Optimal Futility Interim Design

Authored by: Zhongwen Tang

Encyclopedia of Biopharmaceutical Statistics

Print publication date:  August  2018
Online publication date:  August  2018

Print ISBN: 9781498733953
eBook ISBN: 9781351110273
Adobe ISBN:


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This entry covers two major paradigms for optimal futility interim design—frequentist operational characteristics based approaches and probability of success based approaches. The design paradigms are demonstrated in three different types of trials—single arm trial with a binary end point, randomized trial with a normal end point, and randomized trial with a time-to-event end point. The entry concludes with a comparison of the two-design paradigms and a discussion.

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