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Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Immune Systems, Their Diseases, and Possible Treatments

Authored by: Elise Jacquin , Eric Hervouet , Michaël Boyer-Guittaut

Handbook of Mitochondrial Dysfunction

Print publication date:  June  2019
Online publication date:  May  2019

Print ISBN: 9781138336087
eBook ISBN: 9780429443336
Adobe ISBN:

10.1201/9780429443336-35

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Abstract

Mitochondria play a major role in cell function and homeostasis by regulating cell metabolism and ATP production, cell growth and proliferation and cell life and death. Mitochondria are also the main producers of ROS leading to oxidative or genotoxic stress and to initiation or development of pathologies. Another function of mitochondria is the induction of programmed cell death, apoptosis and preventing the multiplication of non-functional cells. Therefore, mitochondria are at the crossroad of cell life and death and it is commonly admitted that any dysregulation of their activity may lead to the proliferation of pathogenic cells or the depletion of normal cells. More recently, links between mitochondria and activation of the immune system have been established. Indeed, dysfunctional mitochondria can produce or release in the cytosol, as well as in the extracellular space, mitochondrial factors (mtDNA, ATP, ROS, cardiolipin) called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which can activate the immune system and lead to acute or chronic inflammation. If mitochondrial stress and inflammation are not resolved, these can lead to the development of a large panel of pathologies. This review will focus on the consequences of the alteration of mitochondria metabolism and activity on the activation of the immune system and the development of immune system-linked pathologies.

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