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Authored by: Andre U. Sokolnikov

Graphene for Defense and Security

Print publication date:  July  2017
Online publication date:  July  2017

Print ISBN: 9781498727624
eBook ISBN: 9781315120379
Adobe ISBN:


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A series of experiments conducted by Geim and Novoselov has demonstrated the practical existence and importance of graphene as a two-dimensional phase of matter. There are some other examples of two-dimensional systems realized in 3D space, so called “2D in 3”. They can propagate into the perpendicular to the 2D plane direction, and their resistance to this flexural dimensional distortion is small, not surprisingly for the small thickness. The 2D structure of graphene has new features due, for the most part, to the two distinct triangular sublattices, the structure similar to that of liquid helium with the highest ever mobility of 2090 m2/Vs at T = 0.4 K. The system becomes an insulating Wagner crystal at T = 0.45 K with the electron density of 4.6 × 108 /cm2. However, in practice, graphene does not show usual limitations of a 2D crystal. Another 2D-3 graphene feature is crumpling, i.e. out-of-plane shifts with the lengths comparable to the length (size) of the crystal. The available sample size free from crumpling is practically bigger than the sample itself. One important graphene quality is its softness in the transverse direction: any graphene plate of lateral dimensions of 1 µm or longer must have a support. On the other hand, graphene can give the thinnest possible conductor, at least, by a factor of 10. The graphene covalent bonding prevents the material from breaking into discontinuous islands that other materials cannot avoid. The minimal thickness is important for transistor logic (short-channel effect) flash memory (cross-talk adjusts cell reduction) and for on-chip interconnects (higher current density).

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