Optical amplifiers

Authored by: Johan Nilsson , Jesper Laegsgaard , Anders Bjarklev

Handbook of Optoelectronics

Print publication date:  October  2017
Online publication date:  October  2017

Print ISBN: 9781482241785
eBook ISBN: 9781315157009
Adobe ISBN:

10.1201/9781315157009-15

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Abstract

From the first demonstrations of optical communication systems, a primary drive in the research activity has been directed towards constant increase in system capacity. Over the past 25 years, it has been an alternating activity to overcome the fundamental fiber limitations of either attenuation or dispersion, and on the basis of the limiting term of the transmission link, systems have been denoted as either loss limited or dispersion limited. In the mid-1980s the international development had reached a state at which not only dispersion-shifted fibers were available but also spectrally pure signal sources emerged. The long-haul optical communication systems were, therefore, clearly loss limited and their problems had to be overcome by periodic regeneration of the optical signals at repeaters applying conversion to an intermediate electrical signal, which was a complex technology with lack of flexibility.

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