 and Oesterr. Bot. Z. 53(4): 154. 1903, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 6(113-118): 161. 1908, Fortunato L. Herrera, Estudios sobre la flora del departamento del Cuzco. Lima 1930, E. Yacovleff and F.L. Herrera, “El mundo vegetal de los antiguos peruanos.” Revista del Museo Nacional 3: 241-322 and 4: 20-102. Lima 1934-1935, John Howland Rowe, “Inca Culture.” in Handbook of South American Indians. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 143, 2: 183-330. Washington 1946.

in Peru: kurcur

C. sclerophylla Döll

Brazil. See Fl. Bras. 2(3): 200. 1880 and Brittonia 44: 403. 1992.

C. sellowii Rupr.

Brazil. See Bambuseae 35, t. 11, f. 26. 1839.

C. serpens L.G. Clark Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador. See Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 72(4): 870, f. 4. 1985, Syst. Bot. Monogr. 27: 91. 1989.

C. serrulata Pilg.

Colombia, Ecuador. See Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25: 719. 1898.

C. simpliciflora Munro (Chusquea simplicifolia Munro ex Hemsl.)

Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua. See Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 54, t. 2. 1868, Biol. Cent. Amer., Bot. 3: 587. 1885 and Syst. Bot. Monogr. 27: 89. 1989.

C. smithii L.G. Clark (for David N. Smith)

Peru. See Iowa State J. Res. 61(1): 107, f. 2g-i. 1986.

C. sneidernii Aspl.

Colombia. See Bot. Not. 1939: 797. 1939.

C. spadicea Pilg.

Colombia. See Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 27: 35. 1899.

C. spathacea McClure ex L.G. Clark

Colombia. See Novon 3(3): 235, f. 3A-E. 1993.

C. spencei Ernst

Venezuela, Colombia. See J. Bot. 10: 262. 1872 and Syst. Bot. Monogr. 27: 54. 1989.

C. spicata Munro (Chusquea humilis Lechler ex Munro; Chusquea simplicissima Pilg.; Chusquea weberbaueri Pilg.; Swallenochloa spicata (Munro) McClure; Swallenochloa weberbaueri (Pilg.) McClure)

Bolivia, Peru. See Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 60. 1868 and Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 1(10): 145-146. 1905, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 9: 112-113. 1973, Syst. Bot. Monogr. 27: 62-63. 1989.

C. straminea Pilg.

Peru. See Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 1(10): 147. 1905.

C. subtessellata Hitchc. (Swallenochloa subtessellata (Hitchc.) McClure)

Panama, Costa Rica. See Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 40: 81. 1927, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 9: 113. 1973.

C. subtilis Y. Widm. & L.G. Clark

Costa Rica. See Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 78(1): 167, f. 1F-H. 1991.

C. subulata McClure ex L.G. Clark (Chusquea subulata L.G. Clark)

Colombia. See Novon 3(3): 229, f. 1E-H. 1993.

C. sulcata Swallen

Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica. See J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 30(5): 209. 1940.

C. talamancensis Y. Widm. & L.G. Clark

Costa Rica, Cordillera de Talamanca. See Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 78(1): 169, f. 2A-F. 1991.

C. tarmensis Pilg.

Peru. See Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 1(10): 151. 1905.

C. tenella Nees (Chusquea uruguayensis Arechav.)

Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina. See Linnaea 9(4): 492. 1835, Anales Mus. Nac. Montevideo 1(6): 546. 1897.

C. tenella Nees var. latifolia Dutra

Brazil. See Revista Sudamer. Bot. 5(5-6): 146. 1938.

C. tenella Nees var. tenella

Brazil.

C. tenuiflora Philippi (Chusquea ciliata Phil.; Chusquea uliginosa Phil.)

Chile. See Linnaea 30(2): 206-207. 1859, Linnaea 33(3-4): 299. 1864.

C. tenuiglumis Döll

Brazil. See Flora Brasiliensis 2(3): 199. 1880.

C. tenuiglumis Döll var. laxiuscula Döll

Brazil. See Fl. Bras. 2(3): 200. 1880.

C. tenuiglumis Döll var. subcylindrica Döll

Brazil. See Fl. Bras. 2(3): 199. 1880.

C. tenuiglumis Döll var. tenuiglumis

Brazil.

C. tenuis Glaz. ex E.G. Camus (Chusquea acuminata Döll; Chusquea tenuis E.G. Camus)

Brazil. See Flora Brasiliensis 2(3): 204. 1880 and Les Bambusées 1: 90. 1913.

C. tessellata Munro (Chusquea humilis Lechler ex Munro; Chusquea simplicissima Pilg.; Chusquea spicata Munro; Chusquea weberbaueri Pilg.; Swallenochloa spicata (Munro) McClure; Swallenochloa tessellata (Munro) McClure; Swallenochloa weberbaueri (Pilg.) McClure)

Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru. See Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 60. 1868 and Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 1(10): 145-146. 1905, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 9: 112-113. 1973, Syst. Bot. Monogr. 27: 62-63. 1989.

C. tomentosa Y. Widm. & L.G. Clark

Costa Rica, Cordillera de Talamanca. See Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 78(1): 165, f. 1A-E. 1991.

C. tonduzii Hack. (for the Swiss botanist Adolphe [Adolfo] Tonduz, 1862-1921, plant collector, traveler and botanical explorer (Costa Rica and Guatemala), author of Flora of Costa Rica. San José de Costa Rica 1897 [Expos. Centroam. Guatemala.], La Fumagina del Cafeto. San José de Costa Rica 1897 [An. Inst. Fís. Geogr. Nac. vii.]; see J.H. Barn-hart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 3: 390. 1965; E.M. Tucker, Catalogue of the library of the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. Cambridge, Mass. 1917-1933)

Costa Rica. See Österreichische Botanische Zeitschrift 53(4): 155. 1903.

C. tuberculosa Swallen (Chusquea hispida McClure)

Colombia. See J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 21(1): 14. 1931, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 32(6): 179, f. 7. 1942.

C. uliginosa Phil. (Chusquea tenuiflora Phil.)

Chile. See Linnaea 30(2): 206-207. 1859.

C. uniflora Steud.

Colombia, Ecuador. See Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 337. 1854.

C. urelytra Hack.

Brazil. See Oesterr. Bot. Z. 53(4): 158. 1903.

C. uruguayensis Arechavaleta (Chusquea tenella Nees)

Uruguay, Argentina. See Linnaea 9(4): 492. 1835, Anales del Museo Nacional de Montevideo 1(6): 546. 1897.

C. valdiviensis E. Desv. (Chusquea intermedia Steud.; Chusquea palenae Pilg.)

Argentina, Chile. See Fl. Chil. 6: 446. 1853, Berberides Americae Australis 52. 1857, Anales Univ. Chile 94: 350. 1896.

C. virgata Hack.

Costa Rica, Panama. See Oesterr. Bot. Z. 53(4): 156. 1903.

C. vulcanalis (Soderstr. & C.E. Calderón) L.G. Clark (Swallenochloa vulcanalis Soderstr. & C.E. Calderón)

Costa Rica, Panama. See Brittonia 30(3): 309, f. 5. 1978, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 74(2): 428. 1987.

C. wettsteinii Hackel (Chusquea discolor Hack.)

Brazil. See Bambuseae 34, t. 7, f. 23. 1839 and Oesterr. Bot. Z. 53(4): 155. 1903, Ergebnisse der Botanischen Expedition nach Südbrasilien 1: 21. 1906, Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 79: 82. 1908.

C. wilkesii Munro (for Charles Wilkes, 1798-1877, American naval officer, traveler, in 1818 joined the U.S. Navy, studied hydrography, from 1838 to 1842 explorer in the Pacific Ocean (explored the South Pacific islands and the Antarctic continent), in 1864 was court-martialed for disobedience, author of Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition: During the Years ... Philadelphia 1845; see D.M. Henderson, The Hidden Coasts: A Biography of Admiral Charles Wilkes. New York 1953; G.A. Doumani, editor, Antarctic Bibliography. Washington, Library of Congress 1965-1979; J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 3: 496. 1965; W. Bixby, The Forgotten Voyage of Charles Wilkes. New York 1966; D.C. Haskell, The United States Exploring Expedition 1838-1842 and Its Publications 1844-1874. New York 1942; W.J. Morgan et al., editors, Autobiography of Rear Admiral Charles Wilkes U.S. Navy 1798-1877. Washington, D.C. 1978; D.B. Tyler, The Wilkes Expedition: The First United States Exploring Expedition (1838-1842). Philadelphia 1968; Edmund Fanning, Voyages Round the World; with selected sketches of voyages to the South Seas, North and South Pacific Oceans, China, etc., ... 1792 and 1832, ... N.Y. 1833; John Dunmore, Who’s Who in Pacific Navigation. 265-267. Honolulu 1991; T.W. Bossert, Biographical dictionary of botanists represented in the Hunt Institute portrait collection. 436. 1972; J. Ewan, editor, A Short History of Botany in the United States. New York and London 1969; E.M. Tucker, Catalogue of the library of the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. Cambridge, Mass. 1917-1933; S. Lenley et al., Catalog of the manuscript and archival collections and index to the correspondence of John Torrey. Library of the New York Botanical Garden. 472. 1973; Stafleu and Cowan, Taxonomic literature. 7: 295-297. 1988)

Brazil. See Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 63. 1868.

C. windischii L.G. Clark

Brazil. See Brittonia 44(4): 405, f. 9A-G. 1992.

Cinna L. = Abola Adans., Blyttia Arn. (Asclepiadaceae), Blyttia Fries, Cinnastrum E. Fourn.

Greek kinna for “way barley, wall barley,” applied by Dioscorides to a species of Hordeum; Latin Cinna, ae was the family name of the gentes Cornelia and Helvia.

About 3-6 species, Northern America, U.S., Canada, Mexico to Peru. Pooideae, Poodae, Aveneae, or Pooideae, Poeae, Aveninae, perennial, herbaceous, solitary or tufted, more or less tuberous, internodes hollow, rhizomatous, auricles absent, leaf sheaths glabrous, ligule an unfringed membrane, plants bisexual, inflorescence paniculate, panicle open, spikelets pedicellate and falling with the glumes, 2 glumes subequal membranous, upper glume 1- to 3-nerved and acute, lemmas membranous and keeled, palea present, 2 free and membranous lodicules, 1-2 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, shade species useful for erosion control, moist areas, damp woods, open and semiopen areas, alluvial soils, recent clearings, along roadsides, type Cinna arundinacea L., see Carl Linnaeus, Species Plantarum 1: 5, 61, 67, 81. 1753, Genera Plantarum. edition 5. 6. 1754, Familles des Plantes 2: 31, 511. 1763, Genera Plantarum 44. 1789, Magazine of Zoology and Botany 2: 420. 1838, Novit. Fl. Suec. Mant. 2: 2. 1839, Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint Pétersbourg. Sixième Série. Sciences Mathématiques, Physiques et Naturelles. Seconde Partie: Sciences Naturelles 6,4(3-4): 280. 1841, A Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States edition 2. 545. 1856, Pierre N.E. Fournier (1834-1884), Mexicanas Plantas 2: 90. 1886 and Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, Zweite Auflage 14d: 69. 1956, Brittonia 23(3): 293-324. 1971, Bot. Zhurn. SSSR 70(1): 126-128. 1985, Gayana, Botánica 42: 1-157. 1985, Bot. Zhurn. SSSR vol. 75. 1990, D.M. Brandenburg, W.H. Blackwell and J.W. Thieret, “Revision of the genus Cinna (Poaceae).” Sida 14(4): 581-596. 1991, Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science 52: 94-96, 1991, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 242-243. 1994, Sida 19(1): 195-200. 2000 [Cinna and Limnodea (Poaceae): not con-generic], Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 234-236. 2003.

Species

C. arundinacea L. (Agrostis cinna Retz.; Agrostis cinna Lam., nom. illeg., non Agrostis cinna Retz.; Agrostis cinna Pursh; Agrostis mexicana L.; Cinna agrostoides P. Beauv. ex Steud.; Cinna arundinacea Hook. ex B.D. Jacks.; Cinna arundinacea Retz. ex Steud., nom. illeg., non Cinna arundinacea L.; Cinna arundinacea var. arundinacea; Cinna arundinacea var. inexpansa Fern. & Griscom; Cinna mexicana (L.) P. Beauv.; Muhlenbergia cinna (Lam.) Trin.)

Northern America, Canada. Perennial, swamps, wet woods, see Mantissa Plantarum 1: 31. 1767, Observationes Botanicae 5: 18. 1789, Tableau Encyclopédique et Méthodique ... Botanique 1: 162. 1791, Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 32, 148, 158. 1812, Flora Americae Septentrionalis; or, ... 1: 64. 1814, Nomenclator Botanicus 1: 20, 198. 1821, De Graminibus unifloris et sesquifloris 191, 296, t. 5, f. 12. Petropoli 1824, Index Kewensis 2: 238. 1840, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 365. 1840 and Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 12: 115. 1908, Rhodora 37(436): 135, t. 334, f. 1-2. 1935, Sida 14: 585. 1991.

in English: stout woodreed, sweet woodreed

C. bolanderi Scribner (Cinna pendula var. bolanderi (Scribn.) Vasey)

Northern America. Perennial, see Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint Pétersbourg. Sixième Série. Sciences Mathématiques, Physiques et Naturelles. Seconde Partie: Sciences Naturelles 6,4(3-4): 280. 1841, Flora Rossica 4(13): 435. 1852, Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 36: 290, pl. 7, f. 4-5. 1884, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 3(1): 57. 1892 and Sida 14: 590. 1991.

in English: Scribner woodreed, Bolander’s woodreed

C. latifolia (Trev. ex Goeppert) Griseb. (Agrostis latifolia Trevir. ex Göpp.; Agrostis suaveolens Blytt ex Sommerf.; Blyttia suaveolens (Blytt ex Sommerf.) Fr.; Cinna arundinacea var. pendula (Trin.) A. Gray; Cinna bolanderi Scribn.; Cinna expansa Link; Cinna latifolia (Goepp.) Griseb.; Cinna latifolia var. glomerata Scribn. ex Beal; Cinna pendula Trin.; Cinna pendula var. acutiflora Vasey ex Macoun; Cinna pendula var. bolanderi (Scribn.) Vasey; Cinna pendula var. glomerula Scribn.; Cinna pendula var. glomerulata Macoun; Cinna pendula var. mutica Vasey; Cinna suaveolens (Blytt ex Sommerf.) Fries; Cinna suave-olens (Blytt ex Sommerf.) Rupr.; Muhlenbergia pendula Trin.)

North America. Perennial, thickets, wet woods, see Beschreibung Botanischer Garten Breslau 82. 1830, Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint Pétersbourg. Sixième Série. Sciences Mathématiques, Physiques et Naturelles 2(2): 172. 1832, Hortus Regius Botanicus Berolinensis 2: 236. 1833, Kongliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar 1837: 256. 1838, Novitiarum Florae Suecicae Mantissa 2: 2. 1839, Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint Pétersbourg. Sixième Série. Sciences Mathématiques, Physiques et Naturelles. Seconde Partie: Sciences Naturelles 6,4(3-4): 280. 1841, Beiträge zur Pflanzenkunde des Russischen Reiches 4: 228. 1846, Joakim Frederik Schouw (1789-1852), Foreløbig Fortegnelse over den kjøbenhavnske botaniske Haves Planter. Indeholdende dem, der ere blevne undersøgte i Aarene 1842-1846 ... Kjøbenhavn 1847, Flora Rossica 4(13): 435. 1852, A Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States edition 2. 545. 1856, Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 36: 290, pl. 7, f. 3-5. 1884, Catalogue of Canadian Plants 2(4): 202-203. 1888, Catalogue of Canadian Plants 2(5): 393. 1890, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 3(1): 57. 1892, Grasses of North America for Farmers and Students 2: 319. 1896 and Taxon 33(3): 439. 1984, Sida 14(4): 586, 590. 1991.

in English: drooping woodreed

in Danish: cinnagræs

C. poiformis (Kunth) Scribn. & Merr. (Agrostis poiformis Willd. ex Steud.; Arundo poaeoides Poir.; Arundo poiformis Labill.; Calamagrostis neglecta var. poaeoides (Steud.) Hack.; Calamagrostis poaeformis (Kunth) Beal; Calamagrostis poaeoides Steud.; Calamagrostis poaeoides Trin. ex Steud.; Calamagrostis poiformis (Kunth) Beal; Calamovilfa poiformis (Kunth) M.E. Jones; Cinna miliacea Griseb. ex E. Fourn.; Cinnastrum miliaceum Griseb. ex E. Fourn.;

Cinnastrum poiforme (Kunth) E. Fourn.; Deyeuxia poaeoides (Steud.) Rúgolo; Deyeuxia poiformis Kunth; Poa australis var. billardieri (Labill.) Hook.f.; Poa poiformis (Labill.) Druce; Poa subnudiflora Kunth; Poa subuniflora Kunth)

Mexico. Forage, see Familles des Plantes 2: 31, 530. 1763, Oekonomisch-Technische Flora der Wetterau 1: 94. 1799, Novae Hollandiae Plantarum Specimen 1: 27. 1804, Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 43. 1812, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum 1: 146-147. 1815 [1816], Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique Suppl. 4: 705. 1816, Révision des Graminées 1: 115. 1829, Nomenclator Botanicus edition 2, 1: 42. 1840, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 423. 1854, Flora Tasmaniae 2: 125. 1858, Mexicanas Plantas 2: 91. 1886, The True Grasses (ed. Scribn.) 113. 1890, Grasses of North America for Farmers and Students 2: 349. 1896 and Bulletin, Division of Agrostology United States Department of Agriculture 24: 21. 1901, Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires 21: 103. 1911, Contributions to Western Botany 14: 9. 1912, Report. Botanical Exchange Club.

London. Suppl. 2: 640. 1917, Flora Patagónica 3: 361. 1978, Darwiniana 21(2-4): 439. 1978.

C. valdiviana Philippi

Chile. Indeterminate, see Anales de la Universidad de Chile 43: 563. 1873.

Cinnagrostis Griseb. = Calamagrostis Adans.

Genera Cinna and Agrostis.

Pooideae, Poodae, Aveneae, or Pooideae, Poodae, Agrostidinae, type Cinnagrostis polygama Griseb., see Familles des Plantes 2: 31, 530. 1763, Tentamen Florae Germanicae 1: 34. 1788, Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 43. 1812, Pl. Lorentz. 209, t. 2, f. 7. 1874, Abhandlungen der Königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen 19: 256-257, t. 2, f. 7. 1874 and Revista Argentina de Agronomía 20: 14. 1953, Cytologia 56: 437-452. 1991 [Cytogenetic studies on some Kashmir grasses. VIII Tribe Agrostideae, Festuceae and Paniceae], Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 78(4): 36-47. 1993, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 240-241. 1994, Xenia Villavicencio, Revision der Gattung Deyeuxia in Bolivien: eine taxonomisch-anatomische studie... 1-304. Berlin 1995, Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 51-52. 1995, Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 81(5): 98-101. 1996, Flora Mediterranea 8: 251-262. 1998, Opera Botanica 137: 1-42. 1999, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 191-227. 2003.

Cinnastrum Fourn

Resembling Cinna L.

Pooideae, Poodae, Aveneae, or Pooideae, Poeae, Aveninae, see Carl Linnaeus, Species Plantarum 1: 5. 1753, Genera Plantarum. edition 5. 6. 1754, Familles des Plantes 2: 31, 511. 1763, Genera Plantarum 44. 1789, Nova Genera et Species Plantarum 1: 146-147. 1815 [1816], Novit. Fl. Suec. Mant. 2: 2. 1839, Mexicanas Plantas 2: 90-91. 1886 and Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, Zweite Auflage 14d: 69. 1956, Brittonia 23(3): 293-324. 1971, D.M. Brandenburg, W.H. Blackwell and J.W. Thieret, “Revision of the genus Cinna (Poaceae).” Sida 14: 581-596. 1991, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 242-243. 1994, Sida 19(1): 195-200. 2000, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 234-236. 2003.

Cladoraphis Franche

From Greek klados “branch, twig, young shoot” and rhaphis, rhaphidos “a needle.”

About 2 species, southern Africa, Namibia. Chloridoideae, Eragrostideae, Eragrostidinae, perennial, armed, woody,stout, branched, long-rhizomatous or rhizomatous and stoloniferous, auricles absent, ligule a fringe of hairs, leaf blades flat or rolled, hard and needle-like leaves, plants bisexual, open panicle, spikelets solitary, lemmas rounded and entire, palea present, 2 free and fleshy lodicules, 3 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, suitable for stabilizing dunes, open habitats, maritime-arenicolous, on beach dunes, in sandy beds, on desert dunes, windblown dunes, in sandy beds of dry water courses, sometimes referred to Eragrostis N.M. Wolf, type Cladoraphis duparquetii Franch., see Species Plantarum 1: 67-70, 73-76. 1753, Genera Plantarum 23. 1776, Bulletin Mensuel de la Société Linnéenne de Paris 1: 673. 1887 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 41: 55-56. 2001.

Species

C. cyperoides (Thunb.) S.M. Phillips (Brizopyrum cyperoides (Thunb.) Nees; Eragrostis cyperoides (Thunb.) P. Beauv.; Poa cyperoides Thunb.)

South Africa. Perennial, tufted, bushy, spiny, primary branches not always spiny, spikelets clustered, sometimes occasionally grazed, useful for erosion control, usually on coastal dunes, deep sand, see Prodromus Plantarum Capensium, ... 22. 1794, Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 71, 162, 174. 1812, Florae Africae Australioris Illustrationes Monographicae 374. 1841 and Kew Bulletin 37(1): 159. 1982.

in English: sedge-stemmed lovegrass, bristly lovegrass

in South Africa: steekriet

C. spinosa (L.f.) S.M. Phillips (Eragrostis spinosa (L.f.)

Trin.; Festuca spinosa L.f.)

South Africa. Perennial, tufted, spiny, bushy, primary branches spiny, spreading spine-tipped racemes, useful for erosion control, common on loose sand, on dunes, weel drained deep sand, overgrazed veld, see Supplementum Plantarum 111. 1781 [1782], Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint Pétersbourg. Sixième Série. Sciences Mathématiques, Physiques et Naturelles 1(4): 416. 1830 and Kew Bulletin 37(1): 159. 1982.

in English: ostrich grass, spiny lovegrass

in South Africa: volstruisgras, volstruisdoring

Claudia Opiz = Beckeria Bernh., Melica L.

Pooideae, Meliceae, type Claudia ciliata (L.) Opiz, see Species Plantarum 1: 66-67. 1753, Systematisches Verzeichnis 20, 40. 1800, Lotos 3: 67. 1853, Flora der Provinz Brandenburg 1: 838. 1864, Index Kewensis 1: 282. 1893 and Bull. U.S.D.A. 772: 69. 1920, Taxon 41: 566. 1992, Taxon 44: 611-612. 1995, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 140, 236, 432-450. 2003.

Clausospicula Lazaride

Latin claudo “to close, to shut up,” clausus “closed” and spicula “spikelet,” spiculum “a little sharp point, sting, spicule.”

One species, Australia. Panicoideae, Andropogonodae, Andropogoneae, Andropogoninae, annual, herbaceous, ligule an unfringed membrane, plants bisexual, inflorescence paniculate, reduced racemes, sterile spikelets awnless, 2 glumes subequal, palea present, 2 free and fleshy lodicules, 3 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2-3 stigmas, type Clausospicula extensa Lazarides, see Methodus Plantas Horti Botanici ... 207. 1794 and Cytologia 55: 141-151. 1990, M. Lazarides, J. Lenz & L. Watson, “Clausospicula, a new Australian genus of grasses (Poaceae, Andropogoneae).” Australian Systematic Botany 4(2): 391-405. 1991, Australian Systematic Botany 4: 591-635. 1991 [Taxonomy, cytology and ecology of indigenous Australian sorghums (Sorghum Moench: Andropogoneae: Poaceae)], Russell E. Spangler, “Taxonomy of Sarga, Sorghum and Vacoparis (Poaceae: Andropogoneae).” Australian Systematic Botany vol. 16 no. 3: 279-299. 2003, Annals of Botany 95: 219-227. 2005.

Species

C. extensa Lazarides

Northern Territory. See Australian Systematic Botany 4(2): 399, f. 1-10. 1991.

Clavinodum T.H. Wen = Arundinaria Michx.

Latin clava “a club, a knotty branch” and nodus “node.”

Bambusoideae, Bambuseae, Arundinariinae, type Clavinodum oedogonatum (Z.P. Wang & G.H. Ye) T.H. Wen, see Flora Boreali-Americana 1: 73-74. 1803 and Journal Nanjing University. Natural Sciences Edition 1981(1): 96, f. 3. 1981, Journal Nanjing University. Natural Sciences Edition 1982(3): 734, f. 2. 1982, Journal of Bamboo Research 3(2): 24-26, t. 1. 1984, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 39: 18-24. 2000.

Cleachne Roland ex Rottb. = Cleachne Adns., Paspalum L.

Greek kleis “lock, key” and achne “chaff, glume.”

Panicoideae, Paniceae, Paspalinae, see Systema Naturae, Editio Decima 846, 855, 1359. 1759, Acta Literaria Universitatis Hafniensis 1: 285. 1778 and Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 12: 116. 1908, Journal of Cytology and Genetics 18: 26-33, 60-61. 1983, Blumea 30: 279-318. 1985, Journal of Cytology and Genetics 22: 161-162. 1987, Ernstia 1(4):

135. 1992, Ernstia 2(1-2): 22. 1992, Novon 4(1): 20. 1994, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 335-352. 1994, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 81(4): 768-774. 1994, Ernstia 8(4): 100. 1999, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 443-527. 2003.

Cleistachne Benth

From the Greek kleistos, klistos “closed” and achne “chaff, glume,” alluding to the nature of the spikelets.

One species, tropical Africa. Panicoideae, Andropogonodae, Andropogoneae, Andropogoninae, annual, unarmed, herbaceous, coarse, unbranched, leaf blades narrow and linear, auricles absent, ligule an unfringed membrane, large terminal inflorescence paniculate, contracted panicle oblong or linear-oblong, primary branches bearing racemes, single sessile spikelet, 2 glumes subequal, lower glume coriaceous, upper lemma bidentate and awned, awn often twisted, palea minute, 2 free and fleshy lodicules ciliate, 3 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, open habitats, moist grassland, riverbanks, wastelands, along forest margins, old cultivations, closely related to Sorghum, type Cleistachne sorghoides Benth., see Hooker’s Icones Plantarum 14: t. 1379. 1882, The Flora of British India 7(21): 162. 1897 [1896] and Österreichische Botanische Zeitschrift 51(5): 153. 1901, Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 89-91, 155. 1917.

Species

C. sorghoides Benth.

Tropical Africa, India. Annual, robust, coarse, erect, stilt roots, leaf blades hispid, leaf sheaths hispid, dark inflorescence, panicle narrowly oblong, spikelets pedicellate covered with white hairs, useful for erosion control.

in English: false sorghum

Cleistochloa C.E. Hubb. = Dimorphochloa S.T. Blake

Greek kleistos, klistos “closed” and chloe, chloa “grass,” some spikelets are cleistogamous and the others chasmogamous; see Charles Edward Hubbard, in Hooker’s Icones Plantarum. Ser. 5. 3: t. 3209. (Dec) 1933.

About 2-3 species, Australia and New Guinea, Queensland and New South Wales. Panicoideae, Panicodae, Paniceae, perennial, caespitose, wiry, branched, hollow internodes, glabrous nodes, ligule hairy, plants bisexual, terminal and axillary inflorescences few spikeleted, single loose raceme, spikelets dimorphic, hidden cleistogenes, axillary inflorescence of a single cleistogamous spikelet, terminal inflorescence spike-like and of chasmogamous spikelets, 2 florets, the lower floret sterile and reduced to the lemma, the upper floret bisexual, 1 or 2 glumes, lower glume minute or absent, upper glume and lower lemma acute to truncate, upper lemma coriaceous, palea 2-nerved, 2 free and fleshy lodicules, open habitats, dry sandstones ridges, cleistogamous and chasmogamous, type Cleistochloa subjuncea C.E. Hubb., see Species Plantarum 1: 55. 1753, Plantae Javanicae Rariores 15, 18, 20. 1838 and Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 739. 1920, Hooker’s Icones Plantarum 33: t. 3209. 1933, Blumea 3(3): 161. 1938, University of Queensland Papers: Department of Biology 1(19): 1. 1941, Jannink & Veldkamp, “Revision of Chionachninae (Gramineae: Andropogoneae).” Blumea 47(3): 545-580. 2002.

Species

C. rigida (S.T. Blake) R.D. Webster (Cleistochloa rigida (S.T. Blake) Clayton, nom. illeg., non Cleistochloa rigida (S.T. Blake) R.D. Webster; Dimorphochloa rigida S.T. Blake)

Australia, Queensland and New South Wales. Perennial, shrubby, fertile floret mucronate, dry scrub, sandstone, see University of Queensland Papers: Department of Botany 1(19): 2. 1941, Kew Bulletin 42(2): 401-403. 1987.

C. sclerachne (F.M. Bailey) C.E. Hubb. (Chionachne sclerachne F.M. Bailey; Polytoca sclerachne (F.M. Bailey) F.M. Bailey)

Australia. See Queensland Dept. Agric. Bull. 7(Bot. Bull. 2): 21. 1891 and The Queensland Flora 6: 1849. 1902.

C. subjuncea C.E. Hubb. (Cleistochloa hubbardiana Henrard; Entolasia subjuncea (C.E. Hubb.) C.E. Hubb.; Panicum subjunceum Ekman; Panicum subjunceum Domin, nom. illeg., non Panicum subjunceum Ekman)

Australia, Queensland and New South Wales. Wiry, bases with cataphylls, terminal inflorescence erect, chasmogamous spikelets almost glabrous, cleistogamous spikelets obtuse, sandstone, scrubby areas, see Arkiv för Botanik utgivet av K. Svenska Vetenskapsakademien 10(17): 16, t. 5, f. 2, t. 6, f. 8. 1911, Bibliotheca Botanica 85: 314, f. 70. 1915, Journal of Ecology 21: 223. 1933.

