Differential Item Functioning

Authored by: Dani Gamerman , Flávio B. Gonçalves , Tufi M. Soares

Handbook of Item Response Theory

Print publication date:  December  2017
Online publication date:  December  2017

Print ISBN: 9781466514331
eBook ISBN: 9781315117430
Adobe ISBN:


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Differential item functioning (DIF) occurs when individuals from different groups but same ability have different probability of correctly answering an item. These groups may be defined in terms of cultural, geographical, ethnical, social, or economical differences. For example, in an international test, groups may be defined as developed and nondeveloped countries.

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