Environmental and Occupational DC and Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

Authored by: Ben Greenebaum , Kjell Hansson Mild

Bioengineering and Biophysical Aspects of Electromagnetic Fields

Print publication date:  November  2018
Online publication date:  November  2018

Print ISBN: 9781138735309
eBook ISBN: 9781315186580
Adobe ISBN:


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We encounter electromagnetic (EM) fields, both naturally occurring and man-made, every day. This leads to exposure in our homes as well as outdoors and in our various workplaces, and the intensity of the fields varies substantially with the situation. Quite high exposure can occur in some of our occupations as well as during some personal activities, for instance, in trains, where the extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic field can reach rather high levels. The frequency of the fields we are exposed to covers a wide range, from static or slowly changing fields to the gigahertz range. However, measurements of the magnetic field at a particular location or near a particular piece of equipment can often be much higher than an individual’s average exposure across a day as measured by a personal monitor, since one moves from one place to another throughout the day, both in occupational and everyday settings (Bowman, 2014).

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