Energy Conversion: Coal, Animal Waste, and Biomass Fuel

Authored by: Kalyan Annamalai , Soyuz Priyadarsan , Senthil Arumugam , John M. Sweeten

Encyclopedia of Environmental Management

Print publication date:  December  2012
Online publication date:  December  2012

Print ISBN: 9781439829271
eBook ISBN: 9781351235860
Adobe ISBN:

10.1081/E-EEM-120041557

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Abstract

A brief overview is presented of various energy units; terminology; and basic concepts in energy conversion including pyrolysis, gasification, ignition, and combustion. Detailed sets of fuel properties of coal, agricultural biomass, and animal waste are presented so that their suitability as a fuel for the energy conversion process can be determined. It is also found that the dry ash free (DAF) heat values of various biomass fuels, including animal waste, remain approximately constant, which leads to a presentation of generalized results for maximum flame temperature as a function of ash and moisture contents. The cofiring technology is emerging as a cost-effective method of firing a smaller percentage of biomass fuels, with coal as the major fuel. Various techniques of cofiring are summarized. Gasification approaches, including FutureGen and reburn technologies for reduction of pollutants, are also briefly reviewed.

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