Bioavailability and Bioequivalence

Authored by: Mengdie Yuan , Jingyu Julia Luan

Encyclopedia of Biopharmaceutical Statistics

Print publication date:  August  2018
Online publication date:  August  2018

Print ISBN: 9781498733953
eBook ISBN: 9781351110273
Adobe ISBN:


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Bioavailability/Bioequivalence (BA/BE) studies are often conducted in support of marketing applications for drugs and biologics. The Hatch-Waxman Act particularly enhanced the generic drug marketing and the evolution of BE studies after 1984. The Code of Federal Regulations lists pharmacokinetic (PK) study, pharmacodynamic (PD) study, clinical endpoint study, and in vitro study as methods for determining BA/BE. In PK studies, three approaches are used to demonstrate BE: average BE, population BE, and individual BE. With the development of generic products for highly variable drugs and narrow therapeutic index drugs, reference-scaled BE approaches are employed. For certain types of drugs, clinical endpoint studies may be the most appropriate way to demonstrate BE, for which the approaches to demonstrating BE are also well developed.

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