Producing Graphene Methods and Sources

Authored by: Andre U. Sokolnikov

Graphene for Defense and Security

Print publication date:  July  2017
Online publication date:  July  2017

Print ISBN: 9781498727624
eBook ISBN: 9781315120379
Adobe ISBN:


 Download Chapter



The basic method of obtaining graphene suggested by Geim and Novoselov includes mono- and a few-layer samples. The usual procedure is cleaving crystalline graphite, exfoliation, or a direct synthesis by vapor deposition from gaseous carbon (e.g. methane or acetylene). The state-of-the art method of obtaining graphene has been suggested by the Nobel laureates, Geim and Novoselov in 2011 which implied micro-mechanical cleaving producing separate graphene plates. This simple approach has off-set more traditional techniques, such as graphite exfoliation resulting in low quality samples. Another advantage of mechanical cleaving is that a high temperature is not necessary. While the mechanical cleaving may be done at room temperature, exfoliation and HOPG (highly-oriented pyrolytic graphite) requires temperatures of several thousand degrees. Kish graphite is made at T = 1100°C and HOPG at 3000 K (Kish is a mixture of graphite and slag).

Search for more...
Back to top

Use of cookies on this website

We are using cookies to provide statistics that help us give you the best experience of our site. You can find out more in our Privacy Policy. By continuing to use the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.