Cleistogenes Keng = Diplachne P. Beauv., Jarrilla I.M. Johnst., Kengia Packer

From the Greek kleistos, klistos “closed” and gennao “to generate.”

Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae, see Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 80-81, 160, pl. 16, f. 9. 1812, A Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States 588. 1848, Flora Europae 25: 354. 1891 and Torreya 21: 47. 1921, Contributions from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University 70: 78. 1924, Botanical Magazine (Tokyo) 39: 258. 1925, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 23: 136. 1933, Sinensia 5: 147. 1934, Journal of Japanese Botany 18(9): 540. 1942, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 78(2): 208-245. 1959 [Beiträge zur Monographie der Gattungen Cleistogenes und Neyraudia], Botaniska Notiser 113(3): 291. 1960, Taxon 43: 123. 1994, Chen Liang, D.L. Michalk & G.D. Millar, “The ecology and growth patterns of Cleistogenes species in degraded grasslands of eastern Inner Mongolia, China” Journal of Applied Ecology 39(4): 584-594. Aug 2002.

Cleomena Roem. & Schult. = Muhlenbergia Schreb.

Derivation obscure, possibly from the Greek kleio, kleiein “to shut, close,” or from kleio, kleiein “to glorify, celebrate,” kleomai “to become famous.”

Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae, Muhlenbergiinae, see Systema Vegetabilium 2: 18, 383. 1817 and P.M. Peterson, “Systematics of the Muhlenbergiinae (Chloridoideae: Eragrostideae).” Grasses: Systematics and Evolution 195-212. 2000, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 41: 143-173. 2001.

Cliffordiochloa B.K. Simon = Steinchisma Raf.

For Harold Trevor Clifford, Australian botanist, taxonomist, ecologist, author of Etymological Dictionary of Grasses. Amsterdam 1996; see Tropical Plant Communities: Their Resilience, Functioning and Management in Northern Australia / H.T. Clifford and R.L. Specht, editors St. Lucia, Australia: Dept. of Botany, University of Queensland 1986; Rolf Martin T. Dahlgren (1932-1987), The Families of the Monocotyledons: Structure, Evolution, and Taxonomy /R.M.T. Dahlgren, H.T. Clifford, P.F. Yeo in cooperation with R.B. Faden ... [et al.]. Berlin: Springer-Verlag 1985.

Panicoideae, Panicodae, Paniceae, Paspalinae, perennial, herbaceous, caespitose, ligule membranous, plants bisexual, inflorescence a panicle more or less contracted, spikelets flattened, 2 glumes unequal to very unequal, lower glume short, lower lemma 3-nerved, palea thickened, 2 fleshy and glabrous lodicules, 2 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, in damp grassland, sometimes referred to Panicum, type Cliffordiochloa parvispicula B.K. Simon, see Species Plantarum 1: 55, 58. 1753, Constantine S. Rafinesque, Seringe Bull. Bot. 1: 220. 1830 [also Bulletin Botanique [Genève] 1: 220. 1830] and Flora of the Southeastern United States ... 105. 1903, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 15: 13-15. 1910, E.D. Merrill, Index Rafinesquianus 76. 1949, Grass Systematics and Evolution 300. 1987, Syst. Bot. 13: 598. 1988, Austrobaileya 3(4): 674, 676, f. 3. 1992, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 302-318. 1994, Austrobaileya 4(3): 369-379. 1995, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: 631-656. 1998, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 607-608. 2003, Austrobaileya 6(3): 561-562. 2003.

Species

C. parvispicula B.K. Simon (Panicum laxum Sw.; Steinchisma laxa (Sw.) Zuloaga)

South America, Australia. Perennial, erect, clumped, stoloniferous, rhizomatous, sprawling, tidal mudflats, wet savannah, along roadsides and streams, marshy areas, see Nova Genera et Species Plantarum seu Prodromus 23. 1788 and Austrobaileya 3(4): 676, f. 3. 1992, American Journal of Botany 90(5): 817. 2003.

Clinelymus (Griseb.) Nevski = Elymus L.

From the Greek kline “a bed” and elymos “millet.”

Pooideae, Triticeae, Hordeinae, see Species Plantarum 1: 83-84. 1753, Flora Rossica 4(13): 330. 1852 and Canad. J. Bot. 42: 554. 1964, Taxon 41: 562-563. 1992, Taxon 44: 611-612. 1995, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 279-307. 2003.

Clomena P. Beauv. = Muhlenbergia Schreb.

Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae, Muhlenbergiinae, type Clomena peruviana P. Beauv., see Genera Plantarum 44. 1789, Systema Naturae ... editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata 2: 171. 1791, Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 28, t. 7, f. 10, t. 3, f. 20. 1812, Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 1: 262. 1825, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 41. 1840, Gramineae 12-13. 1841, Nova Acta Phys.-Med. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 19(Suppl. 1): 144-145. 1843, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 2(2): 97. 1887, Revisio Generum Plantarum 3(3): 357. 1898 and Contributions to Western Botany 14: 7. 1912, Ill. Fl. N. U.S. (edition 2) 1: 184. 1913, Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, Zweite Auflage 14d: 69-70. 1956, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 276-286. 1994, American Journal of Botany 81: 622-629. 1994, Madroño 42(4): 427-449. 1995, Sida 17: 349-365. 1996, Brittonia 50(1): 23-50. 1998, P.M. Peterson, “Systematics of the Muhlenbergiinae (Chloridoideae: Eragrostideae).” Grasses: Systematics and Evolution 195-212. 2000, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 41: 143-173. 2001, Flora of Ecuador 68: 85. 2001.

Cockaynea Zotov = Hystrix Moench

Dedicated to the English-born New Zealand botanist Leonard Cockayne, 1855-1934, scientist, ecologist and traveler, 1876 to Australia, ca. 1880 moved to New Zealand, botanical collector, naturalist, teacher, explorer, 1910 F.L.S., 1912 F.R.S., Cockayne moved to Wellington in 1914, he became President of the New Zealand Institute for 2 years in 1918, Honorary Botanist to the New Zealand Forest Service from 1923 and Honorary Botanist to the Wellington City Council, 1927 responsible for the establishment of the Otari Open Air Plant Museum at Wilton, Wellington, wrote The Vegetation of New Zealand, 1921, New Zealand Plants and Their Story. 4th edition edited by E.J. Godley. Wellington, Govt. Print., 1967, “Some New Zealand indigenous-induced weeds and indigenous-induced modified and mixed plant-communities.” J. Linn. Soc. (Bot.) 49: 13-45. 1932. See J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 1: 362. 1965; R. Zander, F. Encke, G. Buchheim and S. Seybold, Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen. 14. Aufl. 700. Stuttgart 1993; R. Glenn, The Botanical Explorers of New Zealand. 173. Wellington 1950; A.D. Thomson, The Life and Correspondence of Leonard Cockayne. Christchurch, New Zealand: [s.n.], 1983 (Christchurch: Caxton Press) [Paper presented at the History of Science in New Zealand Conference, Wellington, 12 to 14 Feb, 1983]; Sir Arthur William Hill (1875-1941), “Leonard Cockayne 1855-1934.” Obit. Not. Roy. Soc. Lond. pp. 443-457. 1935; Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 65: 457-467. 1935-1936; Ray Desmond, Dictionary of British & Irish Botanists and Horticulturists. 156. London 1994; I. Urban, Geschichte des Königlichen Botanischen Museums zu Berlin-Dahlem (1815-1913). Nebst Aufzählung seiner Sammlungen. 1916; Dennis John Carr and S.G.M. Carr, editors, People and Plants in Australia. 167, 168, 176. London 1981; Frans A. Stafleu and Erik A. Mennega, Taxonomic literature. Supplement IV: Ce-Cz. 233-240. 1997; L.B. Moore, “The Cock-ayne memorial lecture, 1965: Leonard Cockayne, botanist.” Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand, General 2, No 1: 1-18. Mar 1967.

Two species, New Zealand. Pooideae, Triticodae, Triticeae, perennial, herbaceous, hollow, stoloniferous, ligule an unfringed membrane, plants bisexual, cleistogamous or chasmogamous, inflorescence spicate, spikelets solitary, glumes reduced to suppressed, palea present, 2 free and membranous lodicules, 3 stamens, ovary hairy, 2 stigmas, sometimes referred to Elymus, type Cockaynea laevis (Petrie) Zotov, see Species Plantarum 1: 83-84, 560. 1753, Botanisches Magazin (Römer & Usteri) 7: 5. 1790, Methodus Plantas Horti Botanici et agri marburgensis, a staminum situ describendi ... 294-295. Marburgi Cattorum [Marburg] 1794, Beschreibung der Gräser Leipzig 1769-1810, A Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States 604. 1848, Flora of New Zealand 1: 312, t. 70. 1853, Geological Survey of California, Botany 2: 327. 1880 and American Midland Naturalist 4: 228. 1915, Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand, Biological Sciences 73: 233-234. 1943, Canad. J. Bot. 42: 554. 1964, N.Z. J. Bot. 20: 169-186. 1982, Feddes Repert. 95: 425-521. 1984 [Conspectus of the Triticeae], Taxon 41: 562-563. 1992, New Zealand J. Bot. 32: 146. 1994, Taxon 44: 611-612. 1995,

C. Baden, S. Frederiksen and O. Seberg, “A taxonomic revision of the genus Hystrix Moench (Triticeae, Poaceae).” Nord. J. Bot. 17: 449-467. 1997, Nordic Journal of Botany 18(1): 89-94. 1998, Zhou Yong-Hong, Zheng You-Liang, Yang Jun-Liang and Yen Chi, “Relationships among species of Hystrix Moench and Elymus L. assessed by RAPDs.” Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 47(2): 191-196. Apr 2000, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 279-307. 2003.

Species

C. gracilis (Hook.f.) Zotov (Gymnostichum gracile Hook.f.)

New Zealand.

C. laevis (Petrie) Zotov (Asprella laevis Petrie)

New Zealand. Auricles absent, see Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 27: 406. 1895.

Codonachne Steudel = Tetrapogon Desf.

From the Greek kodon “a bell” and achne “chaff, glume.”

Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae, see Flora Atlantica 2: 388-389, t. 255. 1799 [1800], Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 393. 1840.

Coelachna Post & Kuntz

Orth. var. of Coelachne R. Br., see Tomas Erik von Post and C.E.O. Kuntze, Lexicon generum Phanerogamarum. 134. 1903.

Coelachne R. Br

Greek koilos “hollow” and achne “chaff, glume, scale,” the glumes are hollow, or referring to the saccate lemma.

About 10 species, Old World tropics and subtropics, India. Panicoideae, Panicodae, Isachneae, annual or perennial, slender, filiform, caespitose, ascending or decumbent, herbaceous, weak, low growing, densely matted, culm nodes bearded, auricles absent, leaf blades flat or folded, leaf sheaths rounded, ligule absent or a minute fringe of hairs, leaves lanceolate or linear to ovate-lanceolate, creeping rhizomes, plants bisexual, inflorescence an open or contracted panicle, small narrow panicle with short spreading branches, small to very minute spikelets gaping and deciduous, 2 florets membranous and exserted, lower floret perfect and large, upper floret female, 2 persistent broad glumes more or less unequal and shorter than the spikelet, lemmas awnless and rounded on back, palea present, 2 free and fleshy lodicules, 2-3 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, marshes and marshy places, waterfalls, streamsides, along streams, waterlogged soils, ponds, springs, wet places, type Coelachne pulchella R. Br., see Species Plantarum 1: 55. 1753, Prodromus florae Novae Hollandiae 187, 196. 1810, Gen. Pl. 3: 1156. 1883, Flora of British India 7: 270. 1897 and Lexicon generum Phanerogamarum 134. 1903, Hook. Ic. Pl. t. 3440. 1943, Grasses of Burma ... 576. 1960.

Species

C. africana Pilg.

Zambia. Perennial, low, mat-forming, slender, straggling, rooting at the nodes, leaf blades narrowly lanceolate, panicle lanceolate, spikelets oblong, florets obtuse, lower glume broadly oblong, upper glume broadly ovate, lower lemma ovate, upper lemma narrowly ovate, see Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Schwedischen Rhodesia-Kongo-Expedition, 1911-1912, unter Leitung von Eric Graf von Rosen 1: 208. 1916.

C. minuta Bor (Coelachne ghatica Naik)

India, Western Ghats, Maharashtra. Rare, annual, erect, tufted, very slender, wiry, leaf blades lanceolate and acute, panicle effuse with spreading capillary branches, spikelets globose and minute, glumes glabrous or sparsely bristly, lower lemma folded, upper lemma lanceolate and 2-keeled, stamens usually 2, grows in open areas, rocky places, moist grassland, see J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 58: 317-318. 1961, Reinwardtia 9: 393. 1980.

C. perpusilla (Arn. ex Steudel) Thw. (Coelachne perpusilla var. muscosa Hook.f.; Coelachne pulchella R. Br. var. perpusilla (Steud.) Hook.f.; Panicum perpusillum Steud.; Panicum perpusillum Arn. ex Steud.)

Southeast Asia. Perennial, ascending, densely tufted, leaf blades pointed and mostly filiform, panicle few-flowered and very lax, panicle branches spreading, spikelets spaced, florets densely bearded at base, lower lemma coriaceous, 3 stamens, in marshy soils, along lakes, seeps, see Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae 1: 187. 1810, Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 96. 1854, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. 373. 1864, The Flora of British India 7(22): 271. 1897 [1896] and Handb. Fl. Ceylon 5: 270. 1900, Grasses of Ceylon 111. 1956, Grasses of Burma ... 576. 1960.

C. perpusilla (Arn. ex Steudel) Thw. var. nilagirica Ved Prakash & Jain

India, Tamil Nadu. Slender, leaf blades linear-lanceolate, see Bull. Bot. Survey India 24: 187. 1983.

C. perpusilla (Arn. ex Steudel) Thw. var. perpusilla

India, Tamil Nadu, Sri Lanka. Leaf blades involute and filiform, in marshy places, see The Flora of British India 7(22): 271. 1897 [1896] and Handb. Fl. Ceylon 5: 270. 1900.

C. simpliciuscula (Wight & Arn. ex Steudel) Munro ex Bentham (Coelachne pulchella R. Br. var. simpliciuscula (Steud.) Hook.f.; Coelachne simpliciuscula (Wight & Arn.)

Munro; Coelachne simpliciuscula (Steudel) Bentham; Isachne hispidula Steud.; Isachne hispidula Nees ex Steud.; Isachne simpliciuscula (Steud.) Thw.; Panicum simpliciusculum Steud.; Panicum simpliciusculum Wight & Arn. ex Steud.)

Southeast Asia, China; Madagascar, Sri Lanka. Perennial or annual, variable, tufted, erect or decumbent, prostrate or ascending, dense mat-forming, leaf blades lanceolate or linear, panicles spiciform or open with spreading branches, spikelets appressed, florets glabrous at base, glumes glabrous, 3 stamens, weed in paddy fields, in moist soils, in damp and marshy places, closely related to Coelachne pulchella R. Br., see Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 96. 1854, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. 373. 1864, Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 19(115-116): 93. 1881, Fl. Br. Ind. 7: 271. 1896 and Grasses of Ceylon 110. 1956, Grasses of Burma ... 576. 1960, Canad. J. Bot. 52: 1075-1090. 1974, Taxon 24: 512. 1974, Taxon 25: 158. 1976.

in Thailand: yaa phai, yaa wong waen

Coelachyropsis Bor

Resembling Coelachyrum Hochst. & Nees.

One species, Sri Lanka, southern India. Chloridoideae, annual, herbaceous, unbranched, erect or geniculate, decumbent, stoloniferous, auricles absent, glandular, ligule a fringed membrane, plants bisexual, inflorescence digitate, 2 glumes broadly elliptic more or less equal, lemma acute to mucronate, palea present, 2 free and fleshy lodicules, 3 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, type Coelachyropsis lagopoides Bor, see Species Plantarum 1: 71. 1753, Systema Naturae, edition 12 2: 95. 1767, Linnaea 16(2): 221. 1842 and Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 75: 23, 25. 1971[1972], Taxon 49(2): 250. 2000.

Species

C. lagopoides Bor (Dactylis lagopoides L.)

South India, Sri Lanka.

Coelachyrum Hochst. & Nees = Coelachyropsis Bor, Coeleochloa Steud., Cypholepis Chiov.

From the Greek koilos “hollow” and achyron “chaff, husk.”

About 6-8 species, Africa, Mauritania, Arabia, Somalia, Tanzania, Pakistan, southern India, Sri Lanka. Chloridoideae, Eragrostideae, annual or perennial, variable, herbaceous, erect or geniculate, sometimes or usually stoloniferous, auricles absent, ligule a ciliate fringed membrane, leaves flat almost subcordate at base, plants bisexual, contracted spike-like racemes open or dense, spikelets laterally compressed elliptic to ovate, 2 glumes unequal and keeled, lemmas saccate and more or less papery to coriaceous, palea entire and sometimes villous on the keels, 2 lodicules free and fleshy, stamens 3, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, free pericarp, species of open habitats or light shade, open shrubland, limestone, dry grassland, sand and red sandy soil, desert to semidesert, a link between Eragrostis and Eleusine, type Coelachyrum brevifolium Hochst. & Nees, see Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 394. 1840, Linnaea 16(2): 221. 1842 and Annuario del Reale Istituto Botanico di Roma 8(3): 357-358. 1908, Kirkia 3: 117, 131-134. 1963, Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 75: 23. 1971[1972].

Species

C. brevifolium Hochst. & Nees (Coelachyrum brevifolium (Koenig ex Willd) Hochst. & Nees; Eleusine brevifolia (Hochst. & Nees) Steud.)

Sudan, Somalia, Arabia. Annual, loosely tufted, sprawling, stolons lacking or stoloniferous, subdigitate racemes clustered, 6-10 florets closely imbricate, spikelets subsessile and broadly ovate, glumes ovate to elliptic and mucronate, lemmas hairy and membranous, grain rugose, good grazing, coastal dunes, sand, desert, type species, see Linnaea 16(2): 221. 1842, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 211. 1854.

in Nigeria: magaril kura

C. lagopoides (Burm.f.) Senaratna (Aeluropus laevis Trin.;

Aeluropus lagopoides (L.) Trin. ex Thw.; Coelachyropsis lagopoides (Burm.f.) Bor; Coelachyrum brevifolium (Koenig ex Willd.) Hochst. & Nees; Coelachyrum brevifolium Hochst. & Nees; Coelachyrum indicum Hack.; Cynosurus lagopoides Burm.f.; Dactylis brevifolia Willd.; Dactylis brevifolia Koenig ex Willd.; Dactylis lagopoides (Burm.f.) L.; Distichlis sudanensis Beetle; Eleusine brevifolia (Hochst. & Nees) Steud.; Eleusine brevifolia (Koenig ex Willd.) R. Br. ex Hook.f., nom. illeg., non Eleusine brevifolia (Hochst. & Nees) Steud.; Eleusine brevifolia (Willd.) R. Br. ex Hook.f.; Eleusine lagopoides (Burm.f.) Merr.; Eragrostis brevifolia (Willd.) Benth.; Eragrostis brevifolia Benth.; Koeleria brevifolia (Willd.) Spreng.; Koeleria brevifolia Spreng.; Poa brevifolia (Willd) Kunth; Poa brevifolia (J. König ex Willd.) Kunth, nom. illeg., non Poa brevifolia DC.)

Southern india, Asia, Sri Lanka. Annual, slender, smooth, branched, erect or geniculate, spreading or prostrate, inflorescence compact, glumes mucronate, pericarp wavy or rugulose, see Mant. 33. 1767, Flora Indica ... nec non Prodromus Florae Capensis 29. 1768, Mant. 557. 1771, Genera Plantarum 23. 1776, De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum... . 1: 7. 1788, Species Plantarum. Editio quarta 1: 410. 1797, Syn. Pl. 1: 97. 1805, Plantarum Minus Cognitarum Pugillus 2: 21. 1815, Journal de Physique, de Chimie, d’Histoire Naturelle et des Arts 89: 104. 1819, Fundamenta Agrostographiae 143, t. 12. 1820, Révision des Graminées 1: 111. 1829, Linnaea 16(2): 221. 1842, Enum.

Pl. Zeyl. 374. 1864, Hooker’s Icones Plantarum pl. 1268 p. 51. 1881, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 2(2): 61. 1887, The Flora of British India 7(22): 294. 1897 [1896] and Handb. Fl. Ceylon 5: 278-279. 1900, Philippine Journal of Science 19: 339. 1921, Revista Argentina de Agronomía 22(2): 89, f. 1. 1955, Grasses of Ceylon 79. 1956, Grasses of Burma ...488. 1960, Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 75: 25. 1971[1972].

C. longiglume Napper (Desmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf)

Kenya. Annual, slender, geniculately ascending, soft leaf blades linear, ovate open panicle with racemose branches, 5- to 10-flowered, spikelets broadly elliptic, glumes unequal and 3-nerved, lemmas elliptic and densely hispid, rugulose grains, saline plains, dry grassland, flats, see Flora Palaes-tina 12. 1756 and Flora Capensis 7: 632. 1900, Kirkia 3: 113. 1963.

C. piercei (Benth.) Bor (Coelachyrum stoloniferum C.E. Hubb.; Eragrostis piercei Benth.; Leptochloa appletonii Stapf) (for E. Pierce)

Ethiopia, Asia, Pakistan, Arabia. Perennial, tufted, stoloniferous with woody stolons, knotty base, open panicle with racemose branches, spikelets on pedicels, glumes unequal, upper glume mucronate, lemma glabrous or shortly ciliate, grassland, sand, bushland, coastal dunes, limestone, desert scrub, semideserts, see Icones Plantarum 4: 1370. 1881 and Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 6: 223. 1907, Kew Bulletin 1941: 198. 1941, Kew Bulletin 7(2): 226. 1952.

in Somalia: duyu, dooyo

C. poiflorum Chiov. (Coelachyrum induratum Pilger; Eleusine poiflora (Chiov.) Chiov.)

Sudan, Somalia, Arabia. Perennial, densely tufted, erect, spreading, with woody stolons, inflorescence racemose, 4-to 18-flowered, spikes clustered toward the top of the culm, spikelets subsessile and ovate, glumes 1-nerved, upper glume mucronate or shortly awned, lemmas shaggy and mucronate, grain strongly compressed, growing on rocky or sandy plain, gypsum, grassland, limestone, open shrub-land, see Annuario del Reale Istituto Botanico di Roma 7: 75, t. 3, f. 4. 1896 and Annali di Botanica 10(3): 409. 1912.

C. yemenicum (Schweinf.) S.M. Phillips (Cypholepis yemenica (Schweinf.) Chiov.; Eleusine yemensis (Schweinf.) Chiov.; Eragrostis yemenica Schweinf.; Leptochloa appletonii Stapf)

Tropical East Africa, South Africa, Ethiopia, Somalia, Yemen, Arabia. Annual or perennial, slender, densely tufted, erect or geniculate, ascending, without stolons, sheaths keeled, leaf blades narrowly linear, narrow inflorescence racemose, erect racemes spaced, 7- to 12-flowered, spikelets elliptic to narrowly lanceolate-elliptic, florets closely imbricate, glumes lanceolate-oblong, lemmas coriaceous and obtuse, smooth grain, growing on red sandy soil, grassland, open areas, in Acacia scrub, open shrubland, rocky places, sandstone, limestone, open stony ground, see Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier 2(App. 2): 41. 1894 and Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 6: 223. 1907, Annuario del Reale Istituto Botanico di Roma 8(3): 357-358. 1908, Annali di Botanica 10: 410. 1912, Kew Bulletin 37(1): 159. 1982, Grass. Saudi Arabia 274. 1989.

Coelarthron Hook.f. = Microstegium Nees

From the Greek koilos “hollow” and arthron “a joint.”

Panicoideae, Andropogoneae, Saccharinae, type Coelarthron brandisii Hook.f., see Species Plantarum 2: 1045. 1753, A Natural System of Botany 2nd edn. 447. 1836, The Flora of British India 7(21): 163-164. 1897 [1896] and Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 2(2): Nachtr. 2: 4. 1900, The Grasses of Burma 2, 62. 1945, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 292. 2003.

Coelochloa Steud. = Coelachyrum Hochst. & Nees

From the Greek koilos “hollow” and chloe, chloa “grass, young grass.”

Chloridoideae, Eragrostideae, see Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 394. 1840, Linnaea 16(2): 221. 1842 and Annuario del Reale Istituto Botanico di Roma 8(3): 357-358. 1908, Kirkia 3: 117, 131-134. 1963, Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 75: 23. 1971[1972].

Coelorachis Brongn. = Apogonia (Nutt.) E. Fourn., Coelorhachis Brongn., Cycloteria Stapf, Mnesithea Kunth

Greek koilos “hollow” and rhachis “rachis, axis, midrib of a leaf,” the rachis is concave, swollen and hollow; see Louis-Isidor Duperrey, Voyage autour du Monde exécuté par ordre du Roi sur la corvette La Coquille pendant les années 1822-1825. 64, t. 14. 1831.

About 20-21 species, tropics. Panicoideae, Andropogonodae, Andropogoneae, Rottboelliinae, perennial or annual, rather variable, herbaceous, branched, robust, clump forming, culm internodes solid, auricles absent, ligule fringed, broad leaf blades linear and flat, plants bisexual, inflorescence axillary, single cylindrical or flattened raceme, peduncled racemes, partial inflorescences, racemes linear bearing pairs of sessile and pedicellate spikelets, sessile spikelet unawned, lower floret barren, 2 glumes more or less equal, lower glume smooth and 2-keeled, upper glume awnless, palea present, 2 free and fleshy lodicules, 3 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas reddish to red, pedicelled spikelet sometimes vestigial, spikelets sometimes borne in triplets, damp soils, grassland, open habitats, open woodland, savannah, closely related to Rhytachne, sometimes included in Mnesithea Kunth, type Coelorachis muricata (Retz.) Brongn., see Mantissa Plantarum 2: 164. 1767, Supplementum Plantarum 13, 114. 1781 [1782], Supplementum Carpologicae 1(1): 3, pl. 181, f. 3. 1805, The Genera of North American Plants 1: 83-84. 1818, Révision des Graminées 1: 153. 1829, Voyage autour du Monde 64, t. 14. 1831, Mexicanas Plantas 2: 63. 1886, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 2(2): 25. 1887 and Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, sér. 2, 68: 198. 1921 [1922], Kew Bulletin 24: 309-314. 1970, Blumea 31: 291, 293. 1986, Flora of the Guianas. Series A, Phanerogams 8: 143-146. 1990, Journal of Cytology and Genetics 25: 140-143. 1990, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 81(4): 775-783. 1994, Journal of Cytology and Genetics 29(2): 125-131. 1994, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 396-397. 1994, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 295-296. 2003.

Species

C. afraurita (Stapf) Stapf (Mnesithea afraurita (Stapf) de Koning & Sosef; Rottboellia afraurita Stapf)

Tropical Africa. Perennial, tufted, erect, good fodder when young, used for fencing and matting, marshy places, marshy grasslands, swamps, fresh water, see Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 55: Mém. 8, 98. 1908, Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 80. 1917, Blumea 31(2): 290. 1986.

in Sierra Leone: fovo, tomo

C. aurita (Steud.) A. Camus (Coelorachis aurita (Steud.) Henrard, nom. illeg., non Coelorachis aurita (Steud.) A. Camus; Coelorhachis aurita (Steud.) A. Camus; Manisuris aurita (Steud.) Kuntze ex Hitchc. & Chase; Manisuris aurita (Steud.) Hitchc. & Chase, nom. illeg., non Manisuris aurita (Steud.) Kuntze; Manisuris aurita (Steud.) Kuhlm., nom. illeg., non Manisuris aurita (Steud.) Kuntze; Manisuris aurita (Steud.) Kuntze; Manisuris fasciculata (Lam.) Hitchc.; Mnesithea aurita (Steud.) de Koning & Sosef; Rottboellia aurita Steudel)

Costa Rica to Argentina. Swamps and damp places, see Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 361. 1854, Monographiae Phanerogamarum 6: 311. 1889, Revisio Generum Plantarum 3(3): 356. 1898 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 18(7): 276. 1917, Annales de la société linnéenne de Lyon, sér. 2 68: 197. 1921, Commissão de Linhas Telegraphicas Estratégicas de Matto-Grosso ao Amazonas, Botanica 67(Bot. 11): 90. 1922, Blumea 4(3): 515. 1941, Blumea 31(2): 290. 1986.

C. capensis Stapf (Mnesithea capensis (Stapf) de Koning & Sosef)

South Africa. Perennial, tufted, pedicellate spikelets sometimes reduced, see Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1916: 234. 1916, Blumea 31(2): 290. 1986.

C. clarkei (Hack.) Blatt. & McCann (Manisuris clarkei (Hack.) Bor ex Santapau; Mnesithea clarkei (Hack.) de Koning & Sosef; Rottboellia clarkei Hack.)

Tropics, India. Annual, see Österreichische Botanische Zeitschrift 41: 8. 1891 and Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 82: 33. 1927, Records of the Botanical Survey of India 16(1): 357. 1953, Blumea 31(2): 290. 1986.

C. cylindrica (Michx.) Nash (Manisuris campestris (Nutt.)

A.S. Hitchc.; Manisuris cylindrica (Michx.) Kuntze; Mnesithea cylindrica (Michx.) de Koning & Sosef; Rottboellia cylindrica (Michx.) Torr., nom. illeg., non Rottboellia cylindrica Willd.; Tripsacum cylindricum Michx.)

Northern America, U.S. Perennial, useful for erosion control, see Flora Boreali-Americana 1: 60. 1803, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 779. 1891 and North American Flora 17(1): 85. 1909, Blumea 31(2): 290. 1986.

in English: Carolina joint-tail grass, cylinder joint-tail grass

C. glandulosa (Trin.) Stapf ex Ridl. (Manisuris glandulosa (Trin.) Kuntze; Mnesithea glandulosa (Trin.) de Koning & Sosef; Ophiuros muriculatus Steud.; Rottboellia glandulosa Trin.)

