Animals: Toxicological Evaluation

Authored by: Vera Lucia S.S. de Castro

Encyclopedia of Environmental Management

Print publication date:  December  2012
Online publication date:  December  2012

Print ISBN: 9781439829271
eBook ISBN: 9781351235860
Adobe ISBN:


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Maternal exposure to toxic chemicals during pregnancy can disrupt the development, or even cause death, of the embryo or fetus. The developing organism is generally more vulnerable to injury caused by different classes of chemicals than the adult. Developmental toxicants are agents that cause adverse effects on developing organisms. This notion refers to any effect interfering with normal development, both before and after birth. A series of experimental methods are useful in studying developmental toxicity. Different international organizations have developed protocols for testing the reproductive and developmental toxicity of chemicals. Their results related to toxic effects produced by environmental pollutants are used worldwide. This entry shows some evidence on the impact of exposure to chemical pollutants during the perinatal period and presents some data on the adverse impacts of this exposure.

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