Producing Graphene Methods and Sources

Authored by: Andre U. Sokolnikov

Graphene for Defense and Security

Print publication date:  July  2017
Online publication date:  July  2017

Print ISBN: 9781498727624
eBook ISBN: 9781315120379
Adobe ISBN:

10.1201/9781315120379-6

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Abstract

The basic method of obtaining graphene suggested by Geim and Novoselov includes mono- and a few-layer samples. The usual procedure is cleaving crystalline graphite, exfoliation, or a direct synthesis by vapor deposition from gaseous carbon (e.g. methane or acetylene). The state-of-the art method of obtaining graphene has been suggested by the Nobel laureates, Geim and Novoselov in 2011 which implied micro-mechanical cleaving producing separate graphene plates. This simple approach has off-set more traditional techniques, such as graphite exfoliation resulting in low quality samples. Another advantage of mechanical cleaving is that a high temperature is not necessary. While the mechanical cleaving may be done at room temperature, exfoliation and HOPG (highly-oriented pyrolytic graphite) requires temperatures of several thousand degrees. Kish graphite is made at T = 1100°C and HOPG at 3000 K (Kish is a mixture of graphite and slag).

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