Reductive Leaching of Metal Oxides in Hydrometallurgical Processing of Nickel Laterite Ores, Deep Sea Manganese Nodules, and Recycling of Spent Batteries/Catalysts

Authored by: Senanayake Gamini , Alexander Senaputra , L. C. S. Dharmasiri , Dong-Jin Kim , S. M. Shin , Jeong-Soo Sohn , Kyung-Ho Park , Jim Avraamides

Sustainability in the Mineral and Energy Sectors

Print publication date:  September  2016
Online publication date:  September  2016

Print ISBN: 9781498733021
eBook ISBN: 9781315369853
Adobe ISBN:


 Download Chapter



Reducing agents can be applied to leach metal values from natural and secondary resources such as laterite ores and deep sea manganese nodules and recycled materials such as spent batteries/catalysts, which contain high-valent metal oxides of manganese, cobalt, and iron. Selective leaching of some metals can be achieved by selecting conditions to control the saturated solubility and dissolution rates of metals from oxides or mixed metal/oxide matrices. The leaching results are rationalized on the basis of chemical species, Eh–pH diagrams and heterogeneous kinetic models. The role of reducing agents, such as hydrogen peroxide, sulfur dioxide, and iron(II) sulfate, in acid, alkali, and in the presence of complexing ligands such as ammonia for the improvement of the leaching of metal oxides and metals is discussed. Previous studies on acid leaching of metals from nickel laterites, manganese nodules, and spent catalysts/batteries in the absence or presence of reducing agents show that the rate controlling step involves the diffusion of protons through a thickening product layer on the particle being leached. It is shown that the leaching of nickel and cobalt from manganese nodules and zinc–carbon batteries in ammoniacal sulfur dioxide solutions also obey shrinking core kinetics.

Search for more...
Back to top

Use of cookies on this website

We are using cookies to provide statistics that help us give you the best experience of our site. You can find out more in our Privacy Policy. By continuing to use the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.