Two-Stage Design: Phase II Cancer Clinical Trials

Authored by: Sin-Ho Jung

Encyclopedia of Biopharmaceutical Statistics

Print publication date:  August  2018
Online publication date:  August  2018

Print ISBN: 9781498733953
eBook ISBN: 9781351110273
Adobe ISBN:

10.1201/9781351110273-140000270

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Abstract

Phase II trials have been very widely conducted and published every year for cancer clinical research. Because of their small sample sizes, statistical methods based on large sample approximation are not appropriate for design and analysis of phase II trials. As a prospective clinical research, the analysis method of a phase II trial is predetermined at the design stage, and it is analyzed during and at the end of the trial as planned by the design. The analysis method of a trial should be matched with the design method. For two-stage, single-arm phase II trials, Simon’s method has been the standard for choosing an optimal design, but the resulting data have been analyzed and published ignoring the two-stage design aspect with small sample sizes. In this article, we review the analysis methods that exactly get along with the exact two-stage design method. We also discuss some statistical methods to improve the existing design and analysis methods for single-arm, two-stage phase II trials.

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