Asia, Southeast Asia. See Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint Pétersbourg. Sixième Série. Sciences Mathématiques, Physiques et Naturelles 2(4): 250. 1832, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 360. 1854, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 780. 1891 and The Flora of the Malay Peninsula 5: 204. 1925, Blumea 4(3): 517. 1941, Blumea 31(2): 290. 1986.

in the Philippines Islands: murabon

in Thailand: yaa khaao paa

C. khasiana (Hackel) Stapf ex Bor (Coelorachis khasiana (Hack.) Henrard, nom. illeg., non Coelorachis khasiana (Hack.) Stapf ex Bor; Mnesithea khasiana (Hack.) de Koning & Sosef; Rottboellia striata Nees ex Steudel subsp. khasiana Hackel)

India, Darjeeling, Sikkim. Leafy, leaves lanceolate and acuminate, leaves margins not ciliate, lower glume of sessile spikelet contracted into winged apiculus, pedicellate spike-let well-developed, see Monographiae Phanerogamarum 6: 302. 1889 and Indian Forest Records: Botany 1(3): 101. 1939, Blumea 4(3): 519. 1941, Blumea 31(2): 291. 1986.

C. rottboellioides (R. Br.) A. Camus (Andropogon rottboellioides (R. Br.) Steud.; Coelorachis rottboellioides (R. Br.) Henrard, nom. illeg., non Coelorachis rottboellioides (R. Br.) A. Camus; Coelorachis rottboellioides (R. Br.) Ohwi, nom. illeg., non Coelorachis rottboellioides (R. Br.) A. Camus; Coelorachis rottboellioides (R. Br.) Stapf ex C.E. Hubb., nom. illeg., non Coelorachis rottboellioides (R. Br.) A. Camus; Ischaemum rottboellioides R. Br.; Manisuris rottboellioides (R. Br.) Kuntze; Rottboellia rottboellioides (R. Br.) Druce; Rottboellia rottboellioides (R. Br.) Reeder, nom. illeg., non Rottboellia rottboellioides (R. Br.) Druce)

Southeast Asia. Useful for erosion control, see Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae 1: 205. 1810 and Annales de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon, sér. 2, 68: 197. 1921 [1922], Blumea 4(3): 519. 1941, Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1941: 25. 1941, Bulletin of the Tokyo Science Museum 18: 2. 1947, Acta Botanica Neerlandica 2(2): 255. 1953, Blumea 31(2): 291. 1986.

in English: cane grass

C. striata (Nees ex Steudel) A. Camus (Manisuris striata (Nees ex Steud.) Kuntze; Mnesithea striata (Nees ex Steud.) de Koning & Sosef; Rottboellia striata Nees ex Steudel)

Southeast Asia, India. Leaves margins ciliate, pedicellate spikelet reduced, see Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 361. 1854, Revisio Generum Plantarum 1(2): 780. 1891 and Annales de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon, sér. 2, 68: 197. 1922, Blumea 4(3): 519. 1941, Grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan (excluding Bambuseae) 121. 1960, Blumea 31(2): 292. 1986.

in Thailand: yaa khon

Coelorhachis Endl

Orthographic variant of Coelorachis Brongn.

Coix L. = Lachryma-jobi Ortega, Lachrymaria Heist. ex Fabr., Lacryma Medikus, Lacrymaria Heist. ex Fabr., Lithagrostis Gaertn., Sphaerium Kuntze

From the ancient Greek name used by Theophrastus for a kind of Egyptian palm, Hyphaene thebaica (L.) Martius, Latin coix, coicis for a kind of Ethiopian palm (Plinius).

Some 5/6 species, Europe, tropical Asia. Panicoideae, Andropogonodae, Maydeae, or Panicoideae, Andropogoneae, Coicinae, annual or perennial, herbaceous, leafy, coarse, thick, stout, often rhizomatous, erect, branched, culm internodes solid, auricles absent, ligule membranous, leaves flat and lanceolate, plants monoecious with all the fertile spikelets unisexual, inflorescences axillary and compound, racemes separated by a prophyll, inflorescences in hard globular utricles, male and female spikelets on the same inflorescence and usually the male above, female inflorescence sessile, fertile female spikelet with 2 florets, all the fertile spikelets unisexual, without hermaphrodite florets, male raceme pedunculated, male spikelets with 2 florets both fertile, hard utricles are modified leaf base enclosing the female inflorescence, lower glume papery and laterally winged, palea present, lodicules absent, ovary glabrous, stamens absent or 3 staminodes, stigmas 2, false fruits variable, ornamental, weed, cultivated fodder crop, grain crop species, aquatic forms, swamps, shade species, wet habitats, forest margins, swamps, type Coix lacryma-jobi L., see Species Plantarum 2: 972. 1753, Genera Plantarum. edition 5. 419. 1754, Enumeratio Methodica Plantarum 208. 1759, Syst. Nat. edition 10, 1261. May-June 1759, Casimiro Gomez [de] Ortega (1740-1818), Tabulae Botanicae 30. Matriti [Madrid] 1773, De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum... . 1: 7. 1788, Philosophische Botanik 1: 177. 1789, Consp. Reg. Veg. 51. 1828, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 793. 1891 and Bull. Agric. Congo Belge 39: 247-304. 1948, Rev. Bot. Appl. 31: 197-211. 1951, J. Agr. Trop. 8: 44-56. 1961, Econ. Botany 28: 38-42. 1974, Cytologia 50: 655-661. 1985, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 401-402. 1994, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 162-163. 2003.

Species

C. aquatica Roxb. (Coix gigantea var. aquatica (Roxb.)

Watt; Coix lacryma-jobi f. aquatica (Roxb.) Backer)

China, India, Thailand, Southeast Asia. Floating, creeping, succulent culms, sometimes decumbent and rooting from nodes, floating roots, leaves densely hairy, male spikelets mainly in triads, animal food, fodder, weed species, ponds, lakes, wet habitats, streams and marshes, see Der Naturforscher 23: 211. 1788, Flora Indica; or, Descriptions of Indian Plants 3: 571-572. 1832 and Journal of Cytology and Genetics 1: 14-20. 1966, Current Science 55: 1200-1201. 1986, Genetica 74: 61-68. 1987, Cytologia 54: 169-172. 1989, Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress Association 77(3, vi): 135. 1990, Nucleus 37(1,2): 10-15. 1994, The Grasses and Bamboos of India 1: 175. 1997.

in Thailand: chaai fuei, chaai phuei, chai fueai, dueai hin, duei hin, lam iak, o nam

C. gigantea Koenig ex Roxb. (Chionachne gigantea (J.

König) Veldkamp; Coix gigantea J. König; Coix lacrymajobi var. gigantea (J. König ex Roxb.) Stapf ex Hook.f.; Coix lingulata Hack.)

Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, India, Malaysia, Indonesia. Perennial, densely caespitose water grass, stiff, erect, leaf blades linear not cordate at base, surface of leaves glabrous to scabrid, staminate inflorescence drooping, spikelets mainly in threes, lower glume winged, used for bead-curtains and baskets, sometimes collected for food, grains separated from the shell can be fed to poultry, cereal, a salt source, often used for ornamental purposes, weed species of rice fields, growing in marshy areas, moist or dry locations, wet situations, see Der Naturforscher 23: 211. 1788, Hortus Bengalensis, or a catalogue ... 66. 1814, Fl. Ind. edition 2. 3: 570. 1832, Plantae Javanicae Rariores 15, 18. 1838, Österreichische Botanische Zeitschrift 41: 5. 1891, The Flora of British India 7(21): 100. 1897 [1896] and Grasses of Ceylon 203. 1956, Grasses of Burma ... 264. 1960, Genetica 74: 61-68. 1987, The Grasses and Bamboos of India 1: 175. 1997, Blumea 47(3): 559-560, f. 3. 2002. in English: wild adlay

in India: danga gurgur, kesai

in Sri Lanka: hin kirindi

C. lacryma-jobi L. (also spelled lachryma-jobi ) (Coix agrestis Lour.; Coix arundinacea Lam.; Coix exaltata Jacq.; Coix lacryma L.; Coix ovata Stokes; Coix pendula Salisb.; Lithagrostis lacryma-jobi (L.) Gaertn.; Sphaerium lacryma (L.) Kuntze)

Asia. Annual or perennial, monoecious, tall, large, smooth, sometimes woody, ornamental and variable species, robust and erect, prostrate and rooting at the nodes below, branched or much-branched, leaf sheath short or long, ligule short and membranous, leaves narrow-lanceolate and acute, inflorescences arching, male and female inflorescences on 1 peduncle, male spikelets mainly in pairs, female inflorescence surrounded by utricles ovoid-globose, lower glume narrowly winged, tear-shaped seeds, hard seedcoat or large stony involucre, weed, naturalized, used as a fiber plant by Aborigines of Australia, fodder or poor fodder for cattle, the green material is very palatable, the seed is enclosed in a hard shell that has to be broken by pounding or rough grinding, utricles used as beads, grass widely cultivated and naturalized in tropics, in India seeds eaten by the Bhil people, seeds either mixed with Panicum colonum L. or Zea mays L. and made into bread or prepared like rice, beverage base, a coffee is made from the roasted seed, seeds used to make tea in Japan, roots used in the treatment of menstrual disorders, fruits are antipyretic, antiseptic and antispasmodic, usually growing along forest edge, hot and damp areas, moist conditions, lowlands, near streams, along water courses, swampy places, ditches, on drier disturbed ground, hill forest, see Species Plantarum 2: 972. 1753, Systema Naturae, Editio Decima 1261. 1759, De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum... . 1: 7. 1788, Flora Cochinchinensis 2: 551. 1790, Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 3: 422. 1791, Prodromus stirpium in horto ad Chapel Allerton vigentium. 28. Londini [London] (Nov-Dec) 1796, A Botanical Materia Medica 4: 343. 1812, Eclogae Graminum Rariorum 60, t. 40. 1820, Bull. Soc. Acclimat. 3(8): 442. 1881, Journal de Botanique (Morot) 4(4): 77. 1890, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 793. 1891, The Flora of British India 7: 100. 1896 and Flore Générale de l’Indo-Chine 7(5): 220. 1922, Grasses of Ceylon 203. 1956, Grasses of Burma ... 264. 1960, Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Gramineae (3): 857. 1982, J. Guangdong Bot. Soc. 2: 72-73. 1984, Journal of Wuhan Botanical Research 3(4): 345-349. 1985, Cytologia 51: 527-547. 1986, Grasses of Japan and its Neighboring Regions 498. 1987, Current Science 58: 757-758. 1989, Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress Association 76(3, vi): 177-178. 1989, Cytologia 55: 57-60. 1990, Journal of Cytology and Genetics 25: 140-143. 1990, Cytologia 58: 355-360. 1993, Nucleus 37(1,2): 10-15. 1994, Caryologia 50: 175-184. 1997, Grassland of China 2000(5): 1-5. 2000.

in English: Job’s tears, gromwell-read, pearl barley, corn bead, adlay

in French: larmes de Job, larmilles, herbe à chapelets

in Brazil: capim-de-nossa Senhora, capim-rosario

in Central America: zacate de perla

in Colombia: lágrimas de Job, lágrimas de san Pedro

in Ecuador: lagrima de Job

in Mexico: acayacotl, acayocoyoth, acayocoyotl, arrocillo, ishlacashtajad, ishlacashtajat, lágrimas de Job, lágrimas de San Pedro, suuk-paen, zacate de cuentas

in Nicaragua: sagádi, agusa, am mak, am minik

in Angola: lágrimas de Nossa Senhora

in Ghana: agu, ahwinie, akrokosebia, n’ani nsuwa, owu amma manka m’asem

in Guinea: amberkesy, fondo, forono, wakometa

in Guinea-Bissau: bonco

in Ivory Coast: manquassem

in Liberia: za

in Morocco: habb al-barâka

in Nigeria: aka ila, ngkwa eto, nkwa ikot

in Senegal: balifo, boror, foror, makaramba kesè, nammaket, porola

in Sierra Leone: ampolo, boboni volo, bohori, bongkori, epereka, folo, foro, foronde tasebia, forondo, forondo mese, gbegbena, gboe, gbolo, gbolokpo, gbolondo, gboye, jina forondo, kali bagi, kpetehu volo, kpoklole, mapolo, matomperega, puboe, sankala, sisig, tasabiana, yiri foronde

in Southern Africa: Jobskrale, Jobskraaltjies, Jobstrane, kraalgras, tandgras, tandkraalgras, traangras; ilozisi (Zulu)

in Yoruba: tésubiyu

in Bhutan: ghan rey mala, gar day mala

in Cambodia: neang vong, skouy, skuöy

in China: yi yi ren, i i jen, i yi jen, chieh li, chi shih, kan mi, hui hui mi, t’u i mi, chao i mi

in India: ashru beeja, baru, dabhir, galao, gandula, gangee, garru, garun, gavedhu, gavedu, gavendhu, gavendhuka, gharu ghas, gojivha, gorivindlu, gorivipusa, gulbi gadi, gulu, gundragutta, gurgur, gurlu, gurmur, jargadi, jogimani, kaage mani, kaash, kaasha, kaattukumdumani, kalmathu beeja, kalmuthu, kasaayi, kasad, kasaiya (Bhil group), kasei, kashige gida, kassaibija, kassee, kosar, kothi beeja, koti beeja, kshudragojihva, kunch, nellumany, nethpaavalam, netpavalam, ran jondhala, ranjondhala, ran makkai, ranmaka, ranmakkai, ranzondlo, ranzonnalo, sanklee, sanklu, sankru, sohriu, tal-ka gandula

in Indonesia: jali, jali betul, jali watu

in Japan: juzu-dama (= rosary bead)

in Laos: düay in Malaysia: jalai batu, jelai batu, jelai pulut, jilai batu, jilai pulut, menjelai, menjilai, malai tikus

in Papua New Guinea: noi

in the Philippines Islands: abukai, adlai, adlay, agagai, agda, aglai, alimudias, apagi, atakai, balantakan, barubaioko, bintikai, bitogan, dalai, damau, glias, kalabugau, kambot, katayan, katayn, katigbi, kaudlasan, kibaoung, koldasan, kudlasan, lamudias, lias, paias, paleas, palias, pintaka, talantakan, tidbi, tigbi, tigbikai, tiguas, tikaian

in Okinawa: shishi-dama

in Sri Lanka: kirindi

in Thailand: duai, duei, ma doei, maduai

in Vietnam: bo bo, c[uw] [owf]m g[aj]o, hat cuom, may pat, y di, [ys] d[ix]

in Hawaii: pu’ohe’ohe, kukaekolea, ‘oheohe, pupu kolea

in Samoa: sanasana, sanasana samoa

in Pacific: tangatanga

in Arabic: damu ayub

C. lacryma-jobi L. var. gigantea (J. König ex Roxb.) Stapf ex Hook.f. (Coix gigantea J. König ex Roxb.; Coix gigantea J. König)

India. See Der Naturforscher 23: 211. 1788, Flora Indica; or, Descriptions of Indian Plants 3: 570. 1832, The Flora of British India 7: 100. 1896.

C. lacryma-jobi L. var. lacryma-jobi (Coix agrestis Lour.; Coix arundinacea Lam.; Coix exaltata Jacq.; Coix lacryma L.; Coix ovata Stokes; Lithagrostis lacryma-jobi (L.) Gaertn.)

Asia temperate and tropical, China, India. False fruit ovoid and not striate, ornamental, medicinal uses, cereal, sometimes cultivated and naturalized, see Species Plantarum 2: 972. 1753, Systema Naturae, Editio Decima 1261. 1759, De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum... . 1: 7. 1788, Flora Cochinchinensis 2: 551. 1790, Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 3: 422. 1791, Prodromus stirpium in horto ad Chapel Allerton vigentium. 28. Londini [London] (NovDec) 1796, A Botanical Materia Medica 4: 343. 1812, Eclogae Graminum Rariorum 60, t. 40. 1820, Bull. Soc. Acclimat. 3(8): 442. 1881, Journal de Botanique (Morot) 4(4): 77. 1890, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 793. 1891, The Flora of British India 7: 100. 1896 and Flore Générale de l’Indo-Chine 7(5): 220. 1922, Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Gramineae (3): 857. 1982, Grasses of Japan and its Neighboring Regions 498. 1987.

in Thailand: ma doei, dueai

C. lacryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen (Rom. Caill.) Stapf ex Hook.f (Coix chinensis Tod.; Coix chinensis var. chinensis; Coix lacryma-jobi subsp. ma-yuen (Rom. Caill.) T. Koyama; Coix lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen (Rom. Caill.) Stapf; Coix ma-yuen Rom. Caill.)

Southeast Asia, China, India. False fruits ovoid to pyriform, involucre soft and striate, cultivated for its edible seeds and medicinal virtues, cereal, animal food, fodder, handicrafts, used in macrobiotic diets and cuisine, the seeds are a traditional Chinese medicine possessing antitumor activity, see Ind. Sem. Hort. Bot. Pan. Ann. 5. 1861, Bulletin de la Société Nationale d’Acclimatation de France, sér. 2, 8: 442. 1881, The Flora of British India 7(21): 100. 1897 [1896] and Grasses of Japan and its Neighboring Regions 498. 1987, M. Numata, A. Yamamoto, A. Moribayashi, H. Yamada, “Antitumor components isolated from the Chinese herbal medicine Coix lachryma-jobi.” in Planta Med. 60(4): 356-359. Aug 1994.

in China: yi yi

in Japan: hato-mugi

in Brazil: rosario

C. lacryma-jobi L. var. maxima Makino (Coix agrestis var. maxima (Makino) Nakai)

Asia temperate, Taiwan. See Botanical Magazine 20: 10. 1906.

C. lacryma-jobi L. var. monilifer G. Watt

Tropical Asia, Eastern India, Malaysia, Myanmar. Hard false fruit globose and flattened, ornamental, see Dictionary of the Economic Products of India 493. 1887 and Agricultural Ledger 214. 1904.

C. lacryma-jobi L. var. novoguineensis Pilg.

New Guinea. See Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 52: 171. 1914.

C. lacryma-jobi L. var. stenocarpa (Balansa) Stapf ex Hook.f. (Coix lacryma-jobi var. stenocarpa (Oliv.) Stapf; Coix lacryma var. stenocarpa Oliv.; Coix lacryma-jobi var. stenocarpa Stapf; Coix stenocarpa Balansa; Coix stenocarpa (Oliv.) Balansa; Coix tubulosa Hack.)

Southeast Asia, China, India. Hard false fruit cylindrical and not striate, ornamental, used for beads, see Hooker’s Icones Plantarum 18(3): t. 1764. 1888, Journal de Botanique (Morot) 4(4): 77-78. 1890, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 13(2): 260. 1890, The Flora of British India 7: 100. 1896.

in Thailand: boe, ma dueai khi non, ma duei khee non, phong mue thee, phong mue thi

C. puellarum Balansa (Coix lacryma-jobi var. puellarum (Balansa) A. Camus)

Southeast Asia, China, India. Perennial, ornamental purposes, see Journal de Botanique (Morot) 4(4): 77. 1890 and Flore Générale de l’Indo-Chine 7(5): 220. 1922.

in India: sachipa

in Thailand: boe mue thee, boe mue thi, ma dueai hin, ma duei hin

Colanthelia McClure & E.W. Smit

From the Greek kouleos, koleos, koleon, kouleon “a sheath” and anthele “a type of inflorescence, a little flower,” anthe-lion is a diminutive of anthos “flower, blossom,” referring to the small synflorescences.

About 7 species, eastern Brazil. Bambusoideae, Bambuseae, Arthrostylidiinae, or Bambusoideae, Bambusodae, Bambuseae, perennial, very slender, sympodial, erect, weak, decumbent, scandent, woody, shrub, scrambler, hollow, climbing, leaf blades pseudopetiolate, clump forming, branch complement several, nodes with 2 ridges, 1 branch dominant, narrow sheaths, short rhizomes pachymorph, plants bisexual, inflorescence simple and exserted, a weak panicle or raceme, 1-2 spikelets slender, 1-3 glumes unequal, palea present, 3 free and membranous lodicules, 3 stamens, ovary hairy, 2 stigmas, forest, type Colanthelia cingulata (McClure & L.B. Sm.) McClure, see Flora Boreali-Americana 1: 73. 1803 and Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 9: 1-148. 1973 [Genera of bamboos native to the New World (Gramineae: Bambusoideae)], American Bamboos 172-174. 1999, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 39: 53. 2000, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 138(1): 45-55. Jan 2002 [Cauline anatomy of native woody bamboos in Argentina and neighbouring areas: epidermis].

Species

C. burchellii (Munro) McClure (Artrhostylidium burchellii Munro; Arundinaria burchellii (Munro) Hack.) (for the British naturalist William John Burchell, 1781-1863, in South Africa 1811-1815, Brazil 1825-1829, botanical collector, explorer, painter, writer, gardener, entomologist, 1808 Fellow of the Linnean Society (1803, in Stafleu and Mennega, Suppl. III), author of Travels in the Interior of Southern Africa. London 1822-1824; see Helen M. McKay, editor, The South African Drawings of William J. Burchell. Johannesburg 1952; John Lindley, The Genera and Species of Orchidaceous Plants. London 1830-1840; J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 1: 282. 1965; John Hutchinson (1884-1972), A Botanist in Southern Africa. 625-641. London 1946; M. Gunn and L.E. Codd, Botanical Exploration of Southern Africa. Cape Town 1981; T.W. Bossert, Biographical dictionary of botanists represented in the Hunt Institute portrait collection. 59. 1972; H.N. Clokie, Account of the Herbaria of the Department of Botany in the University of Oxford. 141-142. Oxford 1964; Mia C. Karsten, The Old Company’s Garden at the Cape and its Superintendents: Involving an Historical Account of Early Cape Botany. Cape Town 1951; Gordon Douglas Rowley, A History of Succulent Plants. 1997)

Brazil. See Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 43. 1868 and Oesterr. Bot. Z. 53: 69. 1903.

C. cingulata (McClure & L.B. Sm.) McClure (Aulonemia cingulata McClure & L.B. Sm.)

Brazil. Scandent, lowland, secondary forests, coastal, see Flora Ilustrada Catarinense 1(GRAM-Supl.): 50-52, t. 9, f. m-u. 1967.

C. distans (Trin.) McClure (Arundinaria distans Trin.)

Brazil. See Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint Pétersbourg. Sixième Série. Sciences Mathématiques, Physiques et Naturelles. Seconde Partie: Sciences Naturelles 3, 1(6): 621. 1835.

C. intermedia (McClure & L.B. Sm.) McClure (Aulonemia intermedia McClure & L.B. Sm.)

Brazil. Forming dense and impenetrable thickets, moist habitats.

C. lanciflora (McClure & L.B. Sm.) McClure (Aulonemia lanciflora McClure & L.B. Sm.; Chusquea effusa Renv.)

Brazil. Spikelets few-flowered, montane plant, moist habitats, see Kew Bulletin 42(2): 924. 1987.

C. macrostachya (Nees) McClure (Arundinaria macro-stachya Nees)

Brazil. See Linnaea 9(4): 481. 1834.

C. rhizantha (Hack.) McClure (Arundinaria rhizantha Hack.)

Brazil. See Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 7(149-151): 323. 1909.

Species

C. subtilis (Tratt.) Seidel (Schmidtia subtilis Tratt.; Schmidtia utricularia J. Presl & C. Presl; Smidetia humilis Raf.; Wilibalda subtilis (Tratt.) Roth; Zizania subtilis (Tratt.) Raspail)

Canada, U.S. Clusters of umbel-like spikelets, see Species Plantarum 2: 991. 1753, Flora Cechica 12. 1819, Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Botanique 5: 452, 458. 1825.

Coleataenia Griseb. = Panicum L.

From the Greek koleos “a sheath” and tainia “fillet, a ribbon.”

Panicoideae, Paniceae, Panicinae, type Coleataenia gynerioides Griseb., see Species Plantarum 1: 55, 58. 1753, Flora Brasiliensis seu Enumeratio Plantarum 2(1): 162-163. 1829, Symbolae ad Floram Argentinam 308. Göttingen 1879 [also in Abhandlungen der Königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen Phys. Cl. 24(1): 1-345. 1879] and Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 15: 13-15. 1910, Notizblatt des Botanischen Gartens und Museums zu Berlin-Dahlem 11(104): 243. 1931, Gramíneas Uruguayas 341-342, f. 143. 1970, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 163, 306-441. 2003.

Coliquea Steud. ex Bibra = Chusquea Kunth

Bambusoideae, Bambuseae, Chusqueinae, type Coliquea quila (Molina) Steud. ex Bibra, see Saggio sulla Storia Naturale del Chili ... 154-155. 1782, Journal de Physique, de Chimie, d’Histoire Naturelle et des Arts 95: 151. 1822, Synopsis Plantarum 1: 254. 1822, Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematischnaturwissenschaftliche Klasse 5(2): 115. 1853 and Flora Mesoamericana 6: 202-210. 1994, The Bamboos 33-44. 1997 [Diversity, biogeography and evolution of Chusquea], Emmet J. Judziewicz et al., American Bamboos. 199-223. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London 1999, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 39: 36-52, 53. 2000.

Colladoa Cav. = Ischaemum L.

Probably after the Swiss physician Louis Théodore Frédéric Colladon, 1792-1862, botanist; see J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 1: 366. Boston 1965; T.W. Bossert, Biographical dictionary of botanists represented in the Hunt Institute portrait collection. 80. 1972; Ida Kaplan Langman, A Selected Guide to the Literature on the Flowering Plants of Mexico. 210. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia 1964.

Coleanthus J. Seidel = Schmidtia Tratt., Schmiedtia Raf., Smidetia Raf., Wilibalda Sternb. ex Roth, Wilibalda Roth

From the Greek koleos “a sheath” and anthos “flower.”

One species, northern Asia, central Europe, North America. Pooideae, Poodae, Poeae, or Pooideae, Poeae, Agrostidinae, annual, dwarf, small, decumbent, herbaceous, auricles absent, upper leaf sheaths inflated embracing the inflorescence, narrow leaf blades linear, ligule an unfringed membrane, plants bisexual, contracted inflorescence paniculate, spikelets in globular clusters, 1-flowered, glumes lacking, lemma keeled with a short subulate awn, palea present, lodicules absent, 2 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, pond margins, type Coleanthus subtilis (Tratt.) Seidel, see Flora des Österreichischen Kaiserthumes 1: 12. 1816, Systema Vegetabilium 2: 11, 276. 1817, Enumeratio Plantarum Phaenogamarum in Germania 1(1): 92. 1827, Constantine Samuel Rafinesque, Autikon botanikon. Icones plantarum select. nov. vel rariorum, etc. 187. Philadelphia 1840, Beiträge zur Flora der Cap Verdischen Inseln 154. Heidelberg 1852 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 237, 608, 614, 694. 2003.

Panicoideae, Andropogonodae, Andropogoneae, Andropogoninae, or Panicoideae, Andropogoneae, Ischaeminae, type Colladoa distachia Cav. [also distachya], see Species Plantarum 2: 1049. 1753, Icones Stirpium Rariorum 1, t. 1. 1791, Icones et Descriptiones Plantarum, quae aut sponte ... 5: 37, t. 460. 1799, Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 1: 298. 1825 and Philippine Journal of Science 1(Suppl.): 330. 1906, North Amer. Fl. 17: 94. 1909, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 386-387. 1994, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 275-276. 2003.

Colobachne P. Beauv. = Alopecurus L.

Greek kolobos “stunted, mutilated” and achne “chaff, glume.”

Pooideae, Poeae, Alopecurinae, type Colobachne vaginata (Willd.) P. Beauv., see Species Plantarum 1: 60-61. 1753, Flora Pedemontana 2: 232. 1785, Der Gesellsschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin, neue Schriften 3: 44. 1801, Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 22, 158. 1812, Fundamenta Agrostographiae 59. 1820, Enumeratio Plantarum Horti Regii Berolinensis Altera 1: 74. 1821, Linnaea 21(3): 382. 1848, Botaniska Notiser 1851: 69. 1851, Flora Rossica 4(14): 640. 1853 and Regnum Veg. 127: 17. 1993, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 242. 1994, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 81(4): 784-791. 1994, Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 81(5): 98-101. 1996, Flora Mediterranea 7: 204-213. 1997, Watsonia 21: 365-368. 1997, Flora Mediterranea 8: 307-313. 1998, Turkish Journal of Botany 23(4): 245-262. 1999, Opera Botanica 137: 1-42. 1999, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 97-106, 237. 2003.

Colobanthium (Reichb.) G. Taylor = Sphenopholis Scribn.

From the Greek kolobanthes “bearing stunted flowers,” kolobos “stunted, mutilated” and anthos.

Pooideae, Poodae, Aveneae, or Pooideae, Poeae, Aveninae, see Der Deutsche Botaniker Herbarienbuch 1(2): 149. 1841 and Rhodora 8(92): 142. 1906, Index Kewensis 13: 33. 1966, Flora of Alaska and Neighboring Territories; A Manual of the Vascular Plants i-xxi, 1-1008. 1968, Anderson’s Flora of Alaska and Adjacent Parts of Canada i-xvi, 1-724. 1974, Flora of the Yukon Territory i-xvii, 1-669. 1996, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 614-617. 2003.

Colobanthus (Trin.) Spach = Colobanthus Bartl. (Caryophyllaceae), Sphenopholis Scribn.

Greek kolobos “stunted, mutilated” and anthos “flower.”

Pooideae, Poodae, Aveneae, or Pooideae, Poeae, Aveninae, see Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint Pétersbourg. Sixième Série. Sciences Mathématiques, Physiques et Naturelles 1(1): 66. 1830, Ordines Naturales Plantarum 305. 1830, Reliquiae Haenkeanae 2(1): 13, t. 49, f. 2. 1831, Histoire Naturelle des Végétaux 13: 163. 1841 and Rhodora 8(92): 142, 144. 1906, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 237, 614-617. 2003.

