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Safety Certification of Mixed-Criticality Systems

Authored by: I. Martinez , G. Bouwer , F. Chauvel , Ø. Haugen , R. Heinen , G. Klaes , A. Larrucea Ortube , C. F. Nicolas , P. Onaindia , K. Pankhania , J. Perez , A. Vasilevskiy

Distributed Real-Time Architecture for Mixed-Criticality Systems

Print publication date:  August  2018
Online publication date:  September  2018

Print ISBN: 9780815360643
eBook ISBN: 9781351117821
Adobe ISBN:


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As explained in the introduction (see Chapter 1), in federated architectures where each major functionality is provided by a dedicated embedded system, the ever increasing demand for additional functionalities leads to an increase in the number of ECUs, connectors and wires. This leads to an increase in the overall cost, size, weight, power consumption and complexity [310], which in some cases limits the scalability of current federated architectures. For example [50]:

“Wind power: A modern off-shore wind-turbine dependable system manages up to three thousand inputs / outputs, several hundreds of functions are distributed over several hundred nodes grouped into eight subsystems interconnected with a field-bus and the distributed software contains several hundred thousand lines of code [93, 311].”

“Automotive: The software component in high-end cars currently totals around 20 million lines of code, deployed on as many as 70 Electronic Control Units (ECUs) that accounts for 30% of overall production costs [312]. The Volkswagen Phaeton has 61 ECUs, 11.136 electrical parts, 2.110 cables and 3.860 meters of cables with a weight of 64 kg [313].”

“Railway: The ever increasing request for safety, better performance, energy efficiency and cost reduction in modern railway trains have forced the introduction of sophisticated dependable embedded systems [314]. The number of ECUs within a train system is in the order of a few hundred [315, 316].”

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