Physiological Factors Affecting Oral Drug Delivery

Authored by: Clive G. Wilson , V. Ronaldson , B. Schug

Encyclopedia of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology

Print publication date:  July  2013
Online publication date:  July  2013

Print ISBN: 9781841848198
eBook ISBN: 9781351124874
Adobe ISBN:


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Drugs have to reach their target site in the body and display an appropriate and expected concentration-time profile to be safe and effective. The mammalian gut has evolved to selectively absorb nutrients effectively and to decrease exposure to non-nutrient, potentially harmful materials, and consequently, humans beings are not designed to absorb drug substances effectively. Xenobiotic materials are cleared like other waste products through urine and bile and thus changes in kidney and liver function will be reflected in the magnitude of drug exposure. As analytical sciences have improved, the ability to measure precise changes in drug and metabolite levels at very low concentrations has enabled us to attribute differences in drug response to genetic variations and physiological differences expressed in individuals.

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