Colpodium Trinius = Catabrosella (Tzvelev) Tzvelev, Hyalopoa (Tzvelev) Tzvelev, Keniochloa Melderis, Paracolpodium (Tzvelev) Tzvelev

From the Greek kolpodes, kolpoeides “like a breast, winding, loose, like a bay, turgid, embosomed.”

Some 3 (sensu stricto)/20 species, montane, high altitude North temperate, Turkey, Nepal, eastern Siberia, Caucasus, Africa, Kenya, Lesotho. Pooideae, Poodae, Poeae, perennial, tufted, herbaceous, unbranched, shortly rhizomatous or stoloniferous, decumbent or erect, auricles absent, ligule an unfringed membrane, leaf blades flat or folded, plants bisexual, open inflorescence paniculate, panicle open or sometimes contracted, spikelets 1- to 4-flowered, 2 obtuse to acute glumes unequal to subequal, lower glume 1-nerved, upper glume 1- to 3-nerved, lemmas toothed and membranous, palea keels smooth and non scabrid, 2 free and membranous lodicules, 3 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, high mountains, a segregate from Poa, type Colpodium stevenii Trin. (Colpodium versicolor (Steven) Schmalh.), see Species Plantarum 1: 61-63. 1753, Familles des Plantes 2: 495. 1763, Essai d’une nouvelle Agrostographie, ou nouveaux genres des Graminées. 97, 119. 1812, Fundamenta Agrostographiae 119, t. 7. 1820, Neue Entdeckungen im ganzen Umfang der Pflanzenkunde 2: 37, 58. 1821, Beiträge zur Pflanzenkunde des Russischen Reiches 2: 64. 1845 [1846], Flora Rossica 4(13): 385. 1852, Flora Orientalis 5: 578. 1884 and Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 50(4): 538, 540. 1956, Grasses of Burma ... 529-530. 1960, Novosti Sist. Vyss. Rast. 1: 5-19. 1964, Arkticheskaia Flora SSSR [Flora of the Russian Arctic] 2: 172. Akademija nauk SSSR Leningrad 1964, Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 50(9): 1320. 1965, Novosti Sist. Vyss. Rast. 17: 4-10. 1980, Novosti Sist. Vyss. Rast. 18: 86-95. 1981, Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 486-501. 1985, Bot. Zhurn. SSSR 70(12): 1698-1699. 1985, Nordic Journal of Botany 14(6): 601-607. 1994 [The genus Colpodium (Gramineae) in Africa.], Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 237-238. 2003, Elizabeth A. Kellogg and Jeffrey L. Bennetzen, “The evolution of nuclear genome structure in seed plants.” Am. J. Bot. 91: 1709-1725. 2004.

Species

C. chionogeiton (Pilg.) Tzvelev (Agrostis chionogeiton Pilg.; Agrostis oreades Peter; Colpodium oreades (Peter) E.B. Alexeev; Keniochloa chionogeiton (Pilg.) Melderis; Keniochloa chionogeiton var. oreades (Peter) Melderis)

Africa, Kenya. Narrow and contracted panicle, see Notizblatt des Botanischen Gartens und Museums zu Berlin-Dahlem 9(87): 510. 1926, Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis, Beihefte 40(Anhang 1): 87, f. 2. 1930, Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 50(4): 540. 1956, Novosti Sist. Vyss. Rast. 17: 8. 1980. C. colchicum (Albov) Woronow ex Grossh. (Catabrosa colchica Albov; Paracolpodium colchicum (Albov) Tzvelev)

Eurasia, Russia. See Flora Kavkaza 1: 111. 1928, Novosti Sist. Vyss. Rast. 1966: 33. 1966. C. drakensbergense Hedberg & I.Hedberg Lesotho, South Africa. See Nordic Journal of Botany 14(6): 606, f. 3. 1994. C. fibrosum Trautv. (Catabrosella fibrosa (Trautv.) Tzvelev)

Turkey. See Novosti Sist. Vyss. Rast. 1966: 33. 1966. C. hedbergii (Melderis) Tzvelev (Catabrosa aquatica auctt.; Keniochloa hedbergii Melderis)

Africa, Russia, Europe. Perennial, rare, tufted to loosely tufted, prostrate or ascending, stoloniferous, basal leaf sheaths papery, leaves keeled and folded, ligule acute, panicle with spreading stiff branches, spikelets 1-flowered, glumes subequal or equal, on moist ground, wet places, temporary pools, along small streams, sedge meadows, see Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 50(4): 542, f. 1,1-2, 2. 1956. C. humile (M. Bieb.) Griseb. (Aira humilis M. Bieb.; Catabrosa humilis (M. Bieb.) Trin.; Catabrosella humilis (M. Bieb.) Tzvelev; Colpodium humile Lange, nom. illeg., non Colpodium humile (M. Bieb.) Griseb.; Glyceria humilis (M. Bieb.) Heynh.)

China, Russia, Turkey. See Flora Taurico-Caucasica 1: 57. 1808, Fundamenta Agrostographiae 136. 1820, Gustav Heynhold (1800-ca. 1860), Nomenclator Botanicus Hortensis 1: 361. Dresden, Leipzig 1840-1846, Flora Rossica 4(13): 384. 1852 and Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 50: 1320. 1965. C. lanatiflorum (Roshevitz) Tzvelev (Hyalopoa lanatiflora (Roshev.) Tzvelev; Poa lanatiflora Roshev.)

Russia. See Flora Arctica URSS 2: 172. 1964, Novosti Sist. Vyss. Rast. 1966: 32. 1966.

C. oreades (Peter) E.B. Alexeev (Agrostis oreades Peter; Colpodium chionogeiton (Pilg.) Tzvelev; Keniochloa chionogeiton var. oreades (Peter) Melderis)

Russia. See Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis, Beihefte 40(Anhang 1): 87, f. 2. 1930, Svensk Bot-

anisk Tidskrift 50(4): 540. 1956, Novosti Sist. Vyss. Rast. 17: 8. 1980.

C. tibeticum Bor (Paracolpodium tibeticum (Bor) E.B. Alexeev)

India, Tibet, Himalaya. Plant robust, see Kew Bulletin 8(2): 270. 1953, Novosti Sist. Vyss. Rast. 18: 95. 1981.

C. vahlianum (Liebm.) Nevski (Atropis vahliana (Liebm.) K. Richt.; Glyceria vahliana (Liebm.) Th. Fr.; Phippsia vahliana (Liebm.) Á. Löve and D. Löve; Poa vahliana Liebm.; Puccinellia vahliana (Liebm.) Scribn. and Merr.; Puccinellia vahliana (Liebm.) Tolm., nom. illeg., non Puccinellia vahliana (Liebm.) Scribn. & Merr.)

Canada, Russia. Caespitose, curly roots, see Chloris Melvilliana 27. 1823, Fl. Danica 2401. 1845, Flora italiana, ossia descrizione delle piante ... 1: 366. 1848, Öfversigt af Förhandlingar: Kongl. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademien 26: 139-140. 1869, Plantae Europeae 1: 92. 1890 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 13: 78. 1910, Fl. SSSR 2: 436, 470. 1934 [Flora URSS 2: 436. 1934], Botaniska Notiser 128(4): 501. 1975 [1976], Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 591-601. 2003.

C. variegatum (Boiss.) Griseb. (Catabrosa variegata Boiss.; Catabrosella variegatum (Boiss.) Tzvelev, also spelled variegata)

Russia, Turkey. In damp soil, alpine slopes, see Diagnoses plantarum orientalium novarum, ser. 1, 1(5): 1. 1844, Flora Rossica 4(13): 384. 1852 and Novosti Sist. Vyss. Rast. 1966: 32. 1966.

C. versicolor (Steven) Schmalh. (Agrostis versicolor Steven; Catabrosa versicolor (Steven) Boiss.; Colpodium schelkownikowii Grossh.; Colpodium versicolor (Steven) Woronow ex Grossh.; Colpodium stevenii Trin.)

Russia. See Fundamenta Agrostographiae 119, t. 7. 1820, Flora Orientalis 5: 579. 1884 and Flora Kavkaza 1: 111, 127. 1928.

C. wallichii (Hook.f. ex Stapf) Bor (Catabrosa wallichii Hook.f. ex Stapf; Paracolpodium wallichii (Hook.f. ex Stapf) E.B. Alexeev)

India, Bhutan, Sikkim. Inflorescence a raceme, glumes dark purple, see The Flora of British India 7(22): 312. 1897 [1896] and Kew Bulletin 1953: 270. 1953, Novosti Sist. Vyss. Rast. 18: 94. 1981.

Commelinidium Stapf = Acroceras Stapf

Resembling Commelina.

Three species, tropical Africa. Panicodae, Paniceae, Setariinae, or Panicoideae, Paniceae, Panicinae, perennial, herbaceous, slender, nonwoody, branched, coarse, solid, rhizomatous or stoloniferous, usually with long prostrate

base, trailing, creeping or decumbent-based culms, leaning, often rooting at the lower nodes, auricles absent, narrow membranous ligule, leaves lanceolate to linear-lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, plants bisexual, inflorescence panicu-late or spicate, solitary or paired spikelets, florets 2, lower floret sterile or male, upper floret bisexual or perfect, 2 very unequal glumes, lower glume 3- to 5-nerved, upper glume 5-nerved, palea present, 2 fleshy and free lodicules, stamens 3, ovary glabrous, stigmas 2, shade and open habitats, near running fresh water, understory, damp places, shallow water, marshy ground, forests, stream and lake margins, often referred to Acroceras, type Commelinidium gabunense (Hack.) Stapf, see North American Flora 3(2): 200, 210. 1915, Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 621-622, 627. 1920, Bulletin du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris) 26(7): 664. 1921 [1920], Notizblatt des Botanischen Gar-tens und Museums zu Berlin-Dahlem 11(104): 240. 1931, Heredity: An International Journal of Genetics 3: 369-374. 1949, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 97: 84-85. 1950, Cytologia 19: 97-103. 1954, Grasses of Burma ... 275-276. 1960, Prodromus einer Flora von Südwestafrika 160: 1-228. 1970, Brittonia 23(3): 293-324. 1971, Canadian Journal of Botany 52(5): 1075-1090. 1974, Las Gramíneas de México 1: 1-260. 1983, Darwiniana 28(1-4): 191-217. 1987[1988], Darwiniana 30(1-4): 87-94. 1990, Flora of the Guianas. Series A, Phanerogams 8: 42-45. 1990, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 329. 1994, Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 209-210. 1995, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 13-14. 2003.

Species

C. gabunense (Hack.) Stapf (Acroceras gabunense (Hack.)

Clayton; Commelinidium mayumbense (Franchet) Stapf; Commelinidium nervosum Stapf; Echinochloa nervosa (Stapf) Roberty; Panicum gabunense Hack.; Panicum hensii K. Schum.; Panicum mayumbense Franch.)

West tropical Africa, Gabon, Tanzania. Perennial, scrambling, prostrate at the base, rooting at the lower nodes, leaf blades ovate, fodder, found in forest shade, see Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 52, 53, t. 11, f. 1. 1812, Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins für die Provinz Brandenburg und die angrenzenden Länder 31: 70. 1889, Bulletin de la Société d’Histoire Naturelle d’Autun 8: 343. 1895, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 24(3): 332. 1897 and Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 627-629. 1920, Petite Flore de l’Ouest-Africain 398. 1954, Bull. Inst. Franç. Afrique Noire Sér. A, 17: 64. 1955, Kew Bulletin 34(3): 557. 1979 [1980].

in Sierra Leone: ngale

Comopyrum (Jaub.) Á. Löve = Aegilops L., Comopyrum (Jaub. & Spach) Á. Löve, Comopyrum Á. Löve

From the Greek kome “hair of the head, tuft of hairs” and pyros “grain, wheat.”

Pooideae, Triticeae, Triticinae, see Species Plantarum 2: 1050-1051. 1753, Flora Graeca 1: 75, t. 94. 1806, Flora Orientalis 5: 675. 1884 and Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis Beih. 55: 84, 90, 117. 1929, Blumea, Supplement 3: 15, 17. 1946, Grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan (excluding Bambuseae) 653-655. 1960, Feddes Repert. 91: 225-228, 233-234, 236. 1980, Biologisches Zentralblatt 101(2): 206-208. 1982, Feddes Repert. 95(7-8): 493, 495. 1984, Taxon 41: 552-583. 1992, Agric. Univ. Wageningen Pap. 94-7: 1-512. 1994, Taxon 44: 611-612. 1995, Flora de Veracruz 114: 1-16. 2000, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 20-23, 238. 2003.

Corethrum Vahl

From the Greek korethron “broom.”

Name of uncertain application, type Corethrum bromoides Vahl, see Skrifter af Naturhistorie-Selskabet 6: 85. 1810 and Genera Graminum 376. 1999.

Coridochloa Nees = Alloteropsis Presl

Greek koris, koridos “a species of Hypericum, a bug” and chloe, chloa “grass, young grass”; see Robert Wight and G. Arnott Walker Arnott, The Edinburgh New Philosophical Society. 15: 381. 1833.

Panicoideae, Panicodae, Paniceae, Setariinae, or Panicoideae, Paniceae, Paspalinae, type Coridochloa cimicina (L.) Nees ex B.D. Jacks., see Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 12(6): 210. 1909, F.M. Bailey, in Queensland Agricultural Journal. 27: 69, t. XIX. 1911, Annali di Botanica 13: 47. 1914, Willdenowia 4: 209, 21. 1966, Flora of Tropical East Africa 451-898. 1982, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: 866-873. 1988, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 97: 255-259. 1988, ASBS Symposium 1990: Indo-Pacific Biogeography, 14. 1990, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 16, 163. 2003.

Cornucopiae L

Cornucopiae, the emblem of fruitfulness and abundance.

Two species, eastern Mediterranean, Iraq. Pooideae, Poodae, Aveneae, annual, branched, herbaceous, auricles absent, narrow leaf blades linear acuminate, upper sheaths

inflated subtending 1-several panicles, inflorescence capitate, panicle with dentate cupuliform involucre, 2 glumes subequal, lower glume 3-nerved, upper glume 2- to 3-nerved, palea and lodicules lacking, 3 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, type Cornucopiae cucullatum L. (Alopecurus cornucopiae (L.) Trin.), see Species Plantarum 1: 54, 60-61. 1753, Flora Caroliniana, secundum ... 73-74. 1788, Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math., Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 6,4(1-2): 46. 1840, Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 24: 440. 1888 and Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 17(19-30): 293. 1921, Regnum Veg. 127: 38. 1993.

Species

C. alopecuroides L.

Mediterranean. See Systema Naturae, edition 12 2: 85. 1767, Mant. Pl. 29. 1767 and Taxon 49(2): 249. 2000.

C. cucullatum L. (Alopecurus cornucopiae (L.) Trin.)

Mediterranean. See Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint Pétersbourg. Sixième Série. Sciences Mathématiques, Physiques et Naturelles. Seconde Partie: Sciences Naturelles 6,4(1-2): 46. 1840, Flora 68(7): 126. 1885 and Kew Bulletin 20: 446. 1966.

Cortaderia Stapf = Moorea Lemaire

From cortadera, the Argentine name; from the Spanish cortar “to cut, to harvest, pick,” from the Latin curto, avi, atum, are (curtus) “to shorten”; the plant has sharp-edged leaves or leaf blades. “Que rodea una laguna/con su pajonal dorado/de filosa cortadera/coronada de penachos.” (Hilario Ascasubi, Santos Vega).

About 15-27 species, mostly South America, New Zealand. Arundinoideae, Danthonieae, Cortaderiinae, or Danthonioideae, Danthonieae, perennial, large, erect, densely tussocky, caespitose, robust and coarse, hollow, unbranched, ligule present, leaves mostly basal or crowded at the base of flowering shoot, auricles absent, leaf blades linear and harsh, ligule a dense rim of hairs, plants bisexual, dioecious or gynodioecious, inflorescence a small or large silvery silky plumose branched panicle, spikelets unisexual or occasionally hermaphrodite, 2-5 developed florets and a rudiment, florets hermaphrodite or female on separate plants (gynodioecious), with hermaphrodite florets or without hermaphrodite florets, glumes transparent and persistent 1- to 3-nerved, several hairy white and papery lemmas, lemmas awned or slender-pointed, the median lemma awn not strongly flattened, laterals lemmas present or absent, callus in female long silky-hairy and pointed, palea keeled, 2 fleshy and ciliate lodicules, stamens 3, ovary glabrous, plumose stigmas, noxious weed species, in weedy places, pampas, cultivated, ornamental, lawn specimens, wetter areas, open habitats, a rather heterogeneous genus, inter-grading with Chionochloa Zotov, type Cortaderia argentea (Nees) Stapf (Cortaderia selloana (Schultes & Schultes f.) Asch. & Graebner), see L’Illustration horticole 2: Misc. 14-15. 1855, The Gardeners’ Chronicle. Ser. 3, 22: 378, 396. 1897 and Synopsis der mitteleuropäischen Flora 2(1): 325. 1900, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 37: 374. 1906, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 24(8): 291-556. 1927, Field Museum of Natural History, Botanical Series 13(1/1): 96-261. 1936, Contributions from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University 184: 1-223. 1958, Bol. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. 27(4): 205-246. 1959, New Zealand J. Agric. Res. 3: 725-727. 1960, Hans J. Conert, Die Systematik und Anatomie der Arundineae 208 p. Weinheim 1961, New Zealand Journal of Botany 1: 78-136, 258-264. 1963, Tetrahedron Letters 34: 2323-2327. 1964, New Zealand Journal of Botany 3: 17-23, 233-242. 1965, Phytochem. 6: 559-572. 1967, New Zealand Journal of Botany 9: 519-525. 1971, Phytochem. 10: 2167-2173. 1971, Phytochem. 12: 1196. 1973, H.E. Connor and E. Edgar, “Names and types of Cortaderia Stapf (Gramineae).” Taxon 23(4): 595-605. 1974, Evolution 27: 663-678. 1974, H.E. Connor and A.W. Purdie, “Inheritance of triterpene methyl ethers in Cortaderia (Gramineae).” Phytochemistry 15: 1937-1939. 1976, New Zealand Journal of Botany 16: 45-59. 1978, Proceedings, Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen. Series C, biological and medical sciences 82: 165-170. 1979, Fieldiana: Botany, New Series 4: 1-608. 1980, New Zealand Journal of Botany 19: 171-172. 1981, Taxon 32: 633-634. 1983, Heredity 51: 395-403. 1983, Botanical Gazette 145: 78-82. 1984, New Zealand Journal of Botany 26: 163-167. 1988, H.E. Connor and D. Charles-worth, “Genetics of male-sterility in gynodioecious Cortaderia (Gramineae).” Heredity 63: 373-382. 1989, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 251-252. 1994, Darwiniana 33: 43-51. 1995, S.A. Renvoize, Gramíneas de Bolivia 262-267. 1998, Syst. Bot. 23: 327-350. 1998, Lynda F. Delph, Maia F. Bailey and Deborah L. Marr, “Seed provisioning in gynodioecious Silene acaulis (Caryophyllaceae).” Am. J. Bot. 86: 140-144. 1999, Journal of Biogeography 26(4): 693-712. July 1999 [Brazilian Páramos I. An introduction to the physical environment and vegetation of the campos de altitude.], Hugh DeForest Safford, “Brazilian Páramos II. Macro- and mesoclimate of the campos de altitude and affinities with high mountain climates of the tropical Andes and Costa Rica.” Journal of Biogeography 26(4): 713-737. July 1999, K.J.M. Dickinson and A.F. Mark, “Interpreting ecological patterns in an intact estuary, Southwest New Zealand World Heritage Area.” Journal of Biogeography 26(4): 913-932. July 1999, Colin M. Orians, “The effects of hybridization in plants on secondary chemistry: implications for the ecology and evolution of plant-herbivore interactions.” Am. J. Bot. 87: 1749-1756. 2000, Restoration Ecology 9(1): 1-12. Mar 2001, Alan F. Mark et al. “Vegetation patterns, plant distribution and life forms across the alpine zone in southern Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.” Austral. Ecology 26(4): 423-440. Aug 2001, Grass and Forage Science 56(4): 423-425. Dec 2001, Restoration Ecology 10(1): 96-106. Mar 2002, David R. Towns, “Korapuki Island as a case study for restoration of insular ecosystems in New Zealand.” Journal of Biogeography 29(5-6): 593-607. May 2002, Eija Asikainen and Pia Mutikainen, “Female frequency and relative fitness of females and hermaphrodites in gynodioecious Geranium sylvaticum (Geraniaceae).” Am. J. Bot. 90: 226-234. 2003, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 163-166, 297. 2003, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 90: 1-24. 2003, Conservation Biology 17(1): 83-92. Feb 2003, Ethology 110(1): 79-80. Jan 2004, Tropical Medicine and International Health 9(4): 508-519. Apr 2004, Peter A. Williams and Susan Wiser, “Determinants of regional and local patterns in the floras of braided riverbeds in New Zealand.” Journal of Biogeography 31(8): 1355-1372. Aug 2004, Diversity & Distributions 10(5-6): 367-369. Sep 2004, Flora of Australia vol. 44B, Poaceae 3: 22-25. 2005, Sonia L. Fontana, “Coastal dune vegetation and pollen representation in south Buenos Aires Province, Argentina.” Journal of Biogeography 32(4): 719-735. Apr 2005, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 85(1): 65-79. May 2005.

Species

C. araucana Stapf (Arundo dioeca Spreng. nom. illeg., non Arundo dioica Lour.; Arundo dioica Spreng. nom. illeg., non Arundo dioica Lour.; Arundo kila Spreng. ex Steud.; Arundo selloana Schult. & Schult.f.; Cortaderia araucana var. araucana; Cortaderia araucana var. fuenzalidae Acevedo; Cortaderia araucana var. skottsbergii Acevedo; Cortaderia argentea (Nees) Stapf; Cortaderia dioica Speg.; Cortaderia longicauda Hack.; Cortaderia quila var. patagonica Speg.; Cortaderia selloana (Schult. & Schult.f.) Asch. & Graebn.; Gynerium argenteum Nees; Gynerium dioicum (Spreng.) Dallière; Gynerium purpureum Carrière; Moorea araucana (Stapf) Stapf; Moorea argentea (Nees) Lem.) (after the Swedish botanist Carl Johan Fredrik Skottsberg, 1880-1963, traveler and botanical explorer (South America, Chile, Patagonia), professor of botany, collected cacti, his works include “The Swedish Magellanian expedition, 1907-1909: Preliminary reports.” Geogr. Jour. London 1908, The wilds of Patagonia: A narrative of the Swedish expedition to Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego and the Falkland Islands in 1907-1909. London 1911 and “Observations on the natives of the Patagonian Channel region.” Amer. anthr. 4: 578-616. 1913; see Stafleu and Cowan, Taxonomic literature. 5: 627-639. Utrecht 1985; R. Zander, F. Encke, G. Buchheim and S. Seybold, Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen. 14. Aufl. Stuttgart 1993; John M. Cooper, Analytical and Critical Bibliography of the Tribes of Tierra del Fuego and Adjacent Territory. [Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 63.] Washington 1917; J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 3: 285. 1965; T.W. Bossert, Biographical dictionary of botanists represented in the Hunt Institute portrait collection. 370. 1972; E.M. Tucker, Catalogue of the library of the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. Cambridge, Mass. 1917-1933; Clodomiro Marticorena, Bibliografía Botánica Taxonómica de Chile. 518-521. Missouri Botanical Garden 1992; Gordon Douglas Rowley, A History of Succulent Plants. Strawberry Press, Mill Valley, California 1997; J. Ewan, editor, A Short History of Botany in the United States. New York and London 1969; E.D. Merrill, in Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 144: 171-173. 1937 and Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 30(1): 278-282. 1947; Margaret Patricia Henwood Laver, An Annotated Bibliography of the Falkland Islands and the Falkland Island Dependencies (as delimited on 3rd Mar, 1962). Cape Town 1977)

Chile, Argentina. Ornamental, silvery creamy feather-like plumes, see Anales Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires 7: 194. 1902, Gardener’s Chronicle, ser. 3 34: 400. 1903, Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 10(243-247): 169. 1911, Boletin del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural 27(4): 239-240, f. 7. 1959, Taxon 23: 596. 1974, Colin M. Orians, “The effects of hybridization in plants on secondary chemistry: implications for the ecology and evolution of plant-herbivore interactions.” Am. J. Bot. 87: 1749-1756. 2000.

in English: pampas grass

in Colombia: carmín, pasto de trenza

C. archboldii (Hitchc.) Connor & Edgar (Chionochloa archboldii (Hitchc.) Conert; Danthonia archboldii Hitchc.)

New Guinea, New Zealand. See Brittonia 2(2): 114. 1936, Taxon 23(4): 596. 1974, Senckenbergiana Biologica 56: 156. 1975.

C. atacamensis (Phil.) Pilg. (Gynerium atacamense Phil.)

Chile, Argentina, Bolivia. See Linnaea 33(3-4): 289. 1864 and Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 37: 374. 1906, Syst. Anat. Arundineae 90. 1961.

in English: pampas grass, Selloa pampas grass

C. bifida Pilger (Cortaderia aristata Pilg.; Cortaderia bifida var. bifida; Cortaderia bifida var. grandiflora Henrard; Cortaderia trianae Stapf ex Conert)

South America, Peru, Bolivia, Colombia. Perennial, caespitose, erect, large, tussocky, leaf blades flat or involute, old leaf sheaths curling at the base, ligule a rim of hairs, loose terminal panicle oblong with scabrous branches or shortly hispid, 2-4 flowered with a small rudiment, glumes subequal, lower lemma pilose, páramos, roadsides, scrub forests, subpáramos, see Botanische Jahrbücher für System-atik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 37: 374-375. 1906, Mededeelingen van’s Rijks-Herbarium 40: 67. 1921, Die Systematik und Anatomie der Arundineae 100-101. 1961.

C. boliviensis M. Lyle (Cortaderia bifida var. grandiflora Henrard)

Chile, Argentina, Bolivia. Leaves basal, leaf blades flat or involute, loose terminal panicle oblong, glumes subequal, lower lemma pilose, see Botanische Jahrbücher für System-atik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 37: 374. 1906, Mededeelingen van’s Rijks-Herbarium 40: 67. 1921, Novon 6(1): 72, f. 1-2. 1996.

C. columbiana (Pilg.) Pilg. (Cortaderia parviflora Swallen;

Gynerium columbianum Pilg.)

Colombia. See Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 27: 31. 1900, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 29(6): 253. 1949.

C. fulvida (Buchanan) Zotov (Arundo conspicua var. ful-vida (Buchanan) Kirk; Arundo fulvida Buchanan)

New Zealand. Robust, coarse, stout, erect, tussock-forming, caespitose, green, glabrous, contra-ligule absent, leaves narrow and curved to flexible, seed heads compact, tawny and pale panicles with pendent branches, spikelets 1- to 3-flowered, glumes more or less equal, pioneer grass, ornamental, attracts birds, fast growing, riparian, useful for erosion control and slope stabilisation, provides wind shelter, high wind and salt wind tolerance, occurs in swamps, in open stream-sides, margins of forests, stream banks, damp sites, open areas, wetland margins, clearings, roadsides, see Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 6: 242. 1874, T.N.Z.I. 10: app. xliii. 1879 and New Zealand Journal of Botany 1: 84. 1963.

in New Zealand: toetoe, kakaho

C. hapalotricha (Pilg.) Conert (Cortaderia scabriflora Swallen; Danthonia hapalotricha Pilg.) (from the Greek hapalos “soft, tender, delicate, weak” and thrix, trichos “hair”)

Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Costa Rica.

Perennial, erect, caespitose, leaf blades convolute or flat, foliage crowded at the base, leaves pungent and rigid, contracted terminal panicle oblong or ovate, panicle branches long-hairy, glumes equal or subequal, lower lemma pilose, central awn straight, palea loosely pilose, páramos, open habitats, often in swamps, lakeshores, see Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 25: 715. 1898 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 29(6): 252. 1949, Die Systematik und Anatomie der Arundineae 102-103. 1961, Taxon 23(4): 595-605. 1974, Fieldiana: Botany, New Series 4: 1-608. 1980, Taxon 32(4): 633-634. 1983, Volkmar Vareschi (1906-1991), Flora de Los Páramos de Venezuela. Universidad de Los Andes. Merida - Venezuela 1970, Publicaciones del Museo de Historia Natural: Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos: Serie B: Botánica 34: 1-37. 1990, Karl Weidmann, Páramos venezolanos. Caracas 1991, Ruizia 13: 1-480. 1993, AAU Reports 34: 1-443. 1994, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 251-252. 1994.

