Second-Order Nonlinear Susceptibility in Quantum Dot Structures

Authored by: M. Abdullah , Farah T. Mohammed Noori , Amin H. Al-Khursan

Semiconductor Nanocrystals and Metal Nanoparticles

Print publication date:  August  2016
Online publication date:  October  2016

Print ISBN: 9781439878309
eBook ISBN: 9781315374628
Adobe ISBN:


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With the development of the fabrication technique of nanostructures, multiform semiconductor structures are fabricated [1]. The twenty-first century will see a dramatic change in lighting technologies. By 2025, fluorescent and incandescent illumination sources should be replaced by more efficient, long-lasting, and versatile light sources, offering more lumens per cm2 and decreasing the consumption of energy for lighting by 29% [2]. The core of such lighting devices, in its simplest form, is a junction, a relatively simple multilayered structure formed by a semiconductor crystal between two higher bandgap semiconductors, which emits light when an electric current passes through it. The localization of carriers in all three dimensions breaks down the classical band structure of the continuous dispersion of energy as a function of momentum. Unlike quantum wells (QWs) and quantum wires (QWi’s), the energy-level structure of quantum dots (QDs) is quite discrete. This unique structure of QDs opens a new chapter both in fundamental physics in which they can be regarded as artificial atoms and in potential applications as devices [3,4]. The density of states for a bulk material is a function of energy (~E1/2), while in a zero-dimensional (QD) crystal, the density of states is described by a discrete δ-function, (δ(E)) [5], due to the quantum confinement effect.

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