Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

Authored by: Pascal Kordt , Peter Bobbert , Reinder Coehoorn , Falk May , Christian Lennartz , Denis Andrienko

Handbook of Optoelectronic Device Modeling and Simulation

Print publication date:  October  2017
Online publication date:  October  2017

Print ISBN: 9781498749466
eBook ISBN: 9781315152301
Adobe ISBN:


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The 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded “for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources” [1, 2, 3], setting a clear target to mankind: energy-efficient and environmental-friendly light sources [4]. The first organic LED (OLED) was reported in 1987 by a team at Kodak [5]. This publication, cited to date more than 10,000 times, stipulated the entire field of organic electronics. Shortly afterward, a polymer LED (PLED) was demonstrated [6], paving the way for flexible lighting applications [7]. Nowadays, OLEDs are successfully used in displays of mobile phones and televisions: In 2008, Samsung announced a flexible display that was only 50μm thick [8], about half the thickness of a sheet of paper. A prototype of an OLED display for the automotive market was presented recently by Continental [9]: In OLED displays, black pixels are completely switched off, allowing the driver's eye to adapt better to the darkness. Contrary to liquid crystal displays (LCDs), OLED screens do not require backlight illumination, yielding exceptionally good contrast ratios and reduced power consumption. OLED displays also provide viewing angles and response times superior to LCDs and are, in general, thinner and lighter. Last but not least, many organic materials can be printed from solution, enabling cost-effective large-scale manufacturing on mechanically flexible films.

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