C. jubata (Lemoine) Stapf (Arundo quila Molina; Coliquea quila (Molina) Steud. ex Bibra; Cortaderia atacamensis (Phil.) Pilger; Cortaderia jubata (Lemoine ex Carrière) Stapf; Cortaderia quila (Nees & Mey.) Stapf; Cortaderia quila (Molina) Stapf; Gynerium jubatum Lemoine ex Carrière; Gynerium pygmaeum Meyen; Gynerium quila (Molina) Nees & Meyen; Gynerium quila var. pygmaeum Nees; Moorea quila (Molina) Stapf)

Southern America, Peru, Ecuador, Argentina, Bolivia, Andes. Perennial, deep dark green, large and robust tussock grass, densely tufted, erect, sheaths of mature plants with long hairs, ligule a dense rim of hairs, leaves mostly basal arching and scabrous, margins rough and cutting, loose and feathery panicle, branches nodding or drooping, plants dioecious (staminate and pistillate flowers on different plants), male spikelets covered with long hairs, glumes unequal, lemma scabrid, lodicules lobed or simple, noxious weed species naturalized elsewhere, produces abundant seeds annually and establishes rapidly on bare soil, ornamental, useful for erosion control, grown to control erosion of mine dumps, growing in disturbed areas, dry slopes, moist sites, landslides, waste places, roadsides, railway lines, coastal and lowland shrub, open rocky sites, in grazed areas, sand dunes, coastal dunes, grasslands, clearings, forest margins, scrub, see Reise um die Erde 1: 484. 1834, Gramineae 21-22, 153-154. 1841, Nova Acta Phys.-Med. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 19(Suppl. 1): 153-154. 1843, Revue Horticole 50: 449. 1878, Gardener’s Chronicle, ser. 3 22(571): 396. 1897, Botanical Magazine 124: t. 7607. 1898 and Contributions from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University 184: 1-223. 1958, Taxon 23: 598-599. 1974, Revista de Ciencias (San Marcos) 74: 48-57. 1986, Field-iana: Botany, New Series 24: 1-126. 1990, Publicaciones del Museo de Historia Natural: Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos: Serie B: Botánica 34: 1-37. 1990, New Zealand Journal of Botany 29: 117-129. 1991, Timmins, Susan M. and Ian W. Mackenzie. Weeds in New Zealand Protected Natural Areas Database. Wellington, New Zealand. Department of Conservation, Technical Series no. 8: 67-70. 1995, Darwiniana 33(1-4): 43-51. 1995, John G. Lambrinos, “The impact of the invasive alien grass Cortaderia jubata (Lemoine) Stapf on an endangered mediterranean-type shrubland in California.” Diversity & Distributions 6(5): 217-231. Sep 2000, Hickenia 3(28): 99-103. 2001, John G. Lambrinos, “The expansion history of a sexual and asexual species of Cortaderia in California, U.S.” Journal of Ecology 89(1): 88-98. Feb 2001.

in English: pink pampas grass, purple pampas grass, Selloa pampas grass, Andes grass, Andean pampas grass, Jubata-grass, jubata grass, pampas grass

in Peru: sacuara

in Ecuador: sixe, zicce, sigse, sigze, sig-zal

C. modesta (Döll) Hack. ex Dusén (Cortaderia modesta f. ramosa Hack.; Gynerium modestum Döll; Gynerium ramo-sum Hack.)

Brazil. See Flora Brasiliensis 2(3): 240. 1880 and Arquivos do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro 13: 73. 1903, Arkiv för Botanik utgivet av K. Svenska Vetenskapsakademien 9(5): 4. 1909, Taxon 23: 600. 1974

in Brazil: cabeça-de-negro, capim-de-anta

C. nitida (Kunth) Pilg. (Arundo calycina Willd. ex Steud.;

Arundo nitida Kunth; Cortaderia columbiana (Pilg.) Pilg.; Cortaderia sodiroana Hack.; Danthonia hapalotricha Pilg.; Gynerium columbianum Pilg.; Gynerium nitidum (Kunth) Pilg.)

Peru, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador. Perennial bunchgrass, erect, large, tussocky, ligule a rim of hairs, leaf sheaths not densely hairy and gradually disintegrating, panicle branches more or less scabrous, palea 2-keeled, pioneer grass, natural bush vegetation, on rocks, montane forest, along roads, riversides, moist and dry páramos, highlands, see Nova Genera et Species Plantarum 1: 149. 1815 [1816], Nomenclator Botanicus edition 2 1: 144. 1840, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 27: 31. 1899[1900] and Österreichische Botanische Zeitschrift 52: 238. 1902, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 37: 65, 374-375. 1906, Taxon 23: 600. 1974, Volkmar Vareschi (1906-1991), Flora de Los Páramos de Venezuela. Universidad de Los Andes. Merida - Venezuela 1970, Karl Weidmann, Páramos venezolanos. Caracas 1991.

in Ecuador: sigse

C. pilosa (D’Urv.) Hackel (Ampelodesmos australis Brongn. ex Duperrey; Arundo pilosa D’Urv.; Calamagrostis patula Steud.; Calamagrostis scirpiformis Phil.; Cortaderia minima Conert; Cortaderia pilosa var. minima (Conert) Nicora; Cortaderia pilosa (d’Urv.) Hack. var. pilosa; Gynerium nanum Phil.; Gynerium pilosum (d’Urv.) Macloskie; Phragmites pilosa (d’Urv.) Macloskie & Dusén; Phragmites pilosus (d’Urv.) Macloskie & Dusén; Poa phragmites Phil.)

Falkland Islands/Islas Malvinas, Chile, Argentina. Tussock, low nutritive value, growing point of the leaves generally beneath a longer dead leaf mass, on poorly drained plains, see Mémoires de la Société Linnéenne de Paris 4: 603. 1826, Voyage autour du Monde 22: 31. 1829, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 422. 1854, Anales de la Universidad de Chile 43(46): 576. 1872 [1873], Anales de la Universidad de Chile 94: 20, 155. 1896 and Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias, Córdoba, Argentina 16: 253. 1900, Wiss. Ergebn. Schwed. Exped. Magellandslandern 3, pt. 5: 222. 1900, Die Systematik und Anatomie der Arundineae 119-120. 1961, Darwiniana 18(1-2): 80. 1973, Taxon 23: 600. 1974, J.H. McAdam, Whitegrass Proceedings of 1st International Symposium. The Queens University of Belfast 1992, F.E.A. Wilson, B.M.R. Harvey, J.H. McAdam and D.W.H. Walton, “The response of Whitegrass [Cortaderia pilosa (D’Urv.) Hack.] to nitrogen nutrition.” Grass and Forage Science 56(1): 84-91. Mar 2001.

in English: whitegrass

in Spanish: hierba blanca

C. planifolia Swallen

Peru, Colombia. See Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 29(6): 253-254. 1949, Taxon 23(4): 595-605. 1974.

C. pungens Swallen (Danthonia confusa L.B. Sm.)

South America, Colombia. Páramos, tufted, see Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 29(6): 251-252. 1949, Phytologia 22(2): 89, f. 9-11. 1971, Taxon 23: 595-605. 1974.

C. quila (Molina) Stapf (Chusquea quila Kunth; Cortaderia jubata (Lemoine ex Carrière) Stapf; Cortaderia rudiuscula Stapf; Cortaderia selloana (Schult. & Schult.f.) Asch. & Graebn.)

South America. See Mantissa 3(Add. 1): 605. 1827, Révision des Graminées 1: 329, t. 77. 1830, Systema Vegetabilium 7: 1361. 1830, Revue Horticole 50: 449. 1878, Gardener’s Chronicle, ser. 3 22(571): 396. 1897, Botanical Magazine 124: t. 7607. 1898 and Synopsis der mitteleuropäischen Flora 2(1): 325. 1900, Anales Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires 7: 194. 1902, Gardener’s Chronicle, ser. 3 34: 400. 1903, Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires 11: 125. 1904, Bol. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Chile 27: 220. 1959, Taxon 23: 599. 1974.

C. richardii (Endl.) Zotov (Arundo australis A. Rich., nom. illeg., non Arundo australis Cav.; Arundo kakao Steud.; Arundo richardii Endl.; Gynerium zeelandicum Steud.)

New Zealand. Tall, large tussock-like grass, stout, fast growing, leaf sheath glabrous and waxy to the touch, narrow leaves coriaceous and recurved, serrated edged leaves, plume-like flower heads, plants gynodioecious, male and female plants similar, pale golden yellow to white creamy drooping inflorescences, spikelets 1- to 3-flowered, flowers on long stalks, glumes equal, pioneer, riparian, sand dune restoration, windbreaks, high waterlogging tolerance, high wind and salt wind tolerance, found in moist soils, along sandy stream banks, scrub and on the coast, open areas, wetlands, alongside creeks and streams, lake margins, river-beds, see Voyage de Découvertes autour du Monde ... sur la corvette L’Astrolabe pendant les Années 1826-1829 ... Botanique 121. Paris 1832-1848, Annalen des Wiener Museums der Naturgeschichte 1: 158. 1836, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1(3): 194, 198. 1855 [1854] and New Zealand Journal of Botany 1: 84. 1963, Connor H. E., “Breeding systems in New Zealand grasses. VI. Control of gynodioecism in Cortaderia richardii (Endl.) Zotov.” New Zealand Journal of Botany 3: 233. 1965, Student’s Fl. Tasmania 4B p. 319. 1994.

in English: toe toe, toetoe grass, toitoi, plumed tussock, New Zealand pampas grass

C. roraimensis (N.E. Br.) Pilg. (Arundo roraimensis (N.E.

Br.) (Mount Roraima)

Brazil, Colombia, Guyana, Venezuela. Along streams, see Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, Botany 6(1): 74. 1901, Notizblatt des Botanischen Gartens und Museums zu Berlin-Dahlem 6: 112. 1914, Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 18(2): 11-22. 1969.

C. rudiuscula Stapf (Cortaderia quila (Molina) Stapf; Cortaderia selloana (Schult. & Schult.f.) Asch. & Graebn.; Gynerium argenteum var. parviflorum E. Desv.; Gynerium quila (Molina) Nees & Meyen; Gynerium rudiusculum (Stapf) Kuntze ex Stuck.; Moorea rudiuscula (Stapf) Stapf)

Chile, Argentina, Peru. Leaves basal, leaf blades linear, oblong panicles, glumes subequal, lower lemma pilose and glabrous, see Saggio sulla Storia Naturale del Chili ... 154-155. Bologna 1782, Mantissa 3(Add. 1): 605. 1827, Flora Brasiliensis seu Enumeratio Plantarum 2: 462. 1829, Gramineae 153-154. 1841, Nova Acta Phys.-Med. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 19(Suppl. 1): 21-22. 1843, Flora Chilena 6: 328. 1854, Gardener’s Chronicle, ser. 3 22(571): 396. 1897 and Synopsis der mitteleuropäischen Flora 2(1): 325. 1900, Gardener’s Chronicle, ser. 3 34: 400. 1903, Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires 11: 125. 1904, Field Museum of Natural History, Botanical Series 13(1/1): 96-261. 1936, Manual of the Grasses of the United States (edition 2, revised by A. Chase) 1951, Contributions from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University 184: 1-223. 1958, Bol. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Chile 27: 220. 1959, Nómina de las plantas recolectadas en el Valle de Cochabamba 2: 17-86. 1966 Taxon 23: 599, 601. 1974, Flora Patagónica 3: 1-583. 1978, Gayana, Botánica 42: 1-157. 1985, Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl 1-1286. 1993, Ruizia 13: 1-480. 1993, Darwiniana 33(1-4): 43-51. 1995, N.B. De La Barra, Reconstrucción y Evolución del Paisaje Vegetal Autóctono de la Zona Urbana y Peri-Urbana de la Ciudad de Cochabamba i-v, 1-174. 1997.

C. scabriflora Swallen (Cortaderia hapalotricha (Pilg.)

Conert)

South America, Ecuador. On páramos, along lakeshore, see Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 25: 715. 1898 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 29(6): 252. 1949, Die Systematik und Anatomie der Arundineae 102-103. 1961, Taxon 32(4): 633-634. 1983.

C. selloana (Schultes & Schultes f.) Asch. & Graebner (Arundo dioeca Spreng., nom. illeg., non Arundo dioica Lour.; Arundo dioica Spreng., nom. illeg., non Arundo

dioica Lour.; Arundo kila Spreng. ex Steud.; Arundo sell-oana Schult. & Schult.f; Arundo selloana (Schultes & Schultes f.) Asch. & Graebner; Cortaderia araucana Stapf; Cortaderia argentea (Nees) Stapf; Cortaderia dioica (Spreng.) Speg.; Cortaderia dioica Speg.; Cortaderia quila (Molina) Stapf; Gynerium argenteum Nees; Gynerium dioicum (Spreng.) Dallière; Gynerium purpureum Carrière; Moorea araucana (Stapf) Stapf; Moorea argentea (Nees) Lem.) (after the German gardener Friedrich Sellow (Sello), 1789-1831 (d. by drowning), botanical explorer, naturalist, plant collector in Brazil and Uruguay, in Brazil with the German botanist Maximilian Alexander Philipp zu WiedNeuwied (1782-1867); see M.A.P. zu Wied-Neuwied, Reise nach Brasilien in den Jahren 1815 bis 1817. Frankfurt a.M. 1820-1821; R. Zander, F. Encke, G. Buchheim and S. Sey-bold, Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen. 14. Aufl. 779. Stuttgart 1993; J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 3: 259. 1965; A. Lasègue, Musée botanique de Benjamin Delessert. Paris 1845; Günther Schmid, Chamisso als Naturforscher. Eine Bibliographie. Leipzig 1942; Gordon Douglas Rowley, A History of Succulent Plants. Strawberry Press, Mill Valley, California 1997; W.G. Herter & S.J. Rambo, “Nas pegadas dos naturalistas Sellow e Saint-Hilaire.” Revista Sudamericana de Botánica. 10, 3: 61-98. 1953)

Temperate central South America. Perennial, dioecious or gynodioecious, densely tufted, robust, erect and stout, large and dense, leaf sheaths hairless or sparsely hairy, arching leaves narrow and glaucous to dull green, sharp leaf edges, white to pink-purplish panicle oblong to pyramidal, the female spikelets silky-hairy, the male spikelets glabrous, spikelets solitary, glumes more or less equal, lemmas soft, large amount of seeds, seeds formed on hermaphrodite plants, reproductive system mainly dioecious, noxious weed species naturalized elsewhere, ornamental, specimen lawn grass, often cultivated, many varieties of pampas grass are available for use in the landscape, tolerant of maritime exposure, growing in fertile well-drained loamy soils, depressions, damp places, wetter places, wastelands and disturbed areas, dry soils, roadsides, railway lines, sand dunes, disturbed forest, along stream banks, scrubland, on riverbanks and mountains, open rocky sites, moist sandy soils, see Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 1: 361. 1825, Mantissa 3(Add. 1): 605. 1827, Flora Brasiliensis seu Enumeratio Plantarum 2: 462. 1829, Nomenclator Botanicus edition 2 1: 144. 1840, L’Illustration horticole 2: Misc. 14-15. 1855, Revue Horticole 419. 1866, Gardener’s Chronicle, ser. 3 22(571): 396. 1897 and Synopsis der mitteleuropäischen Flora 2(1): 325. 1900, Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires 7: 194. 1902, Gardener’s Chronicle, ser. 3 34: 400. 1903, Bol. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Chile 27: 220. 1959, Taxon 23: 596, 599, 601. 1974, Proc. 37th N.Z. Weed and Pest Control Conf. 187-190. 1984, N.Z. J. Forest. Sci. 20: 176-183. 1990, Timmins, Susan M. & Ian W. Mackenzie. Weeds in New Zealand Protected Natural Areas Database. Wellington, New Zealand. Department of Conservation, Technical Series no. 8: 71-73. 1995, John G. Lambrinos, “The expansion history of a sexual and asexual species of Cortaderia in California, USA” Journal of Ecology 89(1): 88-98. Feb 2001.

in English: pampas grass, silver pampas grass, Uruguayan pampas grass

in South Africa: pampasgras, silwergras

in Mexico: plum de las pampas

C. sericantha (Steud.) Hitchc. (Danthonia jubata Sodiro;

Danthonia sericantha Steud.)

Colombia, Ecuador, Peru. Perennial, tussocky, low, erect, caespitose, woody, robust, foliage spreading and stiff, leaf sheaths densely hairy, ligule a dense rim of white hairs, leaf base waxy, leaf blades tapering to a sharp point at the apex, short dense panicle contracted, panicle branches densely long hairy, 2-3 florets and a rudiment, dry areas, along roads, slopes, swampy areas, wet soils, near lakes and on lakeshores, along streams, wet páramos, boggy plains, see Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 246. 1854 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 24(8): 348. 1927, Revista del Colégio Nacional Vicente Rocafuerte 12: 91. 1930, Taxon 23: 602. 1974, Taxon 32(4): 633-634. 1983.

C. speciosa (Nees & Meyen ex Nees) Stapf (Cortaderia speciosa (Nees & Meyen) Stapf; Gynerium argenteum var. strictum E. Desv.; Gynerium speciosum Nees & Meyen ex Nees; Gynerium speciosum Nees & Meyen; Moorea speciosa (Nees & Meyen ex Nees) Stapf; Moorea speciosa (Nees & Meyen) Stapf)

Chile, Argentina, Bolivia. Caespitose, leaves mainly basal, ligules ciliate, leaf blades linear, panicle oblong, lemmas densely pilose mucronate or shortly awned, see Flora Brasiliensis seu Enumeratio Plantarum 2: 462. 1829, Gramineae 21. 1841, Nova Acta Phys.-Med. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 19(Suppl. 1): 153. 1843, Flora Chi-lena 6: 328. 1854, Gardener’s Chronicle, ser. 3 22(571): 396. 1897 and Gardener’s Chronicle, ser. 3 34: 400. 1903, Taxon 23: 603. 1974, Darwiniana 33: 51. 1995.

in Spanish: cortadera

C. splendens Connor

New Zealand. Robust tussock, green, coarse, tall, hairy, rhizomatous with long stout rhizomes, leaf sheath densely hairy, contra-ligule present, leaf blade flexible, plumose inflorescence erect or nodding, seed heads compact and pale brown, glumes equal, occurs in coastal sand dunes and cliff faces, sand hills, rocks, see New Zealand Journal of Botany 9(3): 519. 1971, Taxon 23: 595-605. 1974, New Zealand Journal of Botany 29: 117-129. 1991.

in New Zealand: toetoe

C. toetoe Zotov New Zealand. Robust tussock, green, coarse, tall, erect, hairy, waxy, ivory glabrous sheath, stiff leaf blades, sharp leaves, large plumose panicle, erect seed heads creamy white, glumes equal, pioneer grass, attracts birds, weaving material, anti-inflammatory uses, occurs in dry to boggy conditions, wetlands, damp and dry soils, coastal and inland, swamps, roadsides and clearings, poor soils, see New Zealand Journal of Botany 1: 85. 1963.

in New Zealand: toetoe, native toetoe, kakaho

C. trianae Stapf ex Conert (Cortaderia bifida Pilg.) (for the Colombian (b. Zipaquirá) botanist José Jerónimo (or Gerónimo) Triana, 1834-1890 (d. Paris), traveler, plant collector, botanical explorer, his writings include Nuevos jeneros i especies de plantas para la flora Neo-Granadina. Bogotá 1854 and Prodromus florae Novogranatensis. Paris 1862-1867; see Enrique Pérez Arbeláez, in D.S.B. 13: 463-464. 1981; J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 3: 400. 1965)

Colombia. Pistillate, see Botanische Jahrbücher für System-atik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 37: 374-375. 1906, Mededeelingen van’s Rijks-Herbarium 40: 67. 1921, Die Systematik und Anatomie der Arundineae 100-101. 1961.

C. turbaria H.E. Connor

New Zealand, Chatham Islands. Vulnerable endangered species, perennial, tall, stout, tussock-forming, leaf sheath densely hairy, leaf blade pointed, leaves narrow and scabrid, dense plumose inflorescence, branched panicles, spikelets with 2 hermaphrodite florets, all flowers hermaphrodite, glumes more or less equal, occurs in peaty swamps, stream margins, see New Zealand Journal of Botany 25(1): 167. 1987.

in New Zealand: Chatham Island toetoe, Chatham Island toitoi

C. vaginata Swallen

South America, Colombia, Brazil. See Sellowia 7: 9. 1956.

Corycarpus Spreng. = Diarrhena P. Beauv., Korycarpus Lag., Korycarpus Zea ex Lag.

Orth. var. Korycarpus, from the Greek korys, korythos “a helmet” and karpos “fruit.”

Pooideae, Diarrheneae, see Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 1: 123. 1824 and Flora of the Prairies and Plains of Central North America 114. 1932, E.D. Merrill, Index rafinesquianus. The plant names published by C.S. Rafinesque, etc. 75. Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, U.S. 1949, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 118: 128-136. 1991 [A revision of Diarrhena (Poaceae) in the U.S.], Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 238, 269, 419. 2003.

Corynephorus P. Beauv. = Anachortus Jirásek & Chrtek, Weingaertneria Bernh.

From the Greek koryne “a club” and phoros “bearing, carrying,” phero, phoreo “to bear,” alluding to the extraordinary awns.

About 5 species, Iran, Europe, Mediterranean. Pooideae, Poodae, Aveneae, or Pooideae, Poeae, Airinae, annual or perennial, tufted, herbaceous, leaf blades narrow linear, auricles absent, ligule an unfringed membrane, plants bisexual, open or contracted panicle, spikelets 2-flowered, hairs at the base of the floret, 2 glumes subequal, lower glume 1-nerved, upper glume 1- to 3-nerved, lemmas membranous and rounded, basal awns with twisted column, awns with a ring of hairs, palea present, 2 free and membranous lodicules, 3 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, open habitats, in sandy places, on dunes, often coastal, type Corynephorus canescens (L.) P. Beauv., see Species Plantarum 61-63, 65, 79-81. 1753, Johann Jacob Bernhardi (1774-1850), System-atisches Verzeichnis 23, 51. Erfurt 1800, Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 90, 149, 159. 1812 and Catalogo de la flora del Rif oriental ... 128. 1933, Preslia 34: 383. 1962, Zlaki SSSR 291. 1976, Lagascalia 15: 119-124. 1988, Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana, ser. 2 64: 35-74. 1991, Bothalia 26(1): 53-61. 1996 [Cytogenetic studies in some representatives of the subfamily Pooideae (Poaceae) in South Africa. 1. The tribe Aveneae, subtribe Aveninae.], Journal of Ecology 87(2): 258-264. Mar 1999, Journal of Ecology 88(4): 709-726. Aug 2000, Journal of Ecology 89(2): 300-303. Apr 2001, Plant, Cell and Environment 25(5): 601-608. May 2002, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 109, 239, 694. 2003, Elizabeth A. Kellogg and Jeffrey L. Bennetzen, “The evolution of nuclear genome structure in seed plants.” Am. J. Bot. 91: 1709-1725. 2004, Weed Research 44(2): 117-128. Apr 2004, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 147(4): 501-508. Apr 2005, Journal of Ecology 93(2): 441-470. Apr 2005.

Species

C. aetnensis C. Presl ex Schult. (Aira aetnensis (C. Presl ex Schult.) Guss.)

Europe. See Mantissa 3: 641. 1827, Giovanni Gussone (1787-1866), [Floræ siculæ prodromus, etc.] Supplementum. Neapoli 1832. C. canescens (L.) P. Beauv. (Agrostis canescens (L.) Salisb.; Aira canescens L.; Aira variegata St.-Amans; Avena cane-scens (L.) Web. ex Wigg.; Corynephorus canescens var. andinus Hack. ex Sodiro; Corynephorus incanescens Bubani; Weingaertneria canescens (L.) Bernh.)

Europe. See Primitiae Florae Holsaticae 9. 1780, Prodromus stirpium in horto ad Chapel Allerton vigentium. 25. 1796, Systematisches Verzeichnis 51. 1800, Flora Agenaise 32. 1821, Anales de la Universidad Central del Ecuador 3(25): 481. 1889 and Flora Pyrenaea ... 4: 311. 1902, Anal.

Bot. Cavanilles 13: 173. 1955, Acta Botanica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 17(1-2): 121. 1971[1972], Rivasgodaya 6: 166. 1991, Taxon 49(2): 244. 2000.

in French: corynephorus en touffe

in Morocco: bousibouss, hamra

C. divaricatus (Pourret) Breistr. (Aira articulata Desf.; Aira caryophyllea var. divaricata (Pourret) Asch. & Graebn., nom. illeg., non Aira caryophyllea var. divaricata Bréb.; Aira caryophyllea var. divaricata (Pourret) Druce, nom. illeg., non Aira caryophyllea var. divaricata Bréb.; Aira divaricata Pourret; Anachortus articulatus (Desf.) Jir. & Chrtek; Anachortus divaricatus (Pourret) M. Laínz; Anachortus divaricatus subsp. articulatus (Desf.) M. Laínz; Corynephorus articulatus (Desf.) P. Beauv.; Corynephorus divaricatus subsp. articulatus (Desf.) Lainz)

Europe, Algeria. See Flora Atlantica 1: 70, t. 13. 1798, Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 159. 1812, Synopsis der mitteleuropäischen Flora 2: 282. 1899 and Bull. Soc. Bot. France 119: 237. 1952, Preslia 34: 383. 1962, M. Lainz, “Aportaciones al conocimiento de la flora gallega, viii.” Comun. I.N.I.A., no. 2, 26 p. 1974.

C. fasciculatus Boiss. & Reut. (Aira fascicularis (Boiss. & Reut.) Steud.; Anachortus fasciculatus (Boiss. & Reut.) V. Jirásek & Chrtek; Corynephorus gracilis (Desf.) K. Richt.; Weingaertneria gracilis (Desf.) Asch. & Graebn.)

Europe. Annual, solitary or tufted, useful for erosion control, see Pugillus Plantarum Novarum Africae Borealis Hispaniaeque Australis 123. 1852, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 219. 1854 and Preslia 34: 383. 1962.

Costia Willk. = Agropyron Gaertn.

For the Spanish (Catalan) botanist Antonio Cipriano Costa y Cuxart, 1817-1886, see M. Colmeiro y Penido, La Botánica y los Botánicos de la Peninsula Hispano-Lusitana. Madrid 1858 and J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 1: 385. 1965, T.W. Bossert, Biographical dictionary of botanists represented in the Hunt Institute portrait collection. 85. 1972.

Pooideae, Triticodae, Triticeae, or Pooideae, Triticeae, Hordeinae, see Species Plantarum 1: 78. 1753, Botanische Zeitung. Berlin 16: 377. 1858, Botanische Zeitung. Berlin 18: 131. 1860 and Phytologia 83(5): 345-365. 1997, Flora Mediterranea 8: 307-313. 1998, Opera Botanica 137: 1-42. 1999, Newslett. Int. Organ. Pl. Biosyst. (Oslo) 30: 10-15. 1999, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 25-42, 239. 2003.

Cottea Kunt

For the German patron of science Johann Georg Cotta von Cottendorf, 1796-1863.

One species, America, southern U.S., Argentina. Chloridoideae, Pappophoreae, or Chloridoideae, Eragrostideae, Cotteinae, perennial, loosely caespitose, herbaceous, erect or ascending or geniculate, unarmed, branched, internodes solid, tuberous, auricles absent, leaf sheaths villous to pilose, hidden cleistogenes in the basal leaf sheaths, glandular leaves not pungent, ligule fringed, plants bisexual, cleistogamous or chasmogamous, inflorescence paniculate, panicles open or narrow or contracted, spikelets pubescent and pedicellate, 4-8 florets and a rudiment, female-fertile lemmas irregularly lobed, 2 glumes subequal, lemmas awned, 7-13 awns antrorsely barbed, palea keels ciliate, 2 lodicules, 3 stamens, ovary glabrous, cleistogenes within the lower sheaths, rachilla disarticulating between florets, open habitats, steppes, plains, dry areas, hills, coastal lowland, type Cottea pappophoroides Kunth, see Révision des Graminées 1: 84. 1829 and Ecología en Bolivia 34: 45-70. 2000, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 41: 56. 2001.

Species

C. pappophoroides Kunth

Mexico, Peru. Perennial, more or less pubescent, wiry, knotty base with cleistogenes, leaf sheaths furrowed, leaf blades linear, panicle ovate-lanceolate, spikelets ovate and awned, glumes lanceolate and awned, ornamental, forage.

in English: cotta grass, cottea

in Mexico: cotea, pelucilla

Craepalia Schrank = Lolium L.

Pooideae, Poeae, Loliinae, type Craepalia temulenta (L.) Schrank, see Species Plantarum 1: 83. 1753, Observations sur les Graminées de la Flore Belgique 97, 99. 1823 [1824], Baiersche Flora 1: 102, 382. 1789 and Grasses of Ceylon 45. 1956, Techn. Bull. U.S.D.A. (or U.S. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull., or Technical Bulletin, Unites States Department of Agriculture) 1392: 1-65. 1968, Dominguezia 1: 1-23. 1978, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 108: 408. 1992, Novon 3(3): 239-243. 1993, Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica 41(2): 521-536. 1996, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 239, 426-431. 2003.

Craspedorhachis Benth

From the Greek kraspedon “a fringe, border” and rhachis “rachis, axis, midrib of a leaf.”

About 2-5/6 species, southern tropical Africa, North and South America. Chloridoideae, Chlorideae, perennial, herbaceous, unarmed, often stoloniferous or shortly rhizomatous, auricles absent, ligule fringed, plants bisexual, inflorescence with several racemes more or less digitate, spikelets dorsally compressed, 2 glumes subequal and membranous, lower glume keeled, upper glume deciduous and rounded, lemma obtuse, palea present, lemma and palea hairy or glabrous, 2 fleshy lodicules, ovary glabrous, open habitats, sandy savannah, on sand dunes, sandy soils, sandy loam, similar to Willkommia and Microchloa, type Craspedorhachis africana Benth., see Fragmenta Botanica 77. 1809, Tentamen Florae Abyssinicae ... 2: 409. 1850, Hooker’s Icones Plantarum 14: 58, t. 1377. 1882, Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins für die Provinz Brandenburg und die angrenzenden Länder 30: 145. 1888 and Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier, sér. 2, 1: 770. 1901, Botanical Gazette 35: 283, f. 1-2. 1903, Physis. Revista de la Sociedad Argentina de Ciencias Naturales 8: 78. 1925, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 74: 27. 1947, Grasses and Pastures of South Africa 205, f. 182. 1955, Notulae Systematicae. Herbier du Museum de Paris 15(2): 134. 1956, Adansonia, sér. 2, 8: 515. 1968.

Species

C. africana Benth.

Tropical Africa. Perennial, tufted, erect, rhizomatous, lemma and palea hairy, considered rare in South Africa, see Hooker’s Icones Plantarum 14: 58, t. 1377. 1882.

C. africana Benth. var. madecassa A. Camus

Madagascar. See Notulae Systematicae. Herbier du Museum de Paris 15: 135. 1956.

C. digitata Kupicha & Cope

Zimbabwe. See Kew Bulletin 40(4): 89-90. 1985.

C. rhodesiana Rendle

Africa. Perennial, tufted, erect, lemma and palea glabrous, common on sand dunes, along dry river beds, see Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 40: 233, t. 5, f. 5-13. 1911.

C. rhodesiana Rendle var. gracilior C.E. Hubb.

Africa. See Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1949: 36. 1949.

Crassipes Swallen = Sclerochloa P. Beauv.

From the Latin crassus, a, um “thick” and pes, pedis “foot,” thick-footed or thick-stemmed.

Pooideae, Poeae, Puccinelliinae, type Crassipes annuus Swallen, see Species Plantarum 1: 72. 1753, Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 97-98, 174, 177. 1812, Aug Pyrami de Candolle Botanicon Gallicum 1: 522. 1828 and Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 10: 2. 1906, American Journal of Botany 18(8): 684-685, f. 1-4. 1931, Journal of Cytology and Genetics 21: 155. 1986, D.M. Brandenburg, J.R. Estes & J.W. Thieret, “Hard Grass (Sclerochloa dura, Poaceae) in the United States.” Sida. 14(3): 369-376. 1991, Cytologia 56: 437-452. 1991, Flora Mediterranea 8: 307-313. 1998,

Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 239, 608-609. 2003.

Cremopyrum Schur = Eremopyrum (Ledeb.) Jaub. & Spach

Greek kremao “to hang” and pyros “grain, wheat.”

Pooideae, Triticeae, Hordeinae, see Enumeratio Plantarum Transsilvaniae 807-808. 1866 and Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 311-312. 2003.

Criciuma Soderstr. & Londoño = Bambusa Schreber, Eremocaulon Soderstr. & Londoño

A vernacular name, or perhaps from krikion, the diminutive of the Greek krikos “ring, armlet.”

One species, Brazil. Bambusoideae, Bambuseae, Guaduinae, woody, solid, vinelike, hard, erect, pendent, loosely clumped, shortly rhizomatous, foliage leaf with asymmetrical central midnerve, inflorescence terminal, elongate pseudospikelets, florets linear-lanceolate, 3 lodicules, 6 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 plumose stigmas, type Criciuma asymmetrica Soderstr. & Londoño, see American Journal of Botany 74(1): 27-39. 1987 [2 new genera of Brazilian bamboos related to Guadua (Poaceae: Bambusoideae: Bambuseae.], Emmet J. Judziewicz et al., American Bamboos 234-238. 1999, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 39: 29-35, 54-55. 2000, Systematic Botany 27(4): 703-721. 2002.

Species

C. asymmetrica Soderstr. & Londoño (Eremocaulon asymmetricum (Soderstr. & Londoño) Londoño)

Brazil. Climbing, ascending, culm leaves with reflexed blades, pseudospikelets linear-lanceolate, sandy places, forests, see American Journal of Botany 74(1): 35, f. 1, 2, 5a, 5b. 1987, Systematic Botany 27(4): 711-714, f. 4-5. 2002.

Crinipes Hochst.

Latin crinis “hair” and pes “foot,” referring to the awn.

Two species, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda. Arundineae, or Arundinoideae, Danthonieae, perennial, herbaceous, caespitose, tussocky, auricles absent, leaves basal, ligule fringed or a ciliate rim, tough leaf blades narrowly linear to linear-lanceolate, plants bisexual, inflorescence panicu-late, panicle oblong to ovate to elliptic-oblong, spikelets flattened and oblong, 2- to 3-flowered, 2 unequal glumes acuminate or shortly awned, floret callus bearded, lemmas membranous entire or toothed, long awn straight or flexuous, palea glabrous, 2 free lodicules glabrous, 3 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, moist places, moist rock, type Crinipes abyssinicus (Hochst. ex A. Braun) Hochst., see Flore Française. Troisième Édition 3: 32. 1805, Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae 185. 1810, Flora 24: 20. 1841, Flora 38: 279-280. 1855 and Kew Bulletin 1934: 200. 1934, Kew Bulletin 1935: 306. 1935, Kew Bulletin 12: 51-52, 54-58. 1957, Bothalia 9: 134. 1966.

Species

C. abyssinicus (Hochst. ex A. Braun) Hochst. (Danthonia abyssinica Hochst. ex A. Braun; Danthonia tenuiglumis Steud.; Triraphis abyssinica (Hochst. ex A. Braun) Nees ex Engl.)

Abyssinia. Perennial, tough, pendulous, forming large dense tussocks, panicle narrowly oblong, glumes linear-lanceolate, see Flora 24(45): 712. 1841, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 244. 1854, Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Berlin 2(1): 132. 1891 [1892].

C. longifolius C.E. Hubb.

Abyssinia. Perennial, coarse, pendulous, forming large dense tussocks, glumes lanceolate, lemmas lanceolate-oblong, see Kew Bulletin 1935(5): 306-307. 1935.

Critesion Raf. = Hordeum L.

Greek crithe, Akkadian qaritum, qiritu “granary, store room,” Hebrew qorah “beam, roof,” see Journal de Physique, de Chimie, d’Histoire Naturelle et des Arts 89: 103. 1819.

About 35 species, temperate regions. Pooideae, Triticodae, Triticeae, or Pooideae, Triticeae, Hordeinae, annual or perennial, tufted, herbaceous, leaf sheath membranous, ligule membranous, auricles present or absent, plants bisexual, flowers in dense and narrow spike-like raceme, spikelets in triads at each node, lateral spikelets usually smaller or incomplete or male, central spikelet usually hermaphrodite, rachis fragile, glumes 2, lemma of central spikelet rigid and awned or unarmed, lemmas of lateral florets usually reduced, palea nerved, 2 lodicules, stamens 3, ovary with hairy corona, tolerant of saline soils, growing in dry soils, sandy places, rather moist habitats, salty sites, there is considerable taxonomic confusion concerning this genus, formerly included in Hordeum L. as subgen., type Critesion geniculatum Raf., see Species Plantarum 1: 84-85. 1753, Journal de Physique, de Chimie, d’Histoire Naturelle et des Arts 89: 103. 1819 and Canad. J. Bot. 37: 679. 1959, Nord. J. Bot. 9: 1-10. 1989, Plant Systematics and Evolution 189: 217-231. 1994, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 247. 1994, Nordic Journal of Botany 14(2): 117-136. 1994 [A taxonomic revision of Hordeum sect. Critesion.], Annals of Botany 73: 195-203. 1994, Nord. J. Bot. 15: 449-458. 1995, Systematic Botany 21(2): 3-15. 1996, Canadian Journal of Botany 78(12): 1590-1602. 2000, Plant, Cell and Environment 24(6): 585-596. June 2001, J.W. Morgan, “Seedling recruitment patterns over 4 years in an Australian perennial grassland community with different fire histories.” Journal of Ecology 89(6): 908-919. Dec 2001, M.P. McDonald, N.W. Galwey and T.D. Colmer, “Similarity and diversity in adventitious root anatomy as related to root aeration among a range of wetland and dryland grass species.” Plant, Cell and Environment 25(3): 441-451. Mar 2002, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 239-241, 389-402. 2003, Ecological Management and Restoration 4(1): 5-12. Apr 2003, Plant, Cell and Environment 26(1): 17-36. Jan 2003, Am. J. Bot. 91: 1789-1801. 2004, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 147(4): 501-508. Apr 2005, Ecological Management and Restoration 6(1): 61-67. Apr 2005.

Species

C. glaucum (Steud.) Á. Löve (Critesion murinum subsp. glaucum (Steud.) B.K. Simon, nom. illeg., non Critesion murinum subsp. glaucum (Steud.) W.A. Weber; Hordeum glaucum Steud.; Hordeum murinum subsp. glaucum (Steud.) Tzvelev)

Mediterranean, southwestern Asia. Annual, loosely tufted, erect or geniculate, auricles glabrous, leaf sheath more or less inflated, ligule membranous and truncate, erect racemes, central spikelet hermaphrodite with glabrous pedicels, lateral spikelets male or sterile with shortly pubescent pedicels, erect and spreading awns, pasture species, a widespread weed of disturbed sites, waste ground, grazed woodlands and shrublands, host to several cereal diseases, its sharp seeds can enter the eyes and skin of sheep, see Species Plantarum 1: 85. 1753, Linnaea 9(1): 133. 1834, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 352. 1854 and Novosti Sist. Vyss. Rast. 8: 67. 1971, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 72(2): 150. 1976, Taxon 29(2/3): 350. 1980, Phytologia 51(6): 374. 1982, Feddes Repertorium 95: 440. 1984, Austrobaileya 2(3): 241. 1986.

in English: barley grass

C. hystrix (Roth) Á. Löve (Hordeum geniculatum All.; Hordeum hystrix Roth)

Mediterranean, southwestern Asia. Annual, often decumbent, closely tufted, auricles absent, ligule truncate, leaf sheath pilose, raceme erect, lateral spikelets sterile, central hermaphrodite spikelet sessile, glumes more or less equal, in saline flats, see Flora Pedemontana 2: 259, 3: t. 91, f. 3. 1785, Catalecta Botanica 1: 23. 1797 and Feddes Repertorium 95(7-8): 440. 1984.

in English: Mediterranean barley grass, Mediterranean barley

C. jubatum (L.) Nevski (Hordeum jubatum L.)

North America. Perennial, erect or geniculate below, loosely tufted, auricles absent, ligule truncate, sheath of uppermost leaf inflated, plume-like nodding racemes dense-flowered, central hermaphrodite spikelet sessile, lateral spikelets sterile, glumes subequal, lemma of lateral spikelets much reduced, along roadsides, see Species Plantarum 1: 85. 1753 and Flora URSS 2: 721. 1934, Canadian Journal of Botany 40: 1690. 1962, Botaniska Notiser 128(4): 503. 1975[1976].

in English: squirrel tail grass

C. marinum (Huds.) Á. Löve (Hordeum marinum Huds.)

Eurasia. Annual, loosely tufted, stiff, auricles absent, lodicules ciliate, see Flora Anglica, Editio Altera 1: 57. 1778, Flora Palermitana 1: 246. 1845 and Taxon 29(2/3): 350. 1980, American Journal of Botany 72(5): 772. 1985, M.P. Mcdonald, N.W. Galwey and T.D. Colmer, “Waterlogging tolerance in the tribe Triticeae: the adventitious roots of Critesion marinum have a relatively high porosity and a barrier to radial oxygen loss.” Plant, Cell and Environment 24(6): 585-596. June 2001.

C. murinum (L.) Á. Löve (Hordeum murinum L.)

Europe. Annual, loosely tufted, clasping auricles, ligule ciliate, oblong racemes dense-flowered. Central bisexual spikelet sessile or pedicelled, lateral spikelets male or sterile, in wasteland, along rodasides, see Species Plantarum 1: 85. 1753, Linnaea 9(1): 133. 1834, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 352. 1854 and Taxon 29(2/3): 350. 1980, Phytologia 51(6): 374. 1982, Austrobaileya 2(3): 241. 1986.

C. murinum (L.) Á. Löve subsp. leporinum (Link) Á. Löve

Europe, Mediterranean, Asia. See Linnaea 9(1): 133. 1834, Comp. Fl. Ital. 805. 1882 and Taxon 29(2/3): 350. 1980.

in English: barley grass

C. murinum (L.) Á. Löve subsp. murinum

Europe. See Species Plantarum 1: 85. 1753 and Taxon 29(2/3): 350. 1980.

C. secalinum (Schreb.) Á. Löve (Hordeum secalinum Schreb.)

Europe, Africa. Perennial, erect or geniculate, loosely tufted, sheath of uppermost leaf appressed to culm, dense-flowered raceme, glumes subequal, see Spicilegium Florae Lipsicae 148. 1771 and Taxon 29(2/3): 350. 1980.

Critho E. Meyer = Hordeum L.

From the Greek krithe “barley-corn, barley.”

Pooideae, Triticodae, Triticeae, or Pooideae, Triticeae, Hordeinae, see Species Plantarum 1: 84-85. 1753, Illustrations of the Botany ... of the Himalayan Mountains ... 1(11): 418. 1839 [1840], Index Sem. Hort. Regiomont. 5. 1848 and Canad. J. Bot. 37: 679. 1959, Plant Systematics and Evolution 189: 217-231. 1994, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 247. 1994, Nordic Journal of Botany 14(2): 117-136. 1994 [A taxonomic revision of Hordeum sect. Critesion.], Annals of Botany 73: 195-203. 1994, Systematic Botany 21(2): 3-15.

1996, Canadian Journal of Botany 78(12): 1590-1602. 2000, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 241, 389-402. 2003.

Crithodium Link = Triticum L.

Greek krithe “barley-corn, barley,” krithidion “decoction of barley, a little barley.”

Pooideae, Triticeae, Triticinae, type Crithodium aegilopoides Link, see Species Plantarum 1: 85-87. 1753, Species Plantarum, Editio Secunda 127. 1762, Linnaea 9(1): 132, pl. 3, f. 1-5. 1834, Oekonomisch-technische Flora Böhmens 1: 425. 1836, Annales des Sciences Physiques et Naturelles, d’Agriculture et de l’Industrie, Publiées par la Société Royale d’Agriculture, etc., de Lyon. 5: 103-196, pl. 2-10. 1842 [Descriptions et figures des céréales européennes], Landwirthschaftliche Flora 335-336. 1866, Botanisches Centralblatt 73: 339. 1898 and Flora URSS 2: 677. 1934, A. Prati, Vocabolario etimologico italiano. Torino 1951, Feddes Repert. 95(7-8): 497. 1984, Taxon 35: 144-149. 1986, Wageningen Agricultural University Papers 94-7: 1-512. 1994, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 241, 676-684. 2003.

Crithopsis Jaub. & Spac

Resembling Critho, Greek krithe “barley-corn, barley” and opsis “aspect, appearance, resemblance.”

One species, Libya, Iran, Crete. Pooideae, Triticodae, Triticeae, annual, herbaceous, caespitose, auricles present, leaf blades acuminate, ligule an unfringed membrane, plants bisexual, inflorescence spiciform, raceme narrowly oblong, raceme rhachis fragile, 2-flowered, upper floret rudimentary, spikelets paired and flattened laterally, 2 linear glumes subequal, lemma rounded on back and awned, palea present, 2 free and membranous lodicules, 3 stamens, ovary hairy, 2 stigmas, type Crithopsis rhachitricha Jaub., see Species Plantarum 1: 83-85. 1753, Illustrationes Plantarum Orientalium 4: 30, t. 321. 1851, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 2(2): 88. 1887 and Nordic Journal of Botany 13: 481-493. 1993 [Taxonomic studies in some annual genera of the Triticeae (Poaceae)].

Species

C. delileana (Schult.) Roshev. (Agropyron cretense Coustur. & Gand.; Crithopsis brachytricha Walp.; Crithopsis rhachitricha Jaub.; Elymus arenarius subsp. geniculatus (Curtis) Husn.; Elymus delileanus Schult.; Elymus geniculatus Delile; Elymus geniculatus Curtis; Elymus rhachitrichus Hochst. ex Kotschy; Eremopyrum cretense (Coustur. & Gand.) Nevski; Hordeum delileanum Hack.; Hordeum geniculatum (Delile) Thell., nom. illeg., non Hordeum geniculatum All.)

North Africa. See Description de l’Égypte, ... Histoire Naturelle, Tom. Second 174, t. 13, f. 1. 1812, Mantissa 2: 424. 1824, Annales des Sciences Naturelles; Botanique, sér. 3 14: 360. 1851, Graminées. Descriptions ... France, Belgique, Isles Britanniques, Suisse 76. 1899 and Flora Cretica 107. 1916, Nord. J. Bot. 13: 484. 1993.

Crithopyrum Steud. = Elymus L.

From the Greek krithe “barley-corn, barley” and pyros “grain, wheat.”

Pooideae, Triticodae, Triticeae, or Pooideae, Triticeae, Hordeinae, in syn. sub Triticum trachycaulum Link, see Species Plantarum 1: 83-84. 1753, Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Imperalis Petropolitanae 14(1): 539. 1770, Hortus Regius Botanicus Berolinensis 2: 189. 1833, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 344. 1854 and The Canadian Field-Naturalist 45: 201. 1931, Rhodora 56(662): 28. 1954, Canad. J. Bot. 42: 554. 1964, Feddes Repert. 95: 425-521. 1984 [Conspectus of the Triticeae.], Taxon 41: 562-563. 1992, Taxon 44: 611-612. 1995, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 241, 279-307. 2003.

Crossotropis Stapf = Trichoneura Andersson

From the Greek krossos “a fringe” and tropis “keel, the keel of a vessel.”

Chloridoideae, Eragrostideae, Eleusininae, or Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae, type Crossotropis grandiglumis (Nees) Rendle, see Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae 182. 1810, Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 80. 1812, Kongliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar 1853: 148. 1855, Flora Capensis 7: 317. 1898, Catalogue of the African Plants Collected by Dr. F. Welwitsch in 1853-61 2(1): 226. 1899 and Ark. Bot. 11, 9: 1-19. 1912, Grasses and Pastures of South Africa 128. 1955, Boletin de la Sociedad de Biologia de Concepcion 46: 37-39. 1973, Los Generos de Gramineas de America Austral. 1987, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 41: 56, 224. 2001.

Crypsinna Fourn. = Muhlenbergia Schreb.

From the Greek krypto, kryptein “to hide,” krypsis “hiding, suppression.”

Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae, Muhlenbergiinae, type Crypsinna macroura (Kunth) E. Fourn., see Genera Plantarum 44. 1789, Systema Naturae ... editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata 2: 171. 1791, Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 29, 176, 179, t. 8, f. 2, 3. 1812, Mémoires du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle 2: 72. 1815, Mexicanas

Plantas 2: 90. 1886 and P.M. Peterson, “Systematics of the Muhlenbergiinae (Chloridoideae: Eragrostideae).” Grasses: Systematics and Evolution 195-212. 2000, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 41: 56, 143-173. 2001.

Crypsis Aiton = Antitragus Gaertn., Ceytosis Munro, Heleochloa Host ex Roem., Pachea Steud., Pallasia Scop., Pallassia Houtt. (Rutaceae), Pechea Lepeyrouse, Raddia Mazziari, Torgesia Bornm.

Greek krypsis “hiding, suppression,” Greek kryptein “to hide,” perhaps referring to the seeds extruded from the fruits or alluding to the partially hidden inflorescence.

About 7-8 species, Mediterranean, Middle East, China, central Africa. Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae, Sporobolinae, or Chloridoideae, Zoysieae, Sporobolinae, annual, low growing, prostrate or ascending, erect, decumbent, much branched near the base, auricles absent, ligule a line of hairs, leaf blades flat or involute, panicle spiciform cylindrical and more or less exserted, ovoid to capitate inflorescence sometimes partially enclosed by bract-like leaf sheaths, spikelets solitary strongly laterally compressed and keeled sometimes falling entire, floret 1 per spikelet, 2 glumes more or less equal and strongly keeled, glumes narrow acute or shortly awned, lemma membranous acute or shortly awned, palea rarely nerved, lodicules absent, stamens 2-3, ovary glabrous, stigmas 2, often mat-forming, found on wet saline soils, salty plains, seasonally flooded areas, mud, semiarid regions, related to Sporobolus, type Crypsis aculeata (L.) Aiton, see Species Plantarum 1: 42, 54-55, 59-63. 1753, Natuurlijke Historie 2(4): 382. 1775, Introductio ad Historiam Naturalem 72. 1777, William Townsend Aiton (1766-1849), Hortus Kewensis; or, a catalogue ... 1: 48. 1789, De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum... . 2: 7. 1790, Collectanea ad omnem rem botanicam spectantia partim e propriis, partim ex amicorum schedis manuscriptis concinnavit et edidit J.J. Roemer. Turici [Zürich], apud H. Gessnerum, [1806-]1809, Supplément à l’histoire des Plantes des Pyrénées 8. Toulouse 1818, Opuscoli Scientifici 3: 410. 1819, Ionios Anthologia 2: 448. 1834, Nom. Bot.edition 2, 1: 449. 1840, J. Linn. Society Botany 6: 54. 1862 and Mittheilungen der Thüringischen Botanischen Vereins, ser. 2, 30: 83. 1913, Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 17(19-30): 293. 1921, Hooker’s Icones Plantarum 35(3): 1-11, plate 3457. 1947, Fl. Afrique Nord 2: 89. 1953, Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, Zweite Auflage 14d: 62. 1956, Bull. Research Council of Israel 11D: 91-126. 1962, Systematic Botany 4(4): 267-280. 1979, Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana, ser. 2 64: 35-74. 1991, Preslia 64: 193-206. 1992, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 41: 16, 38, 56-57, 127, 177, 181, 191,

220. 2001, Am. J. Bot. 91: 2022-2029. 2004, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 148(1): 57-72. May 2005 [Caryopsis morphology of the Chloridoideae (Gramineae) and its systematic implications].

Species

C. aculeata (L.) Aiton (Agrostis aculeata (L.) Scop.; Schoenus aculeatus L.)

Europe. See Flora Carniolica, Editio Secunda 1: 62. 1771.

C. alopecuroides (Phill. & Mitterp.) Schrad. (Crypsis explicata (Link) F. Herm.; Crypsis phalaroides M. Bieb.; Heleochloa alopecuroides (Pill. & Mitt.) Roem.; Heleochloa alopecuroides (Piller & Mitterp.) Host; Phalaris explicata Link; Phalaris geniculata Sibth. & Sm.; Phleum alopecuroides Piller & Mitterp.)

Europe. See A. Mathias Piller (1733-1788), Iter per Pose-ganam Sclavoniae [Slavoniae] provinciam ... 147, t. 16. Budae [Budapest] 1783, Journal für die Botanik 1: 312. 1799, Icones et Descriptiones Graminum Austriacorum 1: 23, t. 29. 1801, Flora Germanica 1: 167. 1806, Florae Graecae Prodromus 1: 38. 1806, Flora Taurico-Caucasica 1: 45. 1808 and Hercynia 1: 121. 1937, Feddes Repert. 45: 230. 1938.

C. schoenoides (L.) Lam. (Heleochloa schoenoides (L.) Host; Phleum schoenoides L.)

Arabia, Yemen. Annual, tufted, compressed, much branched from the base, prostrate or ascending, spreading in a circle from the root, ligule a ring of hairs, leaves flat acuminate, upper sheaths swollen and open, inflorescence densely capitate, spikelets 1-flowered awnless, spikelets usually partially enclosed by the uppermost leaf sheaths, spikelets densely crowded into sessile ovoid or ellipsoid heads, glumes more or less equal shortly ciliate on the keels, found on wet saline soils, salty plains, coastal, see Species Plantarum 1: 60. 1753, Tableau Encyclopédique et Méthodique ... Botanique 1: 166, t. 42, f. 1. 1791, Icones et Descriptiones Graminum Austriacorum 1: 23, t. 30. 1801.

in English: swamp grass

in India: talaphetar

in Sudan: gogheib

C. vaginiflora (Forssk.) Opiz (Crypsis compacta Steud.; Crypsis niliacea Fig. & De Not.; Crypsis schoenoides (L.) Lam., in part; Heleochloa compacta (Steud.) T. Durand & Schinz; Phalaris vaginiflora Forssk.)

Tropical Africa, Europe. Annual, prostrate, ascending, branched, forming mats or low cushions, leaf blades linear and tough, leaf sheaths slightly inflated and enveloping, inflorescence axillary, glumes and lemma more or less equal, lower glume linear, lemma narrowly lanceolate, palea 2-nerved, grazed, found in damp sites, flooded areas, riverbanks, lake margins, often confused with Crypsis schoenoides (L.) Lam., see Flora Aegyptiaco-Arabica 18. 1775, Naturalientausch 8: 83. 1823, Mémoires de l’Académie Royale des Sciences de Turin 14: 322. 1854, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 151. 1855 [1854], Conspectus Florae Africae 5: 814. 1894.

Cryptochloa Swalle

From the Greek kryptos “hidden” and chloe, chloa “grass, young grass,” referring to the inflorescences.

About 5-8/15 species, Central and South America, Mexico to Brazil. Bambusoideae, Oryzodae, Olyreae or Bambusoideae, Olyreae, Olyrinae, perennial, herbaceous, unarmed, robust, clumped, caespitose, decumbent floriferous culms, leaf blades pseudopetiolate, very short and narrowly oblong 2-ranked leaves, shortly rhizomatous, plants monoecious, inconspicuous inflorescence few-flowered, a terminal and axillary panicle, female spikelets above and male spikelets below, female lemma dorsally compressed, 2 glumes 3- to 5-nerved herbaceous and acute, lemma usually glabrous, palea present, 3 free and fleshy lodicules, stamens 0, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, forest, upland primary forest, on slope along rivers and streams, forest floor, related to Olyra L., type Cryptochloa variana Swallen, see Systema Naturae, Editio Decima 1253, 1261, 1379. 1759, Opuscoli Scientifici 3: 410. 1819, Flora Brasiliensis seu Enumeratio Plantarum 2(1): 298. 1829 and Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 29(4): 317-318, 320-321. 1942, Ceiba 19(1): 1-118. 1975 [Enumeración de las plantas de Honduras.], Brittonia 34: 25-29, 199-209. 1982, American Journal of Botany 70(5): 129-130. 1983, Novon 2(2): 81-110. 1992, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 213-214. 1994, Emmet J. Judziewicz et al., American Bamboos. 267-269. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London 1999, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 39: 53-54. 2000, Ceiba 42(1): 1-71. 2001[2002].

Species

C. capillata (Trin.) Soderstr. (Olyra capillata Trin.; Olyra capillata var. capillata; Olyra capillata var. segregata Döll; Olyra podachne Mez; Raddia capillata (Trin.) Hitchc.)

Brazil. See Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint Pétersbourg. Sixième Série. Sciences Mathématiques, Physiques et Naturelles. Seconde Partie: Sciences Naturelles 3,1(2-3): 114. 1834, Flora Brasiliensis 2(2): 318. 1877 and Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 56(Beibl. 125): 6. 1921, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 24(8): 491. 1927.

C. concinna (Hook.f.) Swallen (Olyra concinna Hook.f.; Raddia concinna (Hook.f.) Chase)

Nicaragua, Guatemala, Mexico, Honduras, Colombia. Fern-like, see Bot. Mag. 122: t. 7469. 1896 and Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 21: 185. 1908, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 29(4): 320. 1942. C. decumbens Soderstr. & Zuloaga

Panama. See Brittonia 37: 29, f. 5. 1985.

C. dressleri Soderstr. (named for the botanist and taxonomist Robert Louis Dressler, born 1927, an orchid specialist at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama, he collected plants throughout the American tropics, among his writings are “Terrestrial plants of Panama.” Bull. Biol. Soc. Washington 2: 179-186. 1972, Phylogeny and Classification of the Orchid Family. Portland, Oregon 1993, Field Guide to the Orchids of Costa Rica and Panama. Ithaca, New York 1993 and “Checklist of the orchids of Panama.” I-XXVI. in Orchids of Panama. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden vol. 4: 1-26. See Genera Orchidacearum: vol.1, edited by: Alec M. Pridgeon, Phillip J. Cribb, Mark W. Chase, Finn Rasmussen. Oxford, Oxford University Press 1999)

Panama. See Brittonia 34(1): 25, f. 1. 1982.

C. soderstromii Davidse

Panama. Clumped, see Novon 2(2): 96, f. 7. 1992.

C. strictiflora (E. Fourn.) Swallen (Cryptochloa granulifera Swallen; Olyra strictiflora (E. Fourn.) Hemsl.; Raddia strictiflora (E. Fourn.) Chase; Strephium strictiflorum E. Fourn.)

Mexico, Ecuador, Costa Rica, Panama. See Bulletin de la Société Botanique de Belgique 15(3): 465. 1876, Biologia Centrali-Americana; ... Botany ... 3(19): 510. 1885 and Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 21: 185. 1908, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 29(4): 321. 1942.

C. unispiculata Soderstr.

Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia. See Brittonia 34(2): 200-202, f. 1. 1982, AAU Reports 24: 1-241. 1990, Systematic Botany 18(1): 80-99. 1993, Ruizia 13: 1-480. 1993.

C. variana Swallen

Panama, Colombia, the Caribbean. See Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 29(4): 318. 1942.

Cryptochloris Benth. = Tetrapogon Desf.

From the Greek kryptos “hidden” plus Chloris.

Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae, type Cryptochloris spathacea (Hochst. ex Steud.) Benth., see Nova Genera et Species Plantarum seu Prodromus 1, 25. 1788, Flora Atlantica 2: 388-389, t. 255. 1799 [1800], Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 204. 1854, Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 19: 106. 1881, Hooker’s Icones Plantarum 14: t. 1376. 1882, Conspectus Florae Africae 5: 864. 1895 and Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, Volume viii, 1 [2], Botany 8(1,5,1): 211. 1904, Annuario del Reale Istituto Botanico di Roma 8(3): 352. 1908, Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 159-163. 1995.

Cryptopyrum Heynh. = Elymus L.

From the Greek kryptos “hidden” and pyros “grain, wheat.”

Pooideae, Triticodae, Triticeae, or Pooideae, Triticeae, Hordeinae, see Species Plantarum 1: 83-84. 1753, Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Imperalis Petropolitanae 14(1): 539. 1770, Hortus Regius Botanicus Berolinensis 2: 190. 1833, Gustav Heynhold (1800- ca. 1860), Nomenclator Botanicus Hortensis oder alphabetische und synonymische ... 2: 174. 1846 and American Journal of Botany 21(3): 131. 1934, Rhodora 56(662): 28. 1954, Canad. J. Bot. 42: 554. 1964, Botaniska Notiser 128(4): 502. 1975 [1976], Feddes Repert. 95: 425-521. 1984 [Conspectus of the Triticeae.], Taxon 41: 562-563. 1992, Taxon 44: 611-612. 1995, Newslett. Int. Organ. Pl. Biosyst. (Oslo) 30: 10-15. 1999, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 241, 279-307. 2003.

Cryptostachys Steud. = Sporobolus R. Br.

From the Greek kryptos “hidden” and stachys “a spike.”

Chloridoideae, Eragrostideae, or Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae, Sporobolinae, type Cryptostachys vaginata Steud., see Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae 169-170. 1810, Flora 33: 229. 1850, Fragmentos de Algunas Plantas Filipinas 25. 1851, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 181. 1854, Nom. Bot. 2: 1274. 1874, Botanical Gazette 21: 15. 1896 and Flora of the Guianas, Series A: Phanerogams 606-615. 1990, Blumea 35(2): 393-458. 1991, American Journal of Botany 81: 622-629. 1994, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 273-276. 1994, Sida 16: 529-544. 1995, Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 78: 509-540. 1996, Australian Systematic Botany 12(3): 375-448. 1999, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 41: 57, 200-219. 2001.

Crypturus Trin. = Lolium L.

From the Greek krypto “to hide” and oura “tail.”

Pooideae, Poeae, Loliinae, type Crypturus loliaceus Link, see Species Plantarum 1: 83. 1753, Linnaea 17(4): 386-387. 1844 and Grasses of Ceylon 45. 1956, Techn. Bull. U.S.D.A. (or U.S. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull., or Technical Bulletin, Unites States Department of Agriculture) 1392: 1-65. 1968, Dominguezia 1: 1-23. 1978, Novon 3(3): 239-243. 1993, Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica 41(2): 521-536. 1996, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 241, 426-431. 2003.

Ctenium Panzer = Aplocera Raf., Campuloa Desv., Campulosus Desv., Kampochloa W.D. Clayton, Monathera Raf., Monocera Elliott, Triatherus Raf.

From ktenion, the diminutive of the Greek kteis, ktenos “a comb,” referring to the arrangement of the spikelets.

About 17-20 species, tropical and subtropical, America and Africa, Madagascar. Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae, perennial or annual, tufted or densely tufted, herbaceous, unarmed, aromatic or not aromatic, leaf sheath usually round, ligule a very short fringed membrane, hard leaves linear or involute, plants bisexual, inflorescence a single unilateral spike sickle-shaped when young and spirally twisted when mature, racemes single or digitate, spikelets strongly compressed laterally, 2 lowermost florets sterile, third floret fertile, fourth floret male or sterile, straight awns, male florets with 2 stamens, 2 glumes very unequal, large upper glume enclosing the florets, fertile lemma entire or bidentate, palea present, 2 lodicules free and fleshy, stamens 3, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, found on moist soils, open habitats, savannah, open grassland, open bushveld, poor dry sandy soils, type Ctenium carolinianum Panz., see Species Plantarum 1: 53-54. 1753, Species Plantarum 2: 1050. 1753, Supplementum Plantarum 13, 114. 1781 [1782], Nova Genera et Species Plantarum seu Prodromus 1, 25. 1788, Syn. Pl. 1: 85. 1805, Nouveau Bulletin des Sciences, publié par la Société Philomatique de Paris 2: 189. 1810, Ideen zu einer künftigen Revision der Gattungen der Gräser. 38, 61. München 1813, Mémoires de la Société d’Agriculture, Sciences et Arts d’Angers 1: 167. 1813, Denkschriften der Bayer[ischen]. Botanischen Gesellschaft in Regensburg 4: 311, t. 13, f. 1-2. 1813 [1814], A Sketch of the Botany of South-Carolina and Georgia 1(2): 176. 1816, American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review 3: 99. 1818, American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review 4: 190. 1819, Medical Flora 2: 193. 1830 and North American Flora 17(8): 579-638. 1939, Kew Bulletin 16: 471-475. 1963, Kew Bulletin 21: 103. 1967, Acta Botanica Brasilica 1: 53-62. 1988, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 290-291. 1994, Journal of Biogeography 26(6): 1307-1321. Nov 1999 [Floristic analysis of vascular plant genera of North America north of Mexico: characteristics of phytogeography.], Journal of Ecology 88(5): 790-800. Oct 2000, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 41: 16, 37, 57-58, 142, 222. 2001, African Journal of Ecology 40(3): 252-259, Sep 2002, Diversity & Distributions 9(1): 73-87. Jan 2003, Journal of Biogeography 31(9): 1445-1461. Sep 2004, Qing Liu, Nan-Xian Zhao, Gang Hao, Xiao-Ying Hu and Yun-Xiao Liu, “Caryopsis morphology of the Chloridoideae (Gramineae) and its systematic implications.” Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 148(1): 57-72. May 2005.

Specie

C. aromaticum (Walter) Alph. Wood (Aegilops aromatica Walter; Aplocera maritima Raf.; Campuloa gracilis Desv.; Campuloa monostachya (Michx.) Roem. & Schult.; Campulosus aromaticus (Walter) Scribn.; Campulosus aromaticus Trin. ex Steud.; Campulosus gangitis (L.) Kuntze; Campulosus gracilior Desv.; Campulosus gracilis Bertol.; Campulosus monostachyus (Michx.) P. Beauv.; Chloris monostachya Michx.; Chloris piperita Michx. ex Steud.; Ctenium americanum Spreng.; Ctenium aromaticum (Walter) Hitchc., nom. illeg., non Ctenium aromaticum (Walter) Alph. Wood; Ctenium carolinianum Panz.; Ctenium gangitum (L.) Druce; Cynodon monostachyos (P. Beauv.) Raspail; Monerma gangitis (L.) Roem. & Schult.; Monocera aromatica (Walter) Elliott; Nardus gangitis L.; Nardus scorpioides Lam.; Rottboellia scorpioides Poir. ex Steud.; Triatherus aromaticus Raf.)

Northern America, U.S., Virginia, Florida. Flowers after fire, see Species Plantarum 53. 1753, Flora Caroliniana, secundum ... 249. 1788, Tableau Encyclopédique et Méthodique ... Botanique 1: 152. 1791, Flora Boreali-Americana 1: 59. 1803, Nouveau Bulletin des Sciences, publié par la Société Philomatique de Paris 2: 189. 1810, Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 64, 157, 158, f. 1. 1812, Journal de Botanique, rédigé par une société de botanistes 69. 1813 [J. Bot. Appl. (Desvaux)], A Sketch of the Botany of South-Carolina and Georgia 1(2): 176. 1816, Systema Vegetabilium 2: 516, 800. 1817, American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review 3: 99. 1818, Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 1: 274. 1825, Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Botanique 5: 303. 1825, Medical Flora 2: 193. 1830, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1: 272, 353. 1840, Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 2: 474. 1841, Memorie della Reale Accademia delle Scienze dell’Istituto di Bologna 2: 602, pl. 43, f. a-c. 1850, A Class-book of Botany 806. 1861, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 764. 1891, Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 5(4): 45. 1894 and Rhodora 8(95): 210. 1906, Botanical Exchange Club of the British Isles. Report 3: 416. 1914.

in English: toothache grass

C. brachystachyum (Nees) Kunth (Campulosus brachystachyus Nees)

Brazil, Paraguay. Solitary racemes, lemmas awnless or shortly awned, see Flora Brasiliensis seu Enumeratio Plantarum 2: 417-418. 1829, Enumeratio Plantarum Omnium Hucusque Cognitarum 1: 275. 1833.

C. brevispicatum J.G. Smith (Campulosus brachystachyus Trin.; Ctenium trinii Ekman)

Brazil. Lemmas awned and ciliate on the margins, see Species Graminum 1828-1836, Botanical Gazette 21: 363. 1896 and Arkiv för Botanik utgivet av K. Svenska Vetenskapsakademien 13(10): 45. 1913.

C. chapadense (Trin.) Döll (Campuloa chapadensis Trin. ex Döll; Campulosus chapadensis Trin.)

Brazil, Bahia. Perennial, wiry, erect, often fibrous at base, leaf blades linear and acuminate, straight or flexuous racemes 1-sided and terminal, spikelets in 2 rows, glabrous glumes conspicuously glandular on the nerves, see Carl B.

Trinius (1778-1844), Species Graminum iconibus et descriptionibus ... Petropoli [St. Petersburg] 1828-1836, Flora Brasiliensis 2(3): 73-74. 1878.

C. cirrosum (Nees) Kunth (Campulosus cirrosus Nees)

America. See Flora Brasiliensis seu Enumeratio Plantarum 2: 416-417. 1829, Révision des Graminées 2: 445, t. 136. 1831.

C. concinnum Nees (Ctenium concinnum var. indutum Pilg.; Ctenium minus (Pilg.) Clayton)

South Africa. Perennial, densely tufted, unbranched, wiry, leaves mostly basal, leaf sheath usually round, basal sheaths nonfibrous, ligule a short membrane, hard leaves, inflorescence a single unilateral spike sickle-shaped when young and spirally twisted when mature, spikelets compressed laterally, upper glume tubercled, straight awns, low grazing value, species of open habitats, open grassland, open bush-veld, poor dry sandy soils, on moist soils, similar to Ctenium somalense (Chiov.) Chiov., see Florae Africae Australioris Illustrationes Monographicae 1: 237. 1841 and Notizblatt des Botanischen Gartens und Museums zu Berlin-Dahlem 9(82): 118. 1924, Kew Bulletin 16: 473. 1963.

in English: sickle grass

in South Africa: sekelgras

C. elegans Kunth (Chloris elegans (Kunth) Roberty, nom. illeg., non Chloris elegans Kunth; Ctenium serpentinum Steud.)

Tropical Africa. Strongly aromatic, densely tufted, annual, wiry, low to medium grazing value, used for thatching and for making baskets, found on dry sandy soils, see Révision des Graminées 1: 93. 1829, Révision des Graminées 2: 295, t. 59. 1830, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 202. 1854 and H.J.R. Vanderyst (1860-1934), Étude de l’agrostologie agricole tropicale. Bas et Moyen-Congo Belge ... Bruxelles 1921, Revue de Botanique Appliquée et d’Agriculture Tropicale 14(150): 128. 1934, Petite Flore de l’Ouest-Africain 387. 1954.

in Guinea: enokolomb

in Guinea-Bissau: undáte

in Mali: samu saana, wolo kaman

in Niger: alakad, alakaka, bat kaarey, bata kwaré, bataré, buhirdi, chinaka, ikardan’allagh, kinaka, niél, niniét, shinaka

in Nigeria: abori woroko, shinaka, sinaka, sinakaho, weewe, wicco dombru, wicco pallandi, wicco wanduho, wixxo wandulho, wutsiyar beeraa, wutsiyar biri, wutsiyar kadangare, wutsiyar kuusuu

in Senegal: dikandapali, lab a koy, rev, rov, uluku, yagon

C. floridanum (Hitchc.) Hitchc. (Campulosus floridanus Hitchc.)

America. See American Journal of Botany 2: 306. 1915, Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 41: 162. 1928.

C. newtonii Hack. (Ctenium camposum A. Chev.; Ctenium newtonii var. majusculum Pilg.; Ctenium newtonii var. productum Pilg.; Ctenium schweinfurthii Pilg.) (in honor of Francis[co] Xavier Oakley de Aguiar Newton, 1864-1909, British-born Portuguese plant collector in West Africa)

Tropical Africa. Perennial, tufted, wiry, aromatic, colonizer, aggressive, pioneer, low grazing value, used as a thatching grass, open bushland, stony areas, overgrazed fields, poor soils, see Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana 5: 229. 1887 and Notizblatt des Botanischen Gartens und Museums zu Berlin-Dahlem 9(82): 116. 1924, Revue de Botanique Appliquée et d’Agriculture Tropicale 14(150): 128. 1934, Adansonia 15(3): 388. 1975 [1976].

in Guinea: d’yubali bowal, dyubali bowal

in Mali: wolo kaman

in Nigeria: abori woroko, shinaka, sinaka, sinakaho, weewe, wicco dombru, wicco pallandi, wicco wanduho, wixxo wandulho, wutsiyar beeraa, wutsiyar biri, wutsiyar kadangare, wutsiyar kuusuu

in Sierra Leone: fiwa, foni gboli, kerinkeralal, puisale, wolen

in Upper Volta: laasi dawaadi, lamzudu

C. nubicum De Not.

Nubia. See Index Seminum [Geneva] 25. 1852, Annuario del Reale Istituto Botanico di Roma 7: 72. 1897 and Nuovo Giornale Botanico Italiano n.s. 26: 82. 1919, Fl. Trop. E. Africa, Gramineae (Part 2): 324. 1974.

C. planifolium (J. Presl) Kunth (Campulosus planifolius J.

Presl; Ctenium glandulosum Scribn. & J.G. Sm.)

America. See Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(4-5): 287. 1830, Enumeratio Plantarum Omnium Hucusque Cognitarum 1: 275. 1833, Botanical Gazette 21(6): 362. 1896.

C. plumosum (Hitchc.) Swallen (Campulosus plumosus Hitchc.)

America, Mexico. See Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 17(3): 330. 1913, North American Flora 17(8): 602. 1939.

C. polystachyum Balansa

Brazil and Paraguay. Lemmas awned and ciliate on the margins, see Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 32: 244. 1885.

C. sesquiflorum Clayton

Guinea. See Kew Bulletin 14: 239-240. 1960.

C. somalense (Chiov.) Chiov. (Ctenium nubicum var. somalense Chiov.)

Ethiopia. Perennial, erect, tufted, slender, old leaf sheaths fibrous, open places, bushland, deciduous bushland, see

Index Seminum [Geneva] 25. 1852, Annuario del Reale Istituto Botanico di Roma 7: 72. 1897 and Nuovo Giornale Botanico Italiano n.s. 26: 82. 1919, Fl. Trop. E. Africa, Gramineae (Part 2): 324. 1974.

Ctenopsis De Notaris = Ctenopsis Naudin (Cucurbitaceae), Vulpia Gmelin

Greek ktenos “a comb” and opsis “resemblance,” a comb-like inflorescence; imitating Ctenium.

About 4 species, Mediterranean, Western Asia. Pooideae, Poodae, Poeae, or Pooideae, Poeae, Loliinae, annual, caespitose, herbaceous, auricles absent, ligule an unfringed membrane, plants bisexual, inflorescence racemose or paniculate, spikelets pectinate compressed laterally, 2 unequal glumes, lower glume 0-nerved, upper glume 3-nerved, lemmas papery, palea present, 2 lodicules free and membranous, 3 stamens, ovary glabrous, stigmas 2, species of open habitats, often referred to Vulpia, type Ctenopsis pectinella (Delile) De Not., see Species Plantarum 1: 73-76. 1753, Flora Badensis Alsatica 1: 8. 1805, Index Sem. Hort. Genuensis 26. 1847, Prodromus Florae Hispanicae 1: 90. 1861, Annales des Sciences Naturelles; Botanique, sér. 5, 6: 12-13. 1866 and Bulletin de la Société d’Histoire Naturelle de l’Afrique du Nord 16: 100-102. 1925, Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins für die Provinz Brandenburg und die angrenzenden Länder 76: 29. 1936, Anales del Instituto Botánico A. J. Cavanilles 21: 365. 1963, Botaniska Notiser 130(2): 186. 1977, Nordic Journal of Botany 1(1): 20, 24. 1981, Watsonia 15: 38-39. 1984, Taxon 33: 351-354. 1984, Watsonia 16: 300. 1987, International Organization of Plant Biosystematists Newsletter 13: 16. 1989, Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana, ser. 2 64: 35-74. 1991, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 228. 1994, Bothalia 27: 75-82. 1997, Flora Mediterranea 8: 307-313. 1998, Bothalia 29(2): 335-341. 1999, Systematic Botany 27(2): 241-251. 2002, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 690-694. 2003.

Species

C. cynosuroides (Desf.) Paunero ex Romero Garcia (Festuca cynosuroides Desf.; Narduretia cynosuroides (Desf.) Villar)

Mediterranean. See Flora Atlantica 1: 88, t. 12. 1798 and Bulletin de la Société d’Histoire Naturelle de l’Afrique du Nord 16: 100-101. 1925, Lagascalia 18(2): 321. 1996.

C. gypsophila (Hack.) Paunero (Festuca gypsophila Hack.)

Mediterranean. See Österreichische Botanische Zeitschrift 27: 47. 1877 and Anales del Instituto Botánico A. J. Cavanilles 21: 368. 1963.

C. patens (Boiss.) Melderis (Vulpia patens Boiss.)

Europe. See Arkiv för Botanik, Andra Serien 2: 297. 1952.

C. pectinella (Delile) De Not. (Festuca pectinella Delile;

Vulpia pectinella (Delile) Boiss.)

Europe. See Flora Orientalis 5: 631. 1884.

Curtopogon P. Beauv. = Aristida L.

From the Greek kyrtos “curved, swelling, bent, hunch-backed” and pogon “beard.”

Arundinoideae, Aristideae, or Aristidoideae, Aristideae, type Curtopogon dichotomus (Michx.) P. Beauv., see Species Plantarum 1: 82. 1753, Flora Boreali-Americana 1: 41. 1803, Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 32, 159, t. 8, f. 7. 1812, Species Graminum Stipaceorum 101. 1842 and Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 22(7): 529. 1924, Meded. Rijks.-Herb. 54: 9. 1926, Kurtziana 1: 123-206. 1961, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 253-257. 1994, Flora del Valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán 3: 1-35. 1994, Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 76-85. 1995, Grassland of China 1995(1): 16-20. 1995, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 82: 593-595. 1995, Candollea 53(2): 466-470. 1998, Bot. Rev. 64: 1-85. 1998, Boletim do Instituto de Botânica (São Paulo) 12: 113-179. 1999, Acta Botánica Mexicana 63: 1-45. 2003, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 69-104, 166. 2003.

Cutandia Willk. = Catapodium Link, Desmazeria Dumort., Scleropoa Griseb.

For the Spanish botanist Vicente Cutanda, 1804-1866, professor of botany (Madrid); see J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 1: 407. 1965; M. Colmeiro y Penido, La Botánica y los Botánicos de la Peninsula Hispano-Lusitana. Madrid 1858.

About 6 species, Middle East, Mediterranean. Pooideae, Poeae, Ammochloinae, or Pooideae, Poodae, Poeae, annual, hollow, branched, nodes glabrous, auricles absent, narrow linear leaf blades, ligule an unfringed membrane, plants bisexual, open inflorescence paniculate with divergent branches, panicle sparse, spikelets several-flowered, 2 glumes very unequal or subequal, lower glume 1- to 3-nerved, upper glume 1-5 nerved, 3 nerved lemma, palea present, 2 free and ciliate lodicules, 3 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, native pasture species, open habitats, coastal, maritime, stony hillsides, sandy places, type Cutandia scleropoides Willk., see Species Plantarum 1: 73-76, 85-87. 1753, Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Imperalis Petropolitanae 14(1): 539. 1770, Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 100, 15, pl. 19, f. 35. 1812, Commentationes Botanicae 26-27. 1822, Hortus Regius Botanicus Berolinensis 1: 44, 145, 280. 1827, Spicilegium florae rumelicae et bithynicae ... 2: 431. 1846, Botanische Zeitung. Berlin 18: 130. 1860, Flore d’Alger 236-237. 1895, Catalogue Raisonnè des Plantes Vasculaires de la Tunisie 482. 1896 and Flore de France 14: 290. 1913, Annales du Service Botanique (et Agronomique) de la Direction Générale de l’Agriculture Tunisie. 4(2): 68. 1927, Ind. Hort. Budapest 1934: 95. 1935, Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins für die Provinz Brandenburg und die angrenzenden Länder 76: 31. 1936, C.A. Stace, “Notes on Cutandia and related genera.” Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 76: 350-352. 1978, Taxon 33: 351-354. 1984, Bot. J. Linn. Society 91: 441. 1985, Annali di Botanica 45: 75-102. 1987, Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana, ser. 2 61: 281-304. 1988, International Organization of Plant Biosystematists Newsletter 13: 16. 1989, Lagascalia 20(2): 265-275. 1998, A.R. Dyer, D.E. Goldberg, R. Turkington and C. Sayre, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 230, 241, 256, 609. 2003, Magdy I. El-Bana, Ivan Nijs and Abdel-Hamid A. Khedr, “Effects of growing conditions and source habitat on plant traits and functional group definition.” Functional Ecology 15(1): 85-95. Feb 2001, “The importance of phytogenic mounds (Nebkhas) for restoration of arid degraded rangelands in Northern Sinai.” Restoration Ecology 11(3): 317-324. Sep 2003, Hagit Shilo-Volin et al., “Density regulation in annual plant communities under variable resource levels.” Oikos 108(2): 241-252. Feb 2005.

Species

C. maritima (L.) Barbey (Agropyron maritimum (L.) P. Beauv.; Brachypodium maritimum (L.) Roem. & Schult.; Cutandia maritima (L.) Richter; Festuca maritima (L.) Lam. ex DC., nom. illeg., non Festuca maritima L.; Scleropoa maritima (L.) Parl.; Triticum maritimum L.)

Europe. See Species Plantarum, Editio Secunda 128. 1762, Flore Françoise 3: 47. 1805, Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 102, 146, 180. 1812, Systema Vegetabilium 2: 743. 1817, Flora italiana, ossia descrizione delle piante ... 1: 468. 1848[1850], William Barbey (1842-1914), Florae Sardoae Compendium 190. Lausanne 1884 [1885], Plantae Europeae 1: 78. 1890.

C. memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt. (Cutandia dichotoma var. memphitica (Spreng.) Maire & Weiller; Cutandia memphitica (Sprengel) Benth.; Cutandia scleropoides Willk.; Dactylis memphitica Spreng.; Festuca caspica (K. Koch) Steud.; Festuca divaricata var. memphitica (Spreng.) Coss. & Durieu; Festuca memphitica (Spreng.) Boiss. ex Coss.; Scleropoa caspica K. Koch; Scleropoa memphitica (Spreng.) Parl.)

Europe. Native pasture species, see Flora Atlantica 1: 89, t. 22. 1798, Der Botanische Garten der Universität zu Halle, Erster Nachtrag 1: 20. 1801, Linnaea 21: 409. 1848, Flora italiana, ossia descrizione delle piante ... 1: 470. 1848[1850], Notes sur Quelques Plantes Critiques, Rares, ou Nouvelles, ... 183. 1851, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 303. 1854, Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie 2: 184. 1855, Botanische Zeitung. Berlin 18: 130. 1860, Plantae Europeae 1: 77. 1890, Flore d’Alger 237. 1895 and Flore de l’Afrique du Nord: 3: 38. 1955, Publications from the Cairo University Herbarium 5: 51. 1972[1974].

Cuviera Koeler = Cuviera DC. (Rubiaceae), Hordelymus (Jess.) Jess. ex Harz, Hordelymus (Jessen) Harz

After the French (born Württemberg, Montbéliard) naturalist Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert baron Cuvier, 1769-1832 (Paris, France), zoologist, palaeontolo-gist, comparative anatomist, studied under Karl Friedrich Kielmeyer (1765-1844) at the Caroline University, (former/once) friend of Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (1772-1844) and Lamarck, from 1795 assistant professor of animal anatomy at the Muséum (Paris), in 1796 a member of the Institut de France, from 1800 professor at the Collège de France, in 1818 member of the Académie Française, his works include Notice biographique sur Bruguières, etc. [Rapport général des travaux de la Société Philomatique de Paris] [1799], Voyages dans l’Amérique méridionale, par F. de Azara ... enrichis de notes par G. Cuvier. Paris 1809 and The Animal Kingdom. London 1827-1835, with Achille Valenciennes wrote Histoire naturelle des Poissons. Paris 1828-1849, with A. Brongniart wrote Description Géologique des environs de Paris. Paris 1822, he was the brother of the French zoologist Frédéric Cuvier (1773-1838, d. Strasbourg, France). See Georges Louis Duvernoy (1777-1855), Notice historique sur les Ouvrages et la Vie de M. le Baron Cuvier. Paris 1833; G. Cuvier’s Briefe an C.H. Pfaff aus den Jahren 1788 bis 1792 ... Herausgegeben von ... W.F.G. Behn. Kiel 1845; Franck Bourdier, in D.S.B. 3: 520-528. 1981; J.H. Barnhart, Biographical notes upon botanists. 1: 408. 1965; Felix de Azara (1742-1821), Viaje por la America meridional. La descripcion geografica ... del Paraguay ... los pueblos salvajes ... medios de los Jesuitas para someter ... Pub. por C.A.Walckenaer. Madrid 1941.

Pooideae, Triticodae, Triticeae, type Cuviera europaea (L.) Koeler, see Species Plantarum 1: 84-85. 1753, Annales du muséum national d’histoire naturelle 9: 222. 1807, Descriptio Graminum in Gallia et Germania 1802, Observations sur les Graminées de la Flore Belgique 92. 1823 [1824], Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 2: 233. 1841, Deutschlands Gräser und Getreidearten ... 202. 1863, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de Belgique 7: 66. 1868, Genera Plantarum 3(2): 1206. 1883, Landwirthschatfliche Samenkunde 2: 1147. 1885 and Archives de Biologie Végétale Pure et Appliquée 1: 18, 38. 1901, Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 35: 191. 1950, New Publications of the U.S. Geological Survey 17(1-2): 120. 1971 [1972], Flora Republicii Socialiste Romania 12: 583. 1973, Giornale Botanico Italiano 111(1-2): 58. 1977, Acta Biologica Cracoviensia, Series Botanica 27: 57-74. 1985, Taxon 49(2): 250. 2000.

Cyathopus Stapf

From the Greek kyathos “cup, ladle” and pous “foot,” referring to the stoloniferous culm or to the cupular pedicel tips.

One species, Sikkim, eastern Himalayas. Aveneae, perennial, erect and leafy, ascending, tufted, herbaceous, slender, scabrid or glabrous, terete, branched, leaf blades narrow and scabrid, leaf sheaths glabrous, ligule elongate, plants bisexual, inflorescence paniculate and lax, open panicle, spikelets borne on the slender branches of decompound panicle, floret 1, 2 glumes subequal and 3-nerved, lemma membranous and awnless, palea 2-keeled, 2 free lodicules, 3 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, shade species, in woods, valleys, type Cyathopus sikkimensis Stapf, see Hooker’s Icones Plantarum t. 2395. 1895, Fl. British India 7: 240. 1897 and Grasses of Burma ... 565. 1960.

Species

C. sikkimensis Stapf

North Sikkim. Stout culms, erect, creeping, stoloniferous, leaf blades oblong and acute to finely acuminate, panicle effuse, spikelets glabrous at base, glumes beaked.

Cyathorhachis Nees ex Steud. = Cyathorhachis Steud., Polytoca R. Br.

From the Greek kyathos “cup, ladle” and rhachis “rachis, axis, midrib of a leaf.”

Andropogoneae, type Cyathorhachis wallichiana Nees ex Steud., see John Joseph Bennett (1801-1876) and Robert Brown, Plantae Javanicae rariores. 15, 18, 20, f. 5. London (July) 1838, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 403. 1854 [1855] and Meded. Rijks-Herb. 67: 9. 1931, Blumea 47(3): 545-580. 2002 [Revision of Chionachninae (Gramineae: Andropogoneae)].

Cyclichnium Dulac = Gaudinia P. Beauv.

From kylichnion, the diminutive of the Greek kylichne “a small cup.”

Pooideae, Poodae, Aveneae, or Pooideae, Poeae, Aveninae, see Essai d’une Nouvelle Agrostographie 95, 153, 164, t. 19,5. 1812, Hortus Regius Botanicus Berolinensis 1: 151. 1827, Conspectus Regni Vegetabilis 54. 1828, Flore du Département des Hautes-Pyrénées 68. 1867 and Acta Universitatis Lundensis 36(1): 27. 1900, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 24: 192. 1925, Flora de la Provincia de Buenos Aires 4(2): 39. 1970, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 241, 370. 2003.

Cyclostachya J.R. Reeder & C.G. Reeder = Bouteloua Lag.

From the Greek kyklos “circle, round” and stachys “a spike,” referring to the inflorescences, to the mature racemes.

One species, Mexico. Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae, Boutelouinae, perennial, herbaceous, stoloniferous, caespitose, solid, auricles absent, leaf blades narrow linear, ligule membranous, plants dioecious, inflorescence exserted from sheath, hermaphrodite florets lacking, single pectinate raceme, 1 fertile floret, female spikelets dorsally compressed, male inflorescence deciduous, 2 narrow glumes unequal and dissimilar, lower glume 1-nerved. upper glume 2- to 3-nerved, lemma 3-awned, palea present, 2 free and fleshy lodicules, no stamens, 3 staminodes, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, open habitats, dry areas, type Cyclostachya stolonifera (Scribn.) Reeder & C. Reeder, see Variedades de Ciencias, Literatura y Artes 2(4,21): 134, 141. 1805, Gen. Sp. Nov. 5. 1816 and Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 90: 195-196. 1963, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 41: 20-33, 58-59. 2001.

Species

C. stolonifera (Scribn.) Reeder & Reeder (Atheropogon stolonifer E. Fourn.; Bouteloua reederorum Columbus; Bouteloua stolonifera Scribn.)

Mexico. Good forage, see Mexicanas Plantas 2: 140. 1886, Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 43(2): 302. 1891 and Aliso 18(1): 63. 1999.

in Mexico: zacate rueda

Cycloteria Stapf = Coelorachis Brongn.

From Greek kyklos “circle, round” and teres, retis (tero) “rounded off, smoothed, shapely,” kykloteres “made round by turning,” or possibly from the Greek theros “summer, summer-fruits,” thero “heat, warm,” Greek teiro, teirein “distress, weaken,” or Latin tero, -is, trivi, tritum, terere “to grind, to wear away, to waste.”

Panicoideae, Andropogonodae, Andropogoneae, Rottboelliinae, see Voyage Autour du Monde 2: 64, f. 14. 1829 [1831] and Otto Stapf (1857-1933), Index Londinensis to illustrations of flowering plants, ferns and fern allies ... /prepared under the auspices of the Royal Society of London at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Oxford: Clarendon Press 1929-1931, Kew Bulletin 24: 309-314. 1970, Blumea 31: 291, 293. 1986, Flora of the Guianas. Series A, Phanerogams 8: 143-146. 1990, Journal of Cytology and Genetics 25: 140-143. 1990, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 81(4): 775-783. 1994, Journal of Cytology and Genetics 29(2): 125-131. 1994, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 396-397. 1994, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 161-162, 295-296. 2003.

Cylindropyrum (Jaub. & Spach) Á. Löve = Aegilops L.

From the Greek kylindros “a cylinder” and pyros “grain, wheat.”

Pooideae, Triticeae, Triticinae, see Species Plantarum 2: 1050-1051. 1753, Icones et Descriptiones Graminum Austriacorum 2: 6, t. 7. 1802, Illustrationes Plantarum Orientalium 4: 12. 1851 and Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis Beih. 55: 84, 90, 103, 117. 1929, Blumea, Supplement 3: 15, 17. 1946, Grasses of Burma ... 653-655. 1960, Feddes Repert. 91: 225-228, 233-234, 236. 1980, Biologisches Zentralblatt 101(2): 206-208. 1982, Feddes Repert. 95(7-8): 493, 495, 500. 1984, Taxon 41: 552-583. 1992, Agric. Univ. Wageningen Pap. 94-7: 1-512. 1994, Taxon 44: 611-612. 1995, Flora de Veracruz 114: 1-16. 2000, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48: 20-23, 241. 2003.

Cymatochloa Schltdl. = Paspalum L.

From the Greek kyma, kymatos “anything swollen” and chloe, chloa “grass, young grass.”

Panicoideae, Paniceae, Paspalinae, type Cymatochloa fluitans (Elliott) Schltdl., see Systema Naturae, Editio Decima 846, 855, 1359. 1759, Acta Helvetica, Physico-Mathematico-Anatomico-Botanico-Medica 7: 129, t. 7. 1762 [1772], A Sketch of the Botany of South-Carolina and Georgia 1(2): 109, pl. 6. f. 4. 1816, Flora Brasiliensis seu Enumeratio Plantarum 2: 77. 1829, Species Graminum 3: t. 271. 1829-1830, Hooker’s Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany 2: 103. 1850, Botanische Zeitung. Berlin 12(47): 817, 821-822. 1854, Botanische Zeitung. Berlin 19(44): 326. 1861, Flora Brasiliensis 2(2): 98. 1877, Genera Plantarum 3(2): 1097-1098. 1883 and Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 12: 116. 1908, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 24(8): 435. 1927, Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 26(7-15): 229. 1929, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 166-167, 443-527. 2003.

Cymbachne Retz

From the Greek kymbe “boat” and achne “chaff, glume,” an allusion to the shape of flowers and spikes, see Observationes Botanicae 6: 36. Jul-Nov 1791 and Genera Graminum 376. 1999, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 167. 2003.

Cymbanthelia Andersson = Cymbopogon Sprengel

From the Greek kymbe “boat” and anthele “a type of inflorescence, a little flower.”

Panicoideae, Andropogonodae, Andropogoneae, Andropogoninae, see Plantarum Minus Cognitarum Pugillus 2: 14-15. 1815, Nova Acta Regiae Societatis Scientiarum Upsaliensis ser. 3, 2: 254. 1856 and Bot. Porto Rico 1: 27.

1923, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 167-169. 2003.

Cymbopogon Sprengel = Cymbanthelia Andersson, Gymnanthelia Schweinf., Gymnanthelia Andersson

From the Greek kymbe “a boat” and pogon “a beard,” referring to the many-awned spikelets and boat-shaped spathes or to the glumes; see Kurt Polycarp Joachim Sprengel, Plantarum Minus Cognitarum Pugillus. 2: 14. 1815.

About 40/55(-60) species, Old World tropics and subtropics. Panicoideae, Andropogonodae, Andropogoneae, Andropogoninae, perennial or rarely annual, robust, tussocky, tall, aromatic, herbaceous, densely tufted, unbranched, internodes solid, auricles absent, ligule membranous and fringed or not or scarious, leaves linear to lanceolate, plants bisexual, inflorescences spatheate and spatheolate, large panicles compound and multibranched, racemes short and long peduncled, at the tip of each branch 2 small racemes, racemes paired and enclosed in a reddish spatheole, spikelets paired and dissimilar, sessile spikelet dorsally compressed and pedicelled spikelet never concave on the back, sessile spikelets awned and with 1 fertile floret above a sterile floret, 2 glumes more or less equal, lower glume flat or concave and laterally 2-keeled, upper lemma 2-lobed or bifid pedicellate spikelets awnless and sterile, palea absent, 2 lodicules free and fleshy, 3 stamens, ovary glabrous, 2 stigmas, usually grazed when young, several species provide seed for small birds, ornamental for foliage and for the inflorescences, under certain conditions several species could develop toxic properties, aromatic oils used in medicine and as flavouring agents, highly flammable, diverse uses in food, in perfumery and pharmaceutical industry and as a natural precursor of semisynthetic vitamin A, essential oils from different species of the genus Cymbopogon are known for their antimicrobial activity, may be harmful if ingested in quantity, populations occurring in the wild harbor considerable genetic variation, a difficult genus, resembles Andropogon L., drought-resistant, occurs from mountains and grasslands to arid zones, dry soils, savannah, rainforest, open habitats, type Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) Spreng., see Species Plantarum 2: 1045. 1753, Catalogus plantarum horti botanici monspeliensis 78. 1813, Plantarum Minus Cognitarum Pugillus 2: 14-15. 1815, Allgemeine Gartenzeitung 3: 267. Berlin 1835, Florae Africae Australioris Illustrationes Monographicae 109. 1841, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 383. 1855 [1854], Nova Acta Regiae Societatis Scientiarum Upsaliensis ser. 3, 2: 254. 1856, Beitr. Flora Aethiopiens 229. 1867 and Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1906: 322, 350-351, 357. 1906, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 51: 890-916. 1953 and 52: 149-183. 1954, Cytologia 19: 97-103. 1954, Folia Primatologica 15: 1-35. 1971, S. Soenarko, “The genus Cymbopogon Sprengel (Gramineae).” Reinwardtia 9(3): 225-375. 1977, Journal of Cytology and Genetics 15: 51-57. 1980, Journal of Cytology and Genetics 20: 205-206. 1985, Journal of Cytology and Genetics 21: 21-34. 1986, Cytologia 53: 517-524. 1988, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: 866-873. 1988, Journal of Cytology and Genetics 25: 140-143. 1990, Flora Mesoamericana 6: 390-391. 1994, Journal of Cytology and Genetics 24: 241-246. 1994, Cymbopogon: The Aromatic Grass. Monograph/edited by Sushil Kumar, Samresh Dwivedi, A.K. Kukreja, J.R. Sharma and G.D. Bagchi. Lucknow, Central Institute of Medicinal & Aromatic Plants 2000, Liliana M. Giussani, J. Hugo Cota-Sánchez, Fernando O. Zuloaga and Elizabeth A. Kellogg, “A molecular phylogeny of the grass subfamily Panicoideae (Poaceae) shows multiple origins of C4 photosynthesis.” Am. J. Bot. 88: 1993-2012. 2001, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46: 167-169, 243. 2003, Weed Biology and Management 4(1): 19-23. Mar 2004, Journal of Applied Ecology 41(2): 224-237. Apr 2004, E.K. Kakudidi, “Cultural and social uses of plants from and around Kibale National Park, Western Uganda.” African Journal of Ecology 42(s1): 114-118. Aug 2004, Helicobacter 9(s1): 42-48, Aug 2004, African Journal of Ecology 42(3): 237-238. Sep 2004, Letters in Applied Microbiology 39(5): 395-400. Nov 2004, Weed Biology and Management 4(4): 239-248. Dec 2004, Medical and Veterinary Entomology 18(4): 449-452. Dec 2004, Journal of Applied Microbiology 97(6): 1289-1296. Dec 2004, Ecological Management and Restoration 6(1): 43-50. Apr 2005, International Journal of Food Science and Technology 40(1): 97-103. Jan 2005, Austral. Ecology 30(4): 445-464. June 2005.

Species

C. spp.

in English: lemon grasses

C. ambiguus A. Camus (Andropogon ambiguus Steudel, nom. illeg., non Andropogon ambiguus Michx.; Cymbopogon ambiguus (Steudel) A. Camus; Cymbopogon exaltatus sensu J. Black, non (R. Br.) Domin; Cymbopogon exaltatus var. ambiguus (A. Camus) Domin)

South Australia, Western Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Northern Territory. Perennial, slender, tufted, lemon-scented, caespitose, forming erect and leafy tussocks, leaves bluish green or sometimes reddish, sheath glabrous, stems erect or arching, densely villous racemes paired and more or less erect, very narrow panicles, sheathing bract, spikelets blue-green and very hairy or densely silky-villous, awn slender, not usually grazed, rarely eaten by stock, moderately palatable to rabbits, handsome and very attractive, drought resistant, revegetation, used by the Australian aborigines for analgesic purposes, the fresh grass is crushed between the hands and the scent inhaled to relieve congestion, the whole plant dried used as a liniment for scabies, sores, cramp and sore heads, growing on rocky hills, shallow rocky soils, exposed granite and on roadsides which have shallow loam or clayey soils, also along creek banks in stony uplands, often near water courses, see Flora Boreali-Americana 1: 58. 1803, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 385. 1854 and Bibliotheca Botanica 85: 273. 1915, Revue de Botanique Appliquée & d’Agriculture Coloniale 1: 290. 1921.

in English: scented grass, lemon scented grass, scented oilgrass, scent grass, lemon grass

C. bombycinus (R. Br.) Domin (Andropogon bombycinus R. Br.; Andropogon exaltatus var. lanatus (R. Br.) Hack.;

Andropogon lanatus R. Br.; Andropogon procerus var. schultzii Hack.; Cymbopogon bombycinus (R. Br.) A. Camus, nom. illeg., non Cymbopogon bombycinus (R. Br.) Domin; Sorghum bombycinum (R. Br.) Kuntze) (referring to the silky hairs of the spikelets, Greek bombyx, bombykos “silk, silk-worm, silk garment,” Latin bombyx, bycis “silk-worm, silk, any fine fiber”)

Western Australia, Queensland, Northern Territory. Perennial, erect, tufted, tough, forming erect and rigid tussocks, stems slender and rigid, leaves narrow and rigid, woolly spikelets with long silky hairs, ornamental and attractive, an increaser species, sandy or stony soils, along stream banks, alluvial flats, see Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae 202. 1810, Monographiae Phanerogamarum 6: 595-596. 1889, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 791. 1891 and Bibliotheca Botanica 85: 274. 1915, Revue de Botanique Appliquée & d’Agriculture Coloniale 1: 290. 1921.

in English: citronella grass, silky oilgrass

C. caesius (Nees) Stapf (Andropogon caesius Nees ex Hook. & Arn.; Andropogon connatus Hochst. ex A. Rich.; Andropogon excavatus Hochst.; Andropogon schoenanthus L.; Andropogon schoenanthus subsp. schoenanthus var. caesius (Nees) Hackel; Andropogon schoenanthus var. caesius (Nees ex Hook. & Arn.) Hack.; Andropogon schoenanthus var. caesius (Nees ex Hook. & Arn.) Rangachariar, nom. illeg., non Andropogon schoenanthus var. caesius (Nees ex Hook. & Arn.) Hack.; Andropogon schoenanthus var. gracillimus Hook.f.; Cymbopogon caesius (Nees ex Hook. & Arn.) Stapf; Cymbopogon caesius (Hook. & Arn.) Stapf; Cymbopogon connatus (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Chiov.; Cymbopogon connatus var. muticus Chiov.; Cymbopogon excavatus (Hochst.) Stapf; Cymbopogon excavatus (Hochst.) Stapf ex Burtt Davy; Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) Spreng.; Trachypogon schoenanthus (L.) Nees) (Latin caesius “bluish gray”)

Eastern Africa, Somalia, southern India, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Namibia, Swaziland. Perennial, straggling, tufted or densely tufted or loosely tufted, tussocky, usually unbranched, wiry, erect, knotted woody rhizome, lower portions of the stem not covered with leaf sheaths, narrow leaf blade widest at the base, leaf sheath rounded and smooth, ligule a short and rounded membrane, basal leaf sheaths glabrous, linear leaves blue-green and waxy, thick inflorescence, erect false panicle narrow to narrowly oblong, each pair of spike-like racemes partially enclosed by a spathe, spikelets paired, 1 spikelet sessile and with a twisted awn, pedicelled spikelet narrowly lanceolate, sessile raceme with lowest pedicel swollen, panicle remains yellow-green at maturity, a weed, low grazing value, poorly utilized, low palatable and hard, only eaten when very young, very unpalatable because of its bitter leaves and peppery scent, strong turpentine smell, sour by nature, eaten by goats in Tanzania, used for thatching roofs, found in most veld types, damp ground, open areas, fixed dunes, shrubby vegetation, alluvial plains, on red loamy sand, near the coast, steep rocky hillsides, stony soil, open grassy plain, upland hillsides, overgrazed veld, field borders, cliffs, closely related to Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.) J.F. Watson and Cymbopogon pospischilii (K. Schum.) C.E. Hubbard, see Species Plantarum 2: 1046. 1753, The Botany of Captain Beechey’s Voyage 244. 1838, Tentamen Florae Abyssinicae ... 2: 464. 1850, Gaz. N.W. Prov. Ind. 392. 1882, Monographiae Phanerogamarum 6: 610. 1889, The Flora of British India 7(21): 205. 1897 [1896] and Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1906(8): 360-361. 1906, Grasses of Burma ... 125. 1960, Journal of Cytology and Genetics 19: 15-20. 1984, Pakistan Journal of Botany 17: 309-310. 1985, Cell and Chromosome Research 15(3): 16. 1992.

in English: broad-leaved turpentine grass, kachi grass, inchi grass, buchu grass, turpentine grass, common turpentine grass, eau-de-Cologne grass, ginger grass, lemon-scented grass, lemon grass

in Arabic: m’hâh

in India: adavi nimma gaddi, anji hullu, kaamaanchi hullu, kaasi gaddi, kaasi hullu, kharadaa kaasi hullu, mandappullu, muchival pullu, naati laamancha, kaamaakshi pullu

in Vietnam: co dit, co thui

in Namibia: Heng’ge (Vasekele)

in Somalia: sandul, sandool

in East Africa: ang’we

in Rodrigues Island: citronelle, citronelle marron

in Southern Africa: boegoegras, buchugras, lemoengras, stinkgras, suurgras, suurpol, gewone terpentyngras, terpentyngras, breëblaarterpentyngras, breitblättriges pfeffergras, koperdraadgras; imbubu (Zulu); mkakama, umqungu (Tswana); patiane (Sotho)

in southern Rhodesia: mWaa

C. calciphilus Bor

Thailand. Indeteminate species, see Dansk Botanisk Arkiv 23: 157. 1965.

in Thailand: ya kho daeng

C. cambogiensis (Balansa) E.G. Camus & A. Camus (Andropogon cambogiensis Balansa; Cymbopogon siamensis Bor)

Southeast Asia, Thailand. See Journal de Botanique, rédigé par une société de botanistes 4: 114. 1890 [Journal de Botanique (Morot)] and Flore Générale de l’Indo-Chine 7: 351. 1922, Dansk Botanisk Arkiv 23: 158. 1965.

in Thailand: yaa frik fran, yaa phrik phraan, ya phrik phran

C. citratus (DC.) Stapf (Andropogon ceriferus Hack.;

Andropogon citratus DC.; Andropogon citratus DC. ex Nees; Andropogon citriodorum hort. ex Desf.; Andropogon nardus subsp. ceriferus (Hack.) Hack.; Andropogon roxburghii Nees ex Steud.; Andropogon schoenanthus L.; Cymbopogon citratus (DC. ex Nees) Stapf; Cymbopogon citratus (Nees) Stapf; Cymbopogon nardus subvar. citratus (DC.) Roberty)

Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka, South India, Nepal. Perennial bunchgrass strongly lemon-scented, blue green, canelike stems slender to robust, densely clumped, bushy, tall, very leafy, short oblique rhizome, leaves sheathing, ligule a fringed membrane, sheaths slightly flattened and more or less waxy, leaves narrowed at the base or tapered to both ends, nodding inflorescence, rachis nodes and pedicels ciliate, lax false panicles, spathe bracts linear-lanceolate, sessile spikelet bearing 2 florets, paired and dissimilar spikelets, sessile spikelet linear-lanceolate and awnless or with a twisted awn, raceme with lowest pedicel not swollen, lower glume of sessile spikelet concave or flat, lower floret reduced to an empty lemma, upper floret hermaphrodite and awnless, pedicelled spikelet elliptic-oblong, palea mostly absent, 2 lodicules, 3 stamens, plumose stigmas, propagation is by root or plant division, plants rarely flower or set seed, essential oils, culinary herb, stem and leaves are used for cooking, the lemon-scented foliage used as a flavouring and a masking fragrance, used in herbal teas and in the preparation of a highly spiced sherbet, scent for soaps and creams, reported to have antimicrobial activity, considered a carminative and insect repellent, used against coughing, muscular aches and pains, insufficient milk in breast feeding mothers, headaches, oil acts as a central nervous system depressant, lemongrass oil is obtained by steam distillation of partially wilted leaves, commonly cultivated and wild, grows well in sandy soils with adequate drainage, semi-deserts, savannah, in clearings, sunny warm and humid conditions, see Species Plantarum 2: 1046. 1753, Catalogus plantarum horti botanici monspeliensis 78. Montpellier, Paris, Strasbourg 1813, Tableau de l’École de Botanique 15. 1815, Allgemeine Gartenzeitung 3: 267. 1835, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 395. 1854, Flora Brasiliensis 2(4): 281. 1883, Monographiae Phanerogamarum 6: 605. 1889, Catalogue of the African Plants Collected by Dr. F. Welwitsch in 1853-61 2(1): 155. 1899 and Handb. Fl. Ceylon 5: 243. 1900, Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1906: 322, 357. 1906 [also Kew Bulletin], Handb. Fl.

Ceylon 6: 335. 1931, Grasses of Ceylon 193. 1956, Grasses of Burma ... 126. 1960, Boissiera. Mémoires du Conservatoire de Botanique et de l’Institut de Botanique Systématique de l’Université de Genève 9: 174. 1960, Taxon 49(2): 246. 2000.

in English: camel grass, lemon grass, true lemon grass, melissa grass, rosha grass, sweet rush, ginger grass, fever grass, West Indian lemon grass, West Indian lemon, citronella, citronella grass, mulch grass

in French: citronnelle, herbe citron, verveine des Indes, fausse citronelle

in Angola: belgata, chá de gabão, chá de príncipes, matitiiti

in Benin: tiwouroussou, oussofoussouhou

in Cameroon: bealibe ti, bejaba ti, beyebe ti, hundè, ti

in Gambia: kanyang yallo

in Guinea: idel tegag, walel waregag

in Guinea-Bissau: belgata

in Morocco: sitronil

in Nigeria: achara ehi, akwukwo, eti, ikon eti, isoko, kooko oba, koriko oba, koriko oyinbo, myoyaka makara, oko oba, tsauri

in Sierra Leone: anwoapotho, bichineyo, bichinyeyo, lemon gras, pei-poto, popana, pu-lumbe, pudumbi, pulumbi, ti

in Yoruba: koriko oba, koriko oyinbo, kooko oba, oko oba, tii, eti, isoko

in Pacific: moengalo

in Burma (Myanmar): sabalin

in Cambodia: sacrey, slek krey sabou

in China: iang mao, hsiang mao ts’ao

in India: abichhathraka, agia ghas, agin ghas, aginghas, agya-ghans-tail, akya-ghas-ka-aitr, athigandha, badhira, badhiradhvanibodhana, bhoostrhina, bhoothika, bhor, bhustrina, bhuthina, bohr, chaa hullu, chae Kashmiri, chaathappu, chaayapuu, chayapul, chhathra, chippa-gaddinune, chippagaddi, choakappullu, devajagdhaka-tailam, gandha bela, gandha-bena, gandhabena, gandhatrana, gandhathrina, gandhatrina, gavathichahaa, gavatichaha, gochhalaka, guchhala, guhyabeeja, gundardha, haree chaha, hazar-masaleh-ka-aatar, hirua cha, hirvacha, jambukapriya, karenduka, karpoora pullu, karpoorpul, karpura-pullu-yenney, khawi, kutimbaka, lili cha, lilicha, lilli-chaya-tel, majjige hullu, malathrinaka, mikkotiu, mirchia gand, nimbe hullu, nimma-gaddi-nune, nimmagaddi, olancha, olecha, patichachaha, pengrima-tel, penguin, poonsvavighraha, poothigandha, purhali hullu, purvali-hullu-yanne, roghanechae-kashmiri, rohisha, rusa, rusa ka tel (grass oil of Nimar), sabalen-si, samalambi, sambaara hullu, sambharapulla-enna, shambharapull, shringarocha, sugandha, sugandhichaha, takratani, takratrani, thakkaathana, thakrathruna, tikari, vaasana gaddi, vaasana pullu, vasanap-pulla-enna, vasanappillu, vasanappulla, vasanapulla, vasanapull, vasane-hullu-yanne, vashanap-pullu-yenney, vashanup pulla

in Indonesia: bubu, serai dapur, sereh

in Laos: ‘si khai, ‘sing khai

in Malaysia: serai, serai dapur, sereh

in the Philippines: balioko, baroni, belioko, paja de meca, salai, salay, tanglad

in South Laos: (people Nya Hön) bum sray

in Sri Lanka: sera, serai

in Thailand: cha khrai, ho wo ta po, howo tapo, hua sing khai, kha hom, khaa hom, khrai, loe kroei, soet kroei, ta khrai

in Vietnam: huong mao, la sa, s[ar] chanh, sa, say ya

in Spanish: pasto limón, zacate limón

in Portuguese: citronela

in Brazil (Amazonas): makiyuma hanaki, makiyuma xik, patchuli, waihi hanaki

in Brazil: capim-catinga, capim-cheiroso, capim-cidreira, capim-cidrilho, capim-ciri, capim-de-cheiro, capim limão, capim-marinho, capim santo, erva cidreira, grama-cidreira, patchuli, patchuli-falso, vervena, yerba Luisa

in the Caribbean: citronnelle, sitwonnèl

in Central America: limonera, te de limón, zacate limón, zacate de limón

in Colombia: limoncillo

in Costa Rica: to kri, togli

in Ecuador: hierba de limón, hierba luisa, limoncillo

in Guatemala: llmon ch’iim, lmunch chim, tè de limón, zacate limón

in Mexico: lmoo toom, ocozacatl, pasto limón, tè limón, zacate limón, zacatlatlaunqui

in Nicaragua: sagádi, sagádi abiruau, ti

in Puerto Rico: caña limonaria

in South America: ajéj, arak, cedrón, hierba buena, hierba louisa, hierba luisa, limoncillo, limonera, paja cedrón, piriprí, yerba juiza, yerba luisa, yerba luiza

in Venezuela: malojillo

in West Indies: fever grass, lemon grass, sitwonel, citronelle, herbe lemon, herbe citronelle

C. coloratus (Hook.f) Stapf (Andropogon coloratus Nees ex Wight; Andropogon nardus subsp. glomeratus Hack.; Andropogon nardus var. coloratus Hook.f)

Asia, Southeast Asia, India. Perennial, aggressive, nonpalatable grass, used for perfuming soaps, see Monographiae Phanerogamarum 6: 604. 1889, The Flora of British India 7(21): 206. 1897 [1896] and Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1906: 321. 1906. in English: boda grass

in India: boda gaddi, manakru pillu, manjen pullu, senga manu mala pillu, sengana pillu

C. commutatus (Steud.) Stapf (Andropogon commutatus Steud.; Cymbopogon divaricatus Stapf; Cymbopogon floccosus (Schweinf.) Stapf)

Tropical Africa, Asia, India. Perennial, variable, tufted to densely tufted, erect, sweetly scented, basal leaf sheaths glabrous or hairy, leaves flat or filiform, inflorescence linear, racemes ciliate, sessile and pedicelled spikelets lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate, lowermost pedicel of the sessile raceme swollen, lower glume of sessile spikelet with rounded keels, awn of upper lemma geniculate, low to medium palatability, grazed, used for roofing, found in degraded areas, deciduous bushland, open sandstone hillsides, grassy plains, limestone, hillsides, wadi, see Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 387. 1854 and Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 276, 278. 1919, Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1907: 211. 1907.

in Somalia: hadaf

in Arabic: sakhbar, idhkhir, khasab, hamra

C. densiflorus (Steud.) Stapf (Andropogon densiflorus Steud.; Andropogon schoenanthus L.; Andropogon schoenanthus subsp. densiflorus Hack.; Andropogon schoenanthus var. densiflorus (Steud.) Hack.; Andropogon stypticus Welw.; Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) Spreng.; Cymbopogon schoenanthus var. densiflorus (Hack.) Rendle; Cymbopogon schoenanthus var. typicus Rendle; Cymbopogon stypticus (Welw.) Fritsch)

Tropical Africa. Annual or perennial, tufted, aromatic, ornamental, inflorescences used in rituals, growing in open habitats, along roadsides, grassland, see Species Plantarum 2: 1046. 1753, Plantarum Minus Cognitarum Pugillus 2: 15. 1815, Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 386. 1854, Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana 3: 139. 1885, Monograph-iae Phanerogamarum 6: 609. 1889, Catalogue of the African Plants Collected by Dr. F. Welwitsch in 1853-61 2(1): 154. 1899 and Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier, sér. 2, 1(11): 1099. 1901, Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 289. 1919, Taxon 49(2): 246. 2000.

in Angola: evulu, kaxinde, kiangu, musoso, onkotankota, saku-saku, saku

C. dependens B.K. Simon

Australia, Northern Territory. Rare species, see Austrobaileya 3(1): 79-99. 1989 [Studies in Australian grasses: 4. Taxonomic and nomenclatural studies in Australian Andropogoneae].

C. dieterlenii Stapf ex Schweick. (Andropogon dieterlenii Stapf; Cymbopogon dieterlenii Stapf ex E. Phillips)

South Africa. Perennial, forming large clumps, tufted, ligule pointed, leaves basal, inflorescence paniculate with spatheate racemes, spikelets sessile and pedicellate, sessile spikelets with winged lower glume, palatable only when young, in South Africa traditional healers use it to remove bad luck after the death, found in mountain slopes and veld, among boulders, open areas, see Annals of the South African Museum 16: 336. 1919, Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1936(5): 325. 1936 [or Kew Bulletin 1936: 325. 1936].

in South Africa: lebate, lebata, lebatjana

C. distans (Nees) J.F. Watson (Andropogon distans Nees ex Steud.; Andropogon nardus var. distans (Nees ex Steud.) Hack.; Cymbopogon distans (Nees ex Steud.) J.F. Watson)

Asia, India, Jammu and Kashmir State. Perennial, simple, aromatic and sweet smelling, smooth, glabrous, fibrous roots, basal sheaths very short, ligule membranous scarious, old leaf sheaths fibrous, leaf blades rounded at the base with a long filiform tip, leaves mostly basal, panicle with paired racemes, lower floret empty, upper floret hermaphrodite, erosion control, subtropical or tropical savannah, dry habitats, see Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 387. 1854, Gaz. N.W. Prov. India 392. 1882, Monographiae Phanerogamarum 6: 608. 1889 and Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences 71: 97. 1970, Reinwardtia 9: 356. 1977.

in India: sunni ghas

C. exaltatus (R. Br.) Domin (Andropogon exaltatus R. Br.;

Cymbopogon procerus (R. Br.) Domin)

Australia. See Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae 1: 202. 1810 and Bibliotheca Botanica 85: 273. 1915, Revue de Botanique Appliquée & d’Agriculture Coloniale 1: 290. 1921.

C. flexuosus (Nees ex Steudel) J.F. Watson (Andropogon ampliflorus Steud.; Andropogon flexuosus Nees ex Steud.; Andropogon nardus var. flexuosus (Nees ex Steud.) Hack.; Cymbopogon flexuosus (Steud.) J.F. Watson; Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Steud.) Stapf, nom. illeg., non Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Steud.) J.F. Watson; Cymbopogon travancorensis Bor)

Indomalesia, Asia tropical, India. Perennial, rather variable, vigorous, tufted, aromatic, terete, erect, solid, smooth and glabrous, nodes sometimes short-bearded, leaf blade linear-acuminate tapering at both ends, tomentose patches at the base of the leaf blade, sheath clasping the culm, ligule papery, short thick rhizome, leaves sheathing, inflorescence paniculate with crowded paired racemes, a spatheole sub-tending a pair of racemes, large and loose panicle with many drooping branches, spikelets paired, pedicelled spikelet male or sterile, lower floret reduced to an empty lemma, upper floret hermaphrodite, palea absent, 2 lodicules, 3 stamens, plumose stigmas, commonly cultivated and sometimes naturalized, waterlogging not tolerated, often cultivated as a garden plant, rainfed crop, propagation is by root or plant division, essential oils, flavouring, used in herbal teas, widely used as a fragrance in perfumes and cosmetics, considered a carminative and insect repellent, oil has antifungal activity, useful for acne and excessive perspiration, muscular pain, grows well in sandy soils with adequate drainage, fertile sandy loams, fields, along roadsides, slopes, ridges, forest, see Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum 1: 388. 1854, Gaz. N.W. Prov. India 10: 392. 1882, Monographiae Phanerogamarum 6: 603. 1889 and Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew 1906(8): 319-321. 1906, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 51: 903. 1954, Genetica 72: 211-215. 1987, Bangladesh Journal of Botany 16: 109-110. 1987, Journal of Cytology and Genetics 34(2): 161-168. 1999.

in English: Malabar oil, Malabar grass, Malabar lemon-grass, Cochin grass, Cochin lemongrass, East Indian lemon grass, ginger grass, lemongrass

in French: herbe de Malabar, verveine des Indes

in Spanish: pasto de Malabar

in Brazil: capim-catinga, capim-cheiroso, capim-cidreira, capim-cidrilho, capim-ciri, capim-de-cheiro, capim limão, capim limão da Índia oriental, capim-marinho, capim santo, erva cidreira, grama-cidreira, patchuli, patchuli-falso, v