Liquid–Liquid Equilibria: Experiments, Correlation and Prediction

Authored by: Anand Bharti , Debashis Kundu , Dharamashi Rabari , Tamal Banerjee

Phase Equilibria in Ionic Liquid Facilitated Liquid–Liquid Extractions

Print publication date:  March  2017
Online publication date:  March  2017

Print ISBN: 9781498769488
eBook ISBN: 9781315367163
Adobe ISBN:


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In chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical and biochemical industries, valuable products are generally made by a combination of processes that include synthesis, reaction, separation and purification. Distillation, extraction, absorption, crystallization, adsorption and membrane-based processes are the most widely used unit operations for the separation and purification of various products. Distillation is by far the most widely used separation process that is based on isolating components from a liquid mixture based on the differences in their boiling points. But when components have close-boiling points or do not withstand a high temperature, distillation becomes ineffective. In these cases, liquid extraction is one of the main alternatives to consider, which utilizes chemical differences instead of boiling point differences to separate the components. Liquid–liquid extraction is a versatile unit operation which involves two immiscible liquid phases. The extract is the liquid phase which consists of solvent and extracted solute; while the raffinate is the solute lean phase or liquid phase from which solute has been removed (McCabe, Smith, & Harriott, 1993). Liquid–liquid equilibria (LLE) extraction processes have been successfully used in petrochemical, pharmaceutical and food industries. These have been in use since a long time in the oil industry on a large scale for removing aromatic compounds from gasoline or kerosene. These are also used for extracting aromatic compounds from lube oil stocks in order to produce lubricants and BTX (benzene, toluene, xylenes) aromatics (Wauquier, 2000). One of the most important applications of LLE in pharmaceuticals industry is in the recovery of penicillin (McCabe et al., 1993).

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