Wastewater Treatment: Conventional Methods

Authored by: Sven Erik Jørgensen

Encyclopedia of Environmental Management

Print publication date:  December  2012
Online publication date:  December  2012

Print ISBN: 9781439829271
eBook ISBN: 9781351235860
Adobe ISBN:


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There are five pollution problems associated with wastewater: nutrients, biodegradable organic matter, bacteria and viruses, metals (particularly heavy metals), and refractory organic compounds. An overview of the available conventional methods is presented, both the removal efficiencies of the methods and their costs. To get a complete overview of all possible treatment methods, the presented list has to be supplemented by low-cost methods, recently developed methods, and ecological engineering methods. The possibilities to upgrade existing treatment facilities are discussed. A procedure for the selection of a method or a combination of methods in a considered case is proposed. Further details about the presented methods are given in other entries.

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