Expert Systems in Pharmaceutical Product Development

Authored by: Raymond C. Rowe

Encyclopedia of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology

Print publication date:  July  2013
Online publication date:  July  2013

Print ISBN: 9781841848198
eBook ISBN: 9781351124874
Adobe ISBN:


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The process of formulation, whether it be for oral products (e.g., tablets and capsules), parenterals [e.g., intravenous (iv) injections], or any one of the myriad of pharmaceutical products, is generically the same. The process begins with some form of product specification and ends with the generation of one or more formulations that meet the requirements. Although the formulation consists of a list of ingredients and their proportions together with some processing variables where appropriate, the specification can vary considerably from one application to another. In some cases it may be very specific, expressed in terms of a performance level when subjected to a specific test, or quite general. It may also contain potentially conflicting performance criteria that the formulator may need to redefine in the light of experience. Figure 1 shows a typical formulation process broken down into its constituent tasks and subtasks (